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Modern Quarterly 


Language and Literature 



VOL. I. 1898-1899 
(The Modem Language Quarterly, Vol. 11} 

J. M. DENT & CO 




The pagination of Nos. 1 to 4 is continuous. References to No. 5 are distinguished by being in brackets. 



Authenticity of the Fifth Book of 

Rabelais, The. Arthur Tilley . 113 
Authenticity of the Fifth Book of 

Rabelais, On the. W. F. Smith . 283 
Baldwin, William. W. F. Trench . 259 
Bibliography of Ausias March, The. 

Paget Toynbee . . . .289 
Bradley, Henry. (With portrait.) 

J. S. C 259 

Christ Church Fragments of Medieval 

French Discourses of the True Vine 

and on the Paternoster. F. V. P. . 21 
Codex Argenteus, Luke xiv. 31, in. 

T. Le M. Douse .... 5 
Complaynt of Scotlande, The. W. A. 

Craigie 267 

Constable, Henry : An Elizabethan 

MS. Collection. Edward Dowden . 3 
Contested Passage in the Old High 

German Poem, De Heinrico. A. 

KarlBreul 42 

Cffurt of Venus, Holland's. W. A. 

Craigie 9 

Dante, Historical notes on Similes of. 

W. P. Ker 24 

Dante as a Topographer. H. F. Tozer 274 
Daudet, Alphonse. Charles Whibley 16 
De Heinrico, A Contested Passage in. 

Karl Breul 42 

Diemeringen's German Translation of 

Mandeville's Travels, Otto von. 

F. E. Sandbach .... (29) 
Elizabethan MS. Collection, An : Henry 

Constable. Edward Dowden . 3 
English Translations of Lenore. W. 

W. Greg (13) 

Furnival, F. J. (With portrait.) G. 1 
Goethe's Italian Journey, The Influ- 
ence of, upon his Style. C. H. 

Herford 29 

Herrick Sources and Illustrations. A. 

W. Pollard . ... 175 

Historical Notes on Similes of Dante. 

W. P. Ker 24 

Influence of Goethe's Italian Journey 

upon his Style. C. H. Herford '. 29 

Japanese : Sketch-Portraitures of Far 
Eastern Languages. F. V. Dickins (35) 

Jeunesse de Senancour d'apres des 
Documents In6dits, La. Joseph 
Texte 202 

Latin-French Glossary, A Thirteenth 
Century. G. B. Mathews and F. 
Spencer . . . . .108 

Lenore, English Translations of. W. 

W. Greg (13) 

Luke xiv. 31, in the Codex Argenteus. 
T. Le M. Douse . . . . . 5 

Luther's Views and Influence on 
Schools and Education. Georg 
Fiedler .211 

Mandeville's Travels, Otto von Die- 
meringen's German Translation of. 
F. E. Sandbach .... (29) 

March, Ausias, The Bibliography of. 
Paget Toynbee . . . .289 

Mauritian Creole. H. W. Atkinson . 11G 

Murray and the New English Dic- 
tionary, Dr. (With portrait.) W. 
W. Skeat 258 

Niederlandische Paraphrase des Veni 
Sancte Spiritus, Eine. Robert 
Priebsch ..... 46 

Otto von Diemeringen's German 
Translation of Mandeville's Travels. 
F. E. Sandbach .... (29) 

Paris, Gaston. F. W. Bourdillon . 97 

Pre-Malorean Romances. W. W. G. . (10) 

Rabelais, The Authenticity of the Fifth 
Book of. Arthur Tilley . .113 

Rabelais, On the Authenticity of the 
Fifth Book of. W. F. Smith . 283 

Rabelais and the French Universities. 
Arthur Tilley . . . .207 

Reintroduction ..... 1 

Restoration Drama. H. F. Heath . 184 

Ro^mA's Court of Venus. W. A. Craigie 9 

Schiller's Lyrics : The Period of Ma- 
turityI. Karl Breul . . .216 
II. KarlBreul . . 269 

Senancour, La Jeunesse de, d'apres 
des Documents In6dits. Joseph 
Texte 202 



Sievers, Eduard. (With portrait.) 
KarlBreul 173 

Similes of Dante, Historical Notes 
on. W. P. Ker . . . . 24 

Sketch-Portraitures of Far Eastern 
Languages : Japanese. F.V.Dickins (35) 

Spanish Studies in England in the 
Sixteenth and Seventeenth Cen- 
turies. Leo Wiener . . (3) 

Taylorian Lecture for 1897. See The 
Influence of Goethe's Italian Journey 
upon his Style. C. H. Herford . 29 

Thirteenth - Century Latin - French 
Glossary, A. G. B. Mathews and 
Frederic Spencer . . . .108 

Veni Sancte Spiritus, Eine Nieder- 
liindische Paraphrase des. Robert 
Priebsch . . ' . . .46 

Victor, Wilhelm. W. Tilley . . (1) 

Yivain and Gawain and Le Chevalier au 
Lion I. J. L. Westoii . . 98 

II. J. L. Weston 194 

Reviews (Authors). 

Bacci, 0. Dante Georgico. See Dante 

Literature 298 

Bourdillon, F. W. Aucassin and 

Nicolette. H. Oelsner . . . 222 
Del Lungo, J. Dal Secolo e dal Poema 

de Dante. See Dante Literature . 298 
Durant-Fardel, M. La Vita Nuova. 

See Dante Literature . . .298 
Evers, M. Die Tragik in Schiller's 

Jungfrau von Oreleans. . . . m. . 127 
Fitzmaurice-Kelly, J. A History of 

Spanish Literature. H. Oelsner . 293 
Fitzmaurice-Kelly, J., y Ormsby J. 

Don Quixote De La Mancha. H. 

Oelsner 293 

Garnett, R. Italian Literature. J. 

P. Ker . ... 126 

Gosse, E. Short Histories of the 

Literatures of the World IV. See 

Garnett, R., Italian Literature . 126 
V. See Fitzmaurice-Kelly, 

J., Spanish Literature . . .126 
Jusserand, J.-J. Shakespeare en 

France sous 1'Ancien Re'gime. E. 

Bz 292 

Ker, W. P. Epic and Romance. 

Joseph Jacobs . . . .123 
Koch, T. W. Catalogue of the Dante 

Collection. See Dante Literature . 298 
Lang, A. Aucassin and Nicolette. 

H. Oelsner 222 

Lazzari, A. Ugolino e Michele Verino. 

E. Bz. 295 


Oelsner, H. Dante in Frankreich. See 

Dante Literature .... 298 
Ormsby, J. See Fitzmaurice-Kelly, 

J., y Ormsby, J 293 

Saintsbury, G. The Flourishing of 

Romance and the Rise of Allegory. 

Joseph Jacobs . . . 1 23 

Volkmann, L. Iconografia Dantesca. 

See Dante Literature . . .298 
Wahlund, C. Cent Mots Nouveaux. 

E. Bz. . 295 

Reviews (Titles). 

Aucassin and Nicolette, by F. W. 
Bourdillon. H. Oelsner . .222 

by A. Lang. H. Oelsner . 222 

Cambridge (U.S.A.) Dante Society. 
See Dante Literature . . .298 

Catalogue of the Dante Collection, 
by T. W. Koch. See Dante Litera- 
ture 298 

Cent Mots Nouveaux, par C. Wahlund. 
E. Bz 295 

Dal Secolo e dal Poema di Dante, di 
J. Del Lungo. See Dante Litera- 
ture 298 

Dante Georgico, di 0. Bacci. See 
Dante Literature .... 298 

Dante in Frankreich, von H. Oelsner. 
See Dante Literature . . . 298 

Dante Literature. Paget Toynbee . 298 

Don Quixote De La Mancha, por J. 
Fitzmaurice - Kelly y J. Ormsby. 
H. Oelsner . . . 293 

Epic and Romance, by W. P. Ker. 
Joseph Jacobs . . . .123 

Flourishing of Romance and the Rise 
of Allegory, The, by G. Saintsbury. 
Joseph Jacobs . . . .123 

Iconographia Dantesca, di L. Volk- 
mann. See Dante Literature . 298 

Italian Literature, by R. Garnett. 
W. P. Ker 126 

Jungfrau von Orleans, Die Tragik in 
Schiller's, von M. Evers. . . . m. 127 

Literatures of the World, Short 
Histories of the, by E. Gosse IV. 
See Italian Literature by R. Garnett 126 

V. See Spanish Literature 

by J. Fitzmaurice-Kelly . . 293 

Shakespeare en France sous 1'Ancien 
Regime, par J. J. Jusserand. E. 
Bz 292 

Spanish Literature, A History of, by 
J. Fitzmaurice-Kelly. H. Oelsner 293 

Verino, Ugolina e Michele, di A. 
Lazzari. E. Bz. . . 295 


Vita Nuova, La, par M. Durand- 
Fardel. See Dante Literature . 298 


Accepted Emendation in Paradise He- 
gained, ii. 309, The. J. L. . . 50 

Alexandre Neckain, Notice sur les 
Corrogationes Promethei d', par Paul 
Meyer. Paget Toynbee . . 131 

Anglo-French Spelling, Some Peculi- 
arities of. W. W. Skeat . . 225 

Anglo-French Spelling in Old English 
Homilies. W. W. Skeat . . 299 

Annotations on two Recent Articles 
on Luke xiv. 31, in the Codex 
Argenteus. T. Le M. D. . .128 

Ballad of Sweet William's Ghost, The. 
W. P. Ker 226 

Biographical Notice of Dante in the 

J" eculum Historiale. Paget Toynbee 51 
non MS., The. See Codex Junius 

XI. . .... 50 

Chaucer, The Meaning of 'Save' in. 

W. W. Skeat . . . .132 
Chaucer's House of Fame, ii. 417-426. 

W. P. Ker (38) 

Codex Argenteus, Some Annotations on 

two Recent Articles on Luke xiv. 31, 

in the. T. Le M. -D. . 128 

Codex Junius XL, A Mutilated Word 

*/" in. J. L 50 

' Correctness ' of Pope, On the. W. A. 

Brockington (39) 

Corrogationes Promethei d'Alexandre 

Neckam, Notice sur les, par Paul 

Meyer. Paget Toynbee . . 131 
Dante, Biographical Notice of, in the 

Speculum Historiale. Paget Toynbee 51 
Dante Notes, Some. A. J. Butler . 129 
Emendation in Merciless Beauty, An. 

W. W. Skeat .... (38) 
' Ghost- Word ' in Middle English, A. 

Henry Bradley . . . .132 
Hamlet, The First Words in. J. L. . 50 
House of Fame, ii. 417-426, Chaucer's. 

W. P. Ker . . . (38) 

Latin-French Glossary Correction . 227 
Lays of Marie de France, Notes on the. 

W. W. Skeat . . . .134 
Lays of Marie de France. E. G. W. 

Braunholtz 227 

'Like' as a Conjunction. F. J. F. . 51 
Luke xiv. 31, in the Codex Argenteus, 

Some Annotations on two Recent 

Articles on. T. Le M. D. . .128 
Marie de France, Notes on the Lays 

of. W. W. Skeat . 134 

Marie de France, Lays of. E. G. W. 
Braunholtz 227 

Meaning of 'Save' in Chaucer, The. 
W. W. Skeat . . . .132 

Merciless Beauty, An Emendation in. 
W. W. Skeat .... (38) 

Meyer, Paul. Notice sur les Cor- 
rogationes Promethei d'Alexandre 
Neckam. Paget Toynbee . . 131 

Mutilated Word in Codex Junius XL, 
A. J. L. . . .50 

Notes on the Lays of Marie de France. 
W. W. Skeat . . . .134 

Notice sur les Corrogationes Pro- 
methei d'Alexandre Neckam, par 
Paul Meyer. Paget Toynbee . 131 

Old English Homilies, Anglo-French 
Spelling in. W. W. Skeat . . 299 

Old English Notes. A. S. Napier . 130 

O.E. <*cafian.' See Old English 
Notes 130 

O.E. verbs 'hentan,' 'myntan,' The. 
See Old English Notes . . .130 

Ominous = happy, fortunate. F. J. F. 51 

Paradise Regained, ii. 309, The Ac- 
cepted Emendation in. J. L. . 50 

Peculiarities of Anglo-French Spelling, 
Some. W. W. Skeat . . .225 

Phonological Anomalies, On Some. 
J. P. Postgate . . . .132 

Pope, On the ' Correctness ' of. W. A. 
Brockington ..... (39) 

'Save' in Chaucer, The Meaning of. 
W. W. Skeat . . . .132 

' Save ' in the Knightes Tale. Paget 
Toynbee 226 

Shakespearean ' Touch ' in Titus An- 
dronicus, An Unnoticed. J. L. . 226 

Speculum Historiale, Biographical 
Notice of Dante in. Paget Toynbee 51 

Sweet William's Ghost, The Ballad of. 
W. P. Ker 226 

Titus Andronicus, An Unnoticed 
Shakespearean 'Touch' in. J. L. . 226 


Sonnet. J. M. D 2 

Sursum Corda. J. Boielle . . (40) 


Bourdillon's Aucassin and Nicolette. H. 

Oelsner. . . 300 

French Unseen Translation. A. Tilley 150 




'Intermediate School.' J. M. A. 

Thomson . . ... . (69) 

1 Like ' as Conjunction. M. E. S. . 160 
Old Age Pension Scheme. M. Des- 

humbert 160 

Paris Degree, A. H. E. Berthon . 160 
Prussian Government and Phonetics, 

The. Fabian Ware . . .318 

Set Books. C. R. A. . 241 

Modern Language Teaching. 

Aims and Methods of Modern Lan- 
guage Teaching at Public Schools 
I. Eton. A. A. Somerville . 142 

Allegemeine Deutsche Sprachverein, 
English Branch of the . . . 337 

Cambridge, The Organisation of the 
Study of Modern Languages in the 
University of ... A . . . 322 

Cambridge Local Examination, Dec. 
1899 333 

Cambridge Local Examination, Papers 
in Modern Languages set at, Dec. 
1897. Editor . . . .147 

Cambridge University Lectures on 
Medieval and Modern Languages . 141 

Dent's First French Book. Fabian 
Ware 237 

English Branch of the Allgemeine 
Deutsche Sprachverein . . .337 

French and German at Oxford and 
Cambridge Scholarship Examina- 
tion 70 

French before Latin. P. S. Jeffrey . (55) 

French in the Welsh Intermediate 
Schools. Editor . . . .331 

French v. English Teachers of French. 
V. Spiers (66) 

Good English. R. J. Lloyd . . (42) 

Guiding Principles in the Choice of a 
Phonetic Alphabet, Some. Fabian 
Ware . . . .237 

Holiday Courses at Marburg i. H. .158 

How far is Die Neuere Richtung possible 
in English Schools? I. W.C. Brown (51) 

Interim Report of the Sub-Committee 
on Phonetics . . . . .318 

Joys of Learning to Read, The. Nellie 
Dale (48) 

Leaving-School Examinations in 
Foreign Languages. F. B. Kirkman 1 45 

Medieval and Modern Languages, 
Cambridge University Lectures on 141 

Mrs. Lecky on Modern Language 
Teaching. Editor. . . .143 

Modern Language Association. Annual 
Meeting. 1897 . . . .60 

Modern Language Association . .161 

. 239 

Modern Language Association. Annual 
Meeting. 1898 . . . . 301 

Modern Language Association . . 340 

Modern Language Holiday Course. 
Tours. 1898 . . . . 240 

Modern Language Teaching . . 59 

Modern Language Teaching, Mrs. 
Lecky on. Editor . . .143 

Modern Language Teaching at Public 
Schools, Aims and Methods of I. 
Eton. A. A. Somervillle . .142 

- Some Notes on the 
Methods and Aims of II. Harrow. 
L. M. Moriarty . . . .326 

Modern Languages, Notes on the 
Learning and Teaching of. Leon 
Delbos (58) 

Modern Languages, Papers in, set at 
the Cambridge Local Examination, 
Dec. 1897. Editor . . .147 

Modem Languages, Some Notes on 
Phonetics in Relation to the Ac- 
quirement of. J. J. Findlay . . 151 

Modern Languages and Literatures at 
the Victoria University, The New 
Honours School of. A. W. 
Schiiddekopf. .... 74 

Modern Languages in the University 
of Cambridge, The Organisation of 
the Study of. ... X . . .322 

Neuere Richtung. How far is Die N. R. 
possible in English School I. 
W. C. Brown .... (51) 

New Honours School of Modern 
Languages and Literature at the 
Victoria University, The. A. W. 
Schiiddekopf .... 74 

Notes on Phonetics in Relation to 
the Acquirement of Modern Lan- 
guages, Some. J. J. Findlay . 151 

Notes on the Methods and Aims of 
Modern Language Teaching in 
Public Schools, Some II. Harrow. 
L. M. Moriarty .... 236 

Notes on the Learning and Teaching 
of Modern Languages. Leon Delbos (58) 

Open Competitions. Examination 
Papers in French and German. 
Editor 330 

Organisation of the Study of Modern 
Languages in the University of 
Cambridge, The. ... A. . .322 

Papers in Modern Languages set at 
the Cambridge Local Examination, 
Dec. 1897. Editor . . .147 

Past Definite and Imperfect in French, 
The. I. H. B. Spiers ... 78 




Phonetic Alphabet, Some Guiding 
Principles in the Choice of a. 
Fabian Ware 237 

Phonetic Sub-Committee. A. W. 
Atkinson . . . . .150 

Phonetics, Interim Report of the Sub- 
Committee on . . . .318 

Phonetics in Relation to the Acquire- 
ment of Modern Languages. Some 
Notes on. J. J. Findlay . .151 

Promenade a travers le Fran9ais I. 

A. Hamonet 235 

- II. A Hamonet . . 334 

Public Schools, Aims and Methods of 
Modern Language Teaching at 

I. Eton. A. A. Somerville . .142 

Methods and Aims of 

Modern Language Teaching at 

II. Harrow. L. M. Moriarty . 326 
Romance Languages in the University 

of Wales, On the Study of the. 

W. Borsdorf 77 

Victoria University, The New Honours 
School of Modern Languages and 
Literatures at the. A. W. Schiidde- 
kopf 74 

Welsh Intermediate Schools, French 
in the. Editor 331 

Notes Here and There. 

Beuzemaker Memorial Fund . . 339 
Brachet, Auguste . . . .134 
Bradford Grammar School . . 154 
Buchheim, Prof. C. A. . . .53 

Buhler, Prof. J. A 53 

Cambridge Higher Local Examinations (68) 
Cercle Franr t ais . . . . .53 
Cretien-Lalanne, M.-L. . . .134 
Curzon, Hon. G., on Education. 

V. Spiers 156 

Dale, Miss, on Teaching Reading . 338 

Daudet, A 53 

De Vulgari Eloquentia ... 53 
Educational Review .... 339 
Enseignement des Langues Etrangeres 

en Almagne, L', by C. Bos . . 158 
Foreign Reviews . . . .134 


French and German VivA Voce at 

Cambridge 340 

Gautier, Leon ..... 53 

Gayangos, Don Pascual de . 53 

German in Education . . . (69) 
German Lecture at Oxford . .155 
Godefroy, Frederic .... 53 

Gramont, Count Ferdinand de . .53 
Holiday Courses. Greifswald and 
Jena . . . . . . 153 

Holiday Courses. Grenoble .. . 154 
- Lisieux and Tours . . 339 

Hyde, J. H 53 

International Correspondence . .154 
Keeling, Rev. W. H. ... 154 

Lloyd, Dr. R. J. . ... . 337 

Liittaritz, Dr. Max von . . .53 
Method of Teaching Modern Lan- 
guages in Germany, by Mary 
Brebner ..... 156 

Medieval and Modern Language 

Tripos, Cambridge . . (68) 

Modern Language Scholarships at 
Cambridge ... . ' 155 


Modern Languages at Cambridge . (67) 
Modern Languages in Prussian Schools 337 
Phonetics, Sub-Committee on . .157 
Photographs at Annual Meeting . 339 
Quick Memorial Fund . . .338 
Sanderson, Monsieur ... 53 
Sandor, Roman ..... 53 

School World 339 

Schrolle, Prof. F 134 

Societ6 de Linguist! que (Prize) . . 53 
Sub-Committee on Phonetics . .157 
Syllabus for Examination in English. 

H. F. H. . . 155 

Teachers of Modern Languages in 

Intermediate Schools. Meeting . 155 
Unger, Dr. C. R. . . . . 53 
VivA Face in Local Examinations . (68) 

Biographical Lists. 

Classified List of Recent Publications, 

A . . ' . . 82, 162, 242, (70) 
Reviews, The . . . 53. 135, 227 




(R.) Review. 
(0.) Observation 

(P.) Poetry. 

(C.) Correspondence. 

(T.) Teaching. 
(N.) Notes, etc. 


A., C. R. Set Books. (C.) . . 241 

Atkinson, H. W. (Hon. Sec.). See 
Sub-Committee on Phonetics. 
Mauritian Creole . . .116 

Phonetic Sub-Committee. (T.) 151 

B., K. See Breul, Karl. 

Berthon, H. E. A Paris Degree. 
(C.) 160 

Boielle, J. Suisum Corda ! (P.) . 40 

Borsdorf, W. On the Study of the 
Romance Languages in the Uni- 
versity of Wales. (T.) ... 77 

Bourdillon, F. W. Gaston Paris . 97 

Bradley, Henry. A 'Ghost-Word' in 
Middle English. (0.) . . .132 

Braunholtz, E. G. W. Lays of Marie 
de France. (0.) . . .227 

Shakespeare in France sous 

1'Ancient Regime, par J.-J. Jus- 
serand. (R.) . . . .297 

Cent Mots Nouveaux par Carl 

Wahlund. (R.) . . ' . .295 

Ugolino e Michele Verino per 

A. Lazzari. (R.) . . . .295 
Brebner, Mary. See Sub-Committee 

on Phonetics. 
Breul, Karl. A Contested Passage in 

the Old High German Poem, De 

Heinrico . . . . .42 
Eduard Sievers . . .173 

Schiller's Lyrics : The Period of 
Maturity 1 216 

II 269 

Brockington, W. A. On the ' Correct- 
ness 'of Pope. (0.) . . . (39) 
Brown, W. C. How Far is Die 
Neuere Richtung possible in English 
Schools? I. (T.) . . . (51) 
Butler, A. J. Some Dante Notes. 

(0.) 29 

Bz., E. See Braunholtz, E. G. W. 

C., J. S. See Cotton, J. S. 

Cotton, J. S. Henry Bradley . . 259 

Craigie, W. A. Rolland's Court of 

Venus 9 

The Complaynt of Scotlande . 267 

D., J. M. Sonnet. (P.) ... 2 
D., T. Le M. See Douse, T. Le M. 
Dale, Nellie. The Joys of Learning 
to Read. (T.) .... (48) 


Delbos, Leon. Notes on the Learning 
and Teaching of Modern Languages. 
(T.) (58) 

Deshumbert, Marius. Old Age 
Pension Scheme. (C.) . . .160 

Dickins, F. V. Sketch-Portraitures of 
Far Eastern Languages : Japanese (35) 

Douse, T. Le M. Luke xiv. 31, in the 
Codex Argenteus, as Emended . . 5 

Some Annotations on two Recent 

Articles on Luke xiv. 31, in the 
Codex Argenteus . . . .128 

Dowden, Edward. An Elizabethan 
MS. Collection : Henry Constable . 3 

Editor. See Heath, H. F. 

F.,F. J. See Furnivall, F. J. 

Fiedler, Georg. Luther's Views and 
Influence on Schools and Education 211 

Findlay, J. J. Some Notes on Phon- 
etics in Relation to the Acquirement 
of Modern Languages. (T.) . . 151 

Furnivall, F. J. 'Like ' as a Conjunc- 
tion. (0.) 51 

Ominous = happy, fortunate. (0.) 51 
G. F. J. Furnivall ... 1 
G., W. W. See Greg, W. W. 

Greg,W. W. Pre-Malorean Romances (10) 

English Translations of Lenore . (13) 
H., H. F. See Heath, H. F. 

Hamonet, Alf. Promenade a travers 
le Fran9ais I. (T.) . . .235 

II. (T.) 334 

Heath, H. F. Mrs. Lecky on Modern 
Language Teaching. (T.) . .143 

Papers in Modern Languages set 

at the Cambridge Local Examina- 
tions, Dec. 1897. (T.) . . .147 

Syllabus for Examinations in 

English. (N.) . . . .155 

Restoration Drama . . .184 

- Open Competitions. (T.) . 330 

French in the Welsh Inter- 
mediate Schools. (T.) . . .331 

Herford, C. H. The Influence of 
Goethe's Italian Journey upon his 
Style. Taylorian Lecture, 1897 . 29 

Jacobs, Joseph. Epic and Romance, 
by W. P. Ker. The Flourishing of 
Romance and Rise of Allegory, by 
G. Saintsbury. (R.) . . .123 



Jeffrey, P. Shaw. French before Latin. 
(T.) (55) 

Ker, W. P. Historical Notes on the 
Similes of Dante .... 24 

Chaucer's House of Fame (ii. 417- 

426. (0.) (38) 

Italian Literature, by E. Garnett 

(R.) 126 

The Ballad of Sweet William's 

Ghost. (0.) 226 

Kirkman, F. B. Leaving-School Ex- 
aminations in Foreign Languages. 
(T.) 145 

.... A. The Organisation of the Study 
of Modern Languages in the Uni- 
versity of Cambridge. (T.) . . 322 

L., J. See Lawrence, J. 

Lawrence, J. The Accepted Emenda- 
tion in Paradise Eegained, ii. 309. 
(0.) 50 

The First Words in Hamlet. (0.) 50 

A Mutilated Word in Codex 

Junius XI. (The 'Csedmon' MS.) 
(0.) 50 

An Unnoticed Shakespearean 

'Touch' in Titus Andronicus. (0.) 226 

Lloyd, R. J. See Sub-Committee on 

Good English. (T.) . . . (42) 

. . . m. Die Tragik in Schiller's 
Jungfrau von Orleans, von M. Evers. 
(E.) 127 

Mathews, G. B., and Spencer, Frederic. 
A Thirteenth Century Latin-French 
Glossary 108 

Moriarty, L. M. Some Notes on 
Methods and Aims of Modern Lan- 
guage Teaching in Public Schools 
II. Harrow. (T.) . . . .326 

Napier, A. S. Old English Notes. (0.) 130 

Oelsner, H. Aucassin and Nicolette, 
by F. W. Bourdillon. Aucassin and 
Nicolette, by A. Lang. (R.) . . 222 

A History of Spanish Literature, 

by J. Fitzmaurice-Kelly. Don 
Quixote De La Mancha, por J. Fitz- 
maurice Kelly y J.Ormsby. (E.) 293 

- Bourdillon's Aucassin and Nico- 
lette. (C.) 300 

P., F. Y. See Powell, F. York. 

Pollard, A. W. Herrick Sources and 
Illustrations. (Communicated.) . 175 

Postgate, J. P. On Some Phonological 
Anomalies. (O.) .... 132 

Powell, F. York. Christ Church Frag- 
ments of Medieval French Dis- 
courses on the True Vine and on 
the Paternoster . . . .21 

Priebsch, Eobert. Eine Neider- 


landische Paraphrase des Veni 
Sancte Spiritus . . . .46 

Rippmann, Walter. See Sub-Com- 
mittee on Phonetics. 

S.,M. E. 'Like 'as a Conjunction. (C.) 160 

Sandbach, F. E. Otto von Diemer- 
ingen's German Translation of 
Mandeville's Travels . . . (29) 

Schuddekopf, A. W. The New 
Honours School of Modern Lan- 
guages and Literature at the Vic- 
toria University. (T.) . . . 75 

Skeat, W. W. The Meaning of 'Save' 
in Chaucer. (0.) . . . .132 

- Notes on the Lays of Marie de 
France. (0.) . . . .134 

Some Peculiarities of Anglo- 
French Spelling. (0.) . . .225 

Dr. Murray and the New Eng- 
lish Dictionary .... 257 

Anglo-French Spelling in Old 

English Homilies. (0.) . . .299 

An Emendation in Merciless 
Beauty. (0.) . . . (38) 

Smith, W. F. On- the Authenticity of 
the Fifth Book of Rabelais . . 283 

Somerville, A. A. Aims and Methods 
of Modern Language Teaching at 
Public Schools I. Eton. (T.) . 142 

Spencer, Frederic. See Mathews, G. 
B., and Spencer, Frederic. 

Spiers, J. H. B. The Past Definite 
and Imperfect in French. (T.) . 78 

Spiers, Victor. The Hon. George 
Curzon on Education. (N.) . . 156 

French v. English Teachers of 
French. (T.) .... (66) 

Sub-Committee on Phonetics. Interim 

Report. (T.) .318 

Texte, Joseph. La Jeunesse de Senan- 

cour d'apres des Documents Inedits 202 
Thomson, J. M. A. 'Intermediate 

Schools.' (C.) .... (69) 
Tilley, Arthur. The Authenticity of 

the Fifth Book of Rabelais . .113 

- French Unseen Translation. (C.) 150 

- Rabelais and the French Uni- 
versities 207 

Tilley, W. Wilhelm Vietor . . (1) 
Toynbee, Paget. A Biographical 
Notice of Dante in the 1494 Edition 
of the Speculum Historiale. (0.) . 51 
Notice sur les Corrogationes Pro- 

methei d'Alexandre Neckam, par P. 
Meyer. (0.) . . . .131 

'Save' in the Knightes Tale. 

(0.) 226 

The Bibliography of Ausias 
March . ... 289 



Toynbee.Paget, DanteLiterature. (R.) 
Tozer H. F. Dante as a Topographer 274 
Trench, W. F. William Baldwin . 259 
Ware, Fabian. See Sub-Committee 
on Phonetics. 

- Dent's First French Book. (T.) 
. Some Guiding Principles in the 

Choice of a Phonetic Alphabet 
adapted to the Requirements of 
Beginners. (T.) . 




Ware, Fabian. The Prussian Govern- 
ment and Phonetics. (C.) 

Weston, J. L. Twain and Gawain and 
Le Chevalier au Lion I. . 

II 194 

Whibley, Charles. Alphonse Daudet 16 
Wiener, Leo. Spanish Studies m 
England in the Sixteenth and 
Seventeenth Centuries . . (3) 


Modern Quarterly 


Language and Literature 

Vol. i. March 1898 NO. i. 


VERY few words seem called for by way of prologue to the Modern Quarterly of Lan- 
guage and Literature. It is hoped that it will speak for itself to all those who are 
interested in literature and scholarship, and that in its catholicity will be found 
the best warrant for its success. To the smaller circle of students who welcomed the 
^[<llll'||t L<iiirjinii/i' Quarterly of last year, this publication will wear a familiar face, 
but it will be recognised as being better proportioned and more carefully arranged than 
its prototype. Its aims will be the same iu spirit, though wider in range, and with the 
added definiteness which is born of experience. It will remain broad in sympathy and 
earnest in its endeavour to offer an increasingly efficient means of bringing before all 
who care for the study of modern literatures and tongues, and see their supreme value for 
our very existence as a nation, the best work which is being done in this fruitful 
field of research. 



Founder of ' The Early English Text Society,' 'Chaucer Society,' 'Ballad Society,' 'New Shakespeare 
Society,' ' Wyclif Society,' Honorary Secretary of ' The Philological Society,' &c., &c. 

THIS summary enumeration of Dr Furnivall's genuinely interested in English linguistics, the 
distinguished position as the founder of so famous Etonian Cory, whose charming letters 
many literary societies feebly indicates his have recently been published, induced young 
services to English letters. As regards Older Furnivall to show at least some kindly feel- 
English Literature, it may well be said ing towards the study of language by joining 
that for well-nigh half a century has the small band of members of the Philo- 
played the part of Fairy Godfather to that logical Society. From that distant time 
coy and neglected Muse, too long the Gin- onward he has strenuously laboured in the 
derella of the schools. If now her charms cause of English. He himself will perhaps 
are beginning to receive due recog- write the history of that great Survey of 
nition, so that those rival princes, the English Speech, which (to the lasting glory 
ancient Universities, contend in their woo- of the University of Oxford) will count 
ing of her, it is but fair to pay some tribute among the noblest achievements of the 
of praise to the whole-hearted devotee whose century. Those who know the changing 
life has been spent in her service. The prospects of that ambitious enterprise can 
Cambridge of Dr Furnivall's undergraduate tell how much it owed to the indefatigable 
flays did nothing to awaken his latent inter- exertions of one enthusiastic champion, 
est in the vernacular literature, and in the Moreover, the actual materials for the work 
usual course Trinity Hall added yet another were provided by the founding of the ' Early 
lawyer to the longlist of its distinguished legal English Text Society ' and kindred societies, 
alumni. Happily, another Cambridge scholar, English scholars, with their shelves crowded 


with the long series of volumes of these 
societies, need not be reminded of the many 
treasures unearthed by delvers into the 
distant past, all working under the direction 
of their strenuous chief. Hitherto such 
treasure-trove had been the peculiar property 
of the wealthy few ; the ' Early English Text 
Society ' made it possible for the humblest 
student to possess himself, by the outlay of 
a few shillings, of some well-nigh priceless 
romance, or some pearl of ancient song. 
Those students have in turn become the 
workers. To each willing workman a spade 
has been given ; each has done his best ; 
and if at times this best might well have 
been better, let the hypercritical dilate on 
the blemishes ; those who rightly under- 
stand feel grateful even for the apprentice- 
work in the field of Old English. 
Pedantic and over-exacting demands or 
churlish superiority on the part of the 
Master might easily have scared away many 
a willing disciple. Aided, however, by such 
workers as Prof. Skeat, Dr Richard Morris, 
Dr Murray, W. Aldis Wright, Henry Sweet, 
Prof. Zupitza, A. J. Ellis, the ' Early Eng- 
lish Text Society ' has done national service, 
the value of which, in its own department, 
cannot be over-estimated. To the English 
scholar it is unnecessary to point out that 
Early English literary history has had to be 

re-written since the Society started on its 
labours under the all-directing zeal of its 
untiring founder. 

Nor have Dr Furnivall's strenuous ac- 
tivities been limited to these literary labours, 
which might well absorb any one man's 
energies. Such works as ' Men of the 
Times ' and ' Who's Who ' dwell with equal 
insistence on his athletic achievements, and 
on his philanthropic zeal. Whatever he 
attempts calls forth his whole heart he 
gives all or nothing. Strong to love, and 
strong to hate, he presents a picturesque 
figure in these decadent days. If there 
be aught to pardon, there is so much more 
to praise, and the younger generation of 
students who know him but as the gener- 
ous friend and whole-hearted helper would 
find that London had lost something of its 
glory, were they to miss the warm and 
genial welcome of their buoyant Chief. 
"Yonder social mill" does not always "rub 
the angles down," or "merge in form and 
gloss the picturesque of man and man." 

In the name of the younger English 
scholars, and many older ones, we send this 
birthday greeting to our veteran friend. It 
is a message of sincere, grateful and whole- 
hearted affectionate regard. 


February 4th, 1898. 

" To the Onlie Begetter of 
This insuing Sonnet 

Mr G. J. 

All Happinesse Wisheth 

The Well- Wishing Adventurer 

In Setting Type. 

-J. M. D." 

Wlioever ill may wish, I set thy Witt, 

No Chapman-pedlar, cheapening wares in Hall, 

But sharp-Toothed watchdog, that forewarn thee still, 

When critic envy on thy rear would fall. 

No more be Lamb, but as a valiant Knight 

fitt on thy arms, and with a Harry's state, 

Bruising the Herbage, put thy foes to flight, 

That from their Knoll's assail the Temple Gate. 

Ithuriel, let once more thy Gol-den Lance, 

Like Will's, the Will of Archers to defy, 

Be brandished in the face of ignorance 

Against those arrows that Fortnightly fly. 

So doubt shall ne'er prevail my faith to kill ; 

No TJwmas I, although I publish Will. 



IT may be of some use to students of Eliza- 
bethan poetry if I make a note upon some of 
the contents of a small manuscript common- 
place-book, partly in verse, partly in prose, 
begun I should suppose between 1590 and 
1600, to which my attention has been called 
by the Rev. Dr Stokes, Librarian of Marsh's 
Library, Dublin. I am not aware that it has 
hitherto been described. Its mark in the 
catalogue of Marsh's Library is V. 3. 5. 57. 
Possibly all the poems in the MS. may be 
already in print I have no time at present 
to investigate the matter. The following I 
am able at once to set aside as printed : 
1. " The nearer that the cedar tree unto the 
heavens grow," by W. Hunnis (or perhaps by 
Lord Vaux). 2. " Amaryllis was full fair," 
by Sir E. Dyer. 3. " Like as the dove which 
seeled up doth fly," by Sidney. 4. "Who 
hath his fancy pleased," by Sidney. 5. " The 
seven wonders of England," by Sidney. 

6. "My sheep are thoughts," by Sidney. 

7. " The lively lark," by the Earl of Oxford. 

8. " I have no joy but dream of joy," by 
Francis Kinwelmersh. 9. "If I could think 
how these my thoughts to leave," by Sidney. 
10. "Sitting alone upon my thought," with 
the Echo verses that follow, printed by Dr 
Grosart as by the Earl of Oxford, is here 
headed " Verses made of the Earl of Oxford 
and Mistress Ann Vanesor " ; the name, which 
Dr Grosart cannot explain, is Fcinesor, not, as 
he prints it, Vanffar. 

A poem here noted as " made by the Earle 
of Oxeforde " " Love compared to a Tennis 
playe " is not given by Dr Grosart in his 
collection of the Earl's poems (Fuller 
Worthies Library) ; sixteen lines beginning : 

" Whereas the heart at tennis plays, and men to 

gaming fall, 

Love is the court, Hope is the house, and Fancy 
serves the ball." 

Perhaps it is somewhere in print without the 
author's name. 

The following are either unknown to me 
outside the MS., or at the present moment 
their whereabouts escapes my memory : 

1. A poem by Goodyer, " being prisoner in 
the Tower," (a prisoner evidently in connec- 
tion with some conspiracy on behalf of Mary 
Queen of Scots) beginning: 

" If former good could answer present ill, 
And often well might mend but one amiss, 
My life forepast in love and duty still 
Might salve this fault, for which my trouble is." 

2. " Of the Death of the Duke of Nor- 
folk," signed " T. B." [1. Thomas Bastard], 
beginning : 

"The lingering day so often gaped foi- 
ls come and past ; the tragedy is played." 

3. The Libel of Oxford, forty-one stanzas 
of four lines, beginning : 

" And think you I have not a load, 
Because I seem a careless clown." 

4. "A man of late was put to death for that he 

had his part 

Of stolen good, should you then scape, that 
stolen hath my heart ? " 

Eighty-six lines. 

5. Echo song, ten lines, beginning : 

" What can, I pray you tell me, sweet Echo, remedy 
Love? (Echo) Love." 

6. " Die, die Desire and bid delight adieu, 

Fancy is frail, affection makes thee fond." 

Five eight-line stanzas : 

' " Where secret thought must bring redress, 
And sorrow breeds relief." 

Ten four-line stanzas : 

8. I longed long my love to please, 
I loathed her to discontent." 

Five six-line stanzas. 

9. One of the " Willow, willow " songs, 
beginning : 

" What though by my vows I professed to serve, 
Sing all of green willow." 

10. " Fortune hath taken thee away my love." 

Twenty-four lines. 

11. A long poem of curious local interest, 
" A true presentment of such recusants and 
of some faults as are too apparent within 
Allerton shire, exhibited upon the 15 of 
May to my Lord of York," giving the names 
of Popish recusants, men and women. 

12. Lines by D. H. and the answer by 
H. A. : 

" The thing that I do most desire 
Is quiet life and happy end : " . 

answered by 

" If wishing might as well obtain 
As it can show what will doth want.' 

Perhaps the most interesting part of the 
poetical contents of the volume is a group of 


fifteen sonnets ; " H. C." is added at the 
end. Thirteen of these are printed among 
Henry Constable's sonnets, but two are 
unknown to me. 1 I copy them on the 
chance that they have not already appeared 
in print : 

' ' My hope laye gasping on his dying bedd, 
Faynt with a word, the dart of thy disdayne : 
Another word breathed lyfe in it againc, 
And stauncht the blood my wounded hope had 


Sweete tonge then sith thou canst revive the dead 
Thou easily maist aswage a sick man's payne ; 
What glory then shall such thy power gayne, 
Which sicklies, death [health?], which lyfe and 

death hast bredd ? 

One word gave lyfe, one word can helth restore ; 
If no, I live but live as better no ; 
More thou speakest not, and if I call for more 
More is thy wrath, and thy wrath breeds my 

My tonge and thine thus both conspire my 


Mine while I speake, thine while thou silent 

The second sonnet follows in the MS., 
a sonnet in the collections of Constable 
(but here with a different text) "To the 
most honourable Ladies the Countesses of 
Cumberland and Warwick, sisters." It is 
an experiment in rhyming : 

" To the same Laclyes, in imitation: of Petrarch, 
riming only with two words in eight riyniflm- 

" In Eden grew many a pleasant springe 
Of frntefull trees : among which trees were two 
Whom God him selfe alotted honour to 
More then to all the plants which there did spring. 
The season there was ever but the springe, 
Whose heate and moysture ay conspired to 
Preserve these trees both faire and fruitfull too. 
Neare unto whorne did run a fower fould spring. 
Eache of these pleasant trees a worthy dame, 
These sisters two, these two trees fenced soe ; 
The lasting spring their never withred fame ; 
The rivers fower, neare whom these trees do 


The virtues fower, wherein they do excell 
As Paradyse seames ech place wher they dwell." 

1 I have not seen the reprint of "The Poems and 
Sonnets of Henry Constable," edited by John Gray 
(Hacon & Ricketts). The reviewer in Literature, 
Jan. 15, 1898, makes no mention of new pieces 

Henry Constable was a Roman Catholic, 
whose adherence to his faith brought him 
into trouble. It is somewhat perplexing to 
find later in the volume twenty-eight pages 
of manuscript occupied with prose described 
as " A short vew of a large examination of 
Cardinall Allen his trayterous justification 
of Sir W. Stanley, and Yorck, written by 
Mr H. Const, and this gathered out of his 
own draught." If " Mr H. Const." be not 
Henry Constable, I know not who can be 
meant. Cardinal Allen's " Defence of Sir 
William Stanley's Surrender of Deventer " 
(which applies also to Rowland Yorke's 
surrender of Zutphen sconce) appeared first 
at Antwerp in 1587 ; a French edition 
followed in 1588. A reprint will be found 
among the publications of the Chetham 
Society (xxv., published in 1851). The 
reply to Cardinal Allen, which is vigorous 
and searching, is not only loyally English 
but strongly Protestant in spirit. I must 
leave the puzzle to students of Constable. 
Is the reply to Allen really Constable's 1 
Was it sincerely meant ? Was it a treacher- 
ous device to restore his credit with the 
authorities? In 1600 King James of Scot- 
land so Nicholson informed Cecil received 
" a book written by Henry Constable " ; can 
it have been this examination of Allen 1 

Among the prose contents of the MS. 
volume in Marsh's Library are " Sir Nicholas 
Throgmorton, his politique discourse touch- 
ing the Government of this Realm, Epito- 
mised " ; "A True Description of Virginia," 
and some other pieces possibly of in- 
terest to historical students. A Latin poem 
of considerable length is headed " Iter 
Boreale." 1 have not yet compared it with 
the English poem by Bishop Corbet. 

Probably some reader better acquainted 
than I am with Elizabethan verse will 
be able to name the writers of the Eng- 
lish poems which I have indicated by 
the opening lines. Certain phrases of 
the lyrical pieces seem to haunt my 





10. WHEN first requested to contribute to 
this journal an article having reference to 
Gothic, I felt some hesitation in introducing 
so venerable a dialect into the company of 
its vigorous juniors ; but I was afterwards 
relieved by considering that, in virtue of the 
solidarity, so to say, of all languages and 
dialects of the same stock, many individual 
idioms and constructions, as well as broader 
characteristics, remain identical or similar in 
all or some of them over very long periods 
of time ; and that, consequently, an appeal 
to such usages in their older forms, if it did 
not demonstrate their origin, might at any 
rate elucidate their history. 

11. The construction exhibited by du 
wigan ana and the illustrative passages in 
my former article is one of unlimited fre- 
quency in modern English ; and the desir- 
ableness of calling attention to it and its 
nearly-related forms was suggested to me by 
the absence of reference to them in nearly 
all of the many school grammar-books I 
have seen, and the consequent inability of 
young people under examination to exhibit 
any acquaintance with them. Koch and 
Maetzner, indeed, have each collected and 
classified numerous instances of such con- 
structions ; but I do not find that they 
attempt to throw light on their origin, or 
to assist the practical teacher by laying 
down rules for dealing with them. I now 
venture, therefore, to make a few sugges- 
tions towards supplying those desiderata ; 
and as the subject involves a cluster of 
related phenomena, we will approach it by 
way of some general considerations. 

12. These will all revolve about the 
adverb in its oldest and simplest forms, 
together with its variants the prefix and 
the preposition. Of these three adverb, 
prefix, 1 preposition the grammatical in- 
terest lies mainly in their relations with the 
substantive and the verb. As far back in 
historic time as we can follow up the Indo- 
European languages we find that to the verb 
belonged the disjunct adverb or movable 
qualifier, and the prefix or conjunct qualifier; 
to the substantive belonged the prefix (as to 
the verb) and the preposition. There are 
still discoverable, however, vestiges of older 
usages pointing back to an age when the 

* The first part of this article appeared in the 
M'uli-rn Lawjuaijc Quarterly for November 1897. 
1 We will hereafter add the "postfix." 

prefix was separate, or at any rate separable, 
from its verb perhaps even to still remoter- 
ages when prefix and prep, were not yet 
distinctly evolved. 

13. The reader of Homer, or of a book or 
two only, will remember instances of what 
" looks like " (but isn't) the " projection " 
(par. G) of a prep.; so that the latter stands 
towards its subst. just as ana stands to- 
wards its infin. (ibid.). Opening the Iliad 
at random I see (n, 63), 

oi?; 5 Ze0i5poio e^ei^aro irbvrov e" TT t $pt . . . , 
"like-as a ripple from Zephyrus spreads the sea 
over . . . " ; 

or again, with indirect object (, 357), 

olffiv <? TT i 2 Zei)s BrJKt Koxbv jj.bpov ' 
" whoin-upon Jove laid a dreadful destiny." 

Such constructions were formerly regarded 
as exceptional reversals of the natural order 
of words. But let us hear a modern writer 
on the subject : " When a case-ending was 
found too vague to express the meaning 
intended, another word was added in order 
to convey greater definiteness : of^drcuti awo 
is therefore no exception, but the original 
type. So arr^iain tripi, ' on the breast round 
about,' would precede -a-spl grtiSiirai, ' round 
about the breast.' 3 Here the author not 
only describes a phenomenon, but gives a 
reason for it. As I similarly pointed out, a 
dozen years ago, 4 the choice of the primitive 
language-builders lay between an indefinitely 
large number of " cases " (a frightful alterna- 
tive) and a few cases of more general mean- 
ing, which could be strictly defined at need 
by collocating "detached particles." Such 
particles were originally appositional adverbs 
the oblique cases of substantives and 
pronouns being themselves equivalent to 

14. One step further brings us to the 
coalescence of adverb with verb by way 
of prefix ; as to which Mr Giles proceeds : 
" What then of tvefffttm, avia^ou, and other 
verb-forms, which are combined with words 
such as accompany noun-cases ? Here the 
adverbial meaning is still retained, VMS 
AvojSahn, 'from the ship he goes off;' %/?; 

2 The texts have ewt, without anastrophe : it is 
supposed to be cut away from ffijice by wedging in 
Zei>j. This so-called tmesis is not infrequent in 
Homer ; but sometimes no subst. is affected ; c.ij., 
KO.T ip' tfcro, for Kaffifero apa, " down he sat then." 

3 Giles, " Manual of Comparative Philology," 
p. 299. 

4 " Introduction to Gothic," p. 92. 


v, ' they raised their hands up.' " The 
writer does not suspect any formal connexion 
between the two categories of compounds : I 
think there is. Let us look for a moment 
at the construction of the simplest primitive 
I.-E. sentence. In this the components were 
arranged in the order, object (if there was 
one), predicate (verb), and subject (which 
might either be a subst., or be involved in 
the personal verb-suffix). Reduced to this 
pattern, with the particle added, my first 
Greek example reads : TOVSW \<si l^suaro 
<f>p 1% ; and the second (putting demonstrative 
for relative), x. it. rofsiv im Qnxi Zsiis. It is 
easy to guess what would then happen : 'im 
is in the plight of Mahomet's coffin, and 
the more powerful verb, the "word" par 
excellence, gradually attracted the particle 
from the subst. or pronoun and appropriated 
it to itself. 5 Hence ultimately ivixevaro, 
iTe6rjx.e, axoflatvii (for viug airo (3uhii), with 
other similar compounds ad lib. ; and, in 
speaking, the prefix would be attached to 
every part of each such verb, whenever it 
was used in the like relation to a subst. To 
that very convenient pattern similar colloca- 
tions would be adjusted, even though no 
subst. was in question ; as, e.g., when the 
simple verb and its compound were both 
intransitive ; and, again, when the simple 
verb was transitive, and itself directly 
governed a subst. or pronoun. 6 Without 
the powerful assimilating influence of such 
pattern we might have had 'i^iro V.U.TU., o%ov 
am, &c., like UTriQisai 7zpr for, in spite of 
Scherer 7 and others, I cannot but think 
that, in their talk, primitive men, like our 
very young children, first enounced their 
principal or generic idea, and after that 
(not before it) the specific or qualifying 
idea. 8 

15. But, at a later stage of inflected 
languages, as case-endings tended to decay 
both in form and in force, while (par. 14) 
the old determinative particles, when appro- 
priated by the verb, became less closely 
related to the subst., the cases of the 
latter would again need reinforcement for 
the sake of precision. To avoid clashing 
with the older particle, the required help 
would be afforded by using a similar apposi- 
tional particle before the subst. Here, in 
course of time, it probably lost somewhat of 

6 Compare the similar process in English : see 
note 15. 

6 See KaOtfcTo in note '2, and Mr Giles's avcaxov 
just above. 

7 "Zur Geschichte," &c., 2nd ed., kap. viii. 

8 See " The Mind of the Child," par. 5, in Literary 
World for January 31, 1896. 

its original form (cf. civu, xaru, EW, with 
and, xaTcc, 1%, ix, and Gothic faura, inna, 
and inn, with four, in) and likewise of its 
purely adverbial character : finally it came 
to be regarded no longer as a subordinate 
determinative, but as the cause of the 
subst. being in such or such a case, i.e., as 
" governing " the subst. : in a word, the 
Preposition was evolved ; and its evolution 
and wide adoption form one of the weightiest 
of the second-rate facts in the history of the 
I.-E. languages ; for when cases came to de- 
pend for their precise value mainly upon 
separate particles, case-endings naturally be- 
came superfluous ; and consequently, in the 
more advanced analytic languages, e.g., Eng- 
lish and French, they have nearly all dis- 
appeared. A more immediate consequence, 
it would seem, was the retardation of the 
spread of the substantive-prefix. This pre- 
fix is probably of secondary or dependent 
origin ; for, I.-E. substantives being derived 
from verbs, when the parent-verb already 
had or afterwards assumed a prefix, the 
derived subst. of corresponding meaning 
would also have, or (if need were) assume, 
the same prefix, as a matter of course. But 
prepositions being at hand, the demand for 
such compound substs. did not often arise; 
and in the poets and classical Greek gene- 
rally, remarkably little use was made of 
them. 9 

16. For illustrations I have, so far, fallen 
back chiefly on Greek as the oldest written 
language of Europe ; but we are to suppose 
the constructions and processes treated-of 
to date back to a period far anterior to that 
of the old Greek epics, a period, indeed, 
when the European languages had not yet 
branched off from one another. Hence, 
notwithstanding the sweeping changes of 
construction subsequently caused in each lan- 
guage by the growth of the complex sentence 
and the demands of prosody, we expect to 
find, and we do find, traces in other lan- 
guages than Greek of the old usages herein- 
before mentioned. We see a reason, e.g., 
for the regimen of tenxs and invus in Latin ; 
also for what we shall call the " postfix " in 
the combinations -mecum, tec.iim, nibiiscnm, 
quibuscum, &c. ; while we frequently meet 
with the reinforcing prep, preceding the 
prefix, as in the simple instance, " e castris 

9 From an examination of several hundred verses 
of Homer, I calculate that only one prefixal subst. 
occurs in about one hundred verses, while there are 
about eighteen prefixal verbs and twenty-five pre- 
positions. These results do not hold for modern 
times ; there are probably more such substs. in this 
article than in all the Iliad. 


exire " ; the stages of which, on our hypo- 
thesis, would be (1) castris ire, (2) castris 
('.'. ire, (3) castris e,iire, (-4) e castris wire. 
In Gothic we sometimes see the particle 
hovering, as it were, between subst. and 
verb ; e.g. (1 Cor. iv. 8), ... ei weis izwis 
mi\ ]nudanoma 10 = Lat., . . . ut nos vobiscum 
regnemus, " that we with-you may reign " ; 
and "reinforcement" by other particles is 
sometimes even carried to excess, as in 
Mark xi. 19: f/siddja ut us bizai baurg; 
lit., " 0<-he-went out out-of that city." The 
same " hovering " of the particle is frequent 
in A.-S., but nearly always after a pronoun, 
especially the indeclinable )>e ; as : ])a yrmj>a 
>e us twsittaS . . . (Wulfstan), "the miseries 
which us-tipim rest . . . " ; Ic hsebbe of J>dm 
stocce \e his heafod on stod (yElfric), "I 
have [a bit] of the stake which-upon his head 
stood ( = was stuck) " ; yet some would 
write omitta}>, &c. ; indeed, our forefathers 
themselves varied in their practice ; e.g., 
Seo sunne ymbscynft }>one blindan (Job), 
" The sun shinefh-roundabout the blind man " ; 
but, Godes beorhtnes him ymbe scan (Luke 
ii. 9), " God's glory them-rmmdabout shone." n 
Reinforcement by a prep, is rare : On bsere 
r6de . . . sticodon on msenige arewan 
(Chron., 1083), "Into the rood . . . there 
stuck-w many arrows." The main point of 
interest, however, is the identity of con- 
struction in us mi sitta]>, him ymbe sedn, &c., 

and in To'krov 'i<i? i^iltaro, TOiSiv \q? JtfSjxE, &C. 

(par. 14). 

17. There are instances, however, in 
A.-S., in which the particle follows the 
verb, and others, although rare, in which 
the particle governs a preceding subst. Both 
of these constructions survive in modern 
English. In the case of the substantive 
the particle still follows in certain petrified 
colloquialism.*, such as "all the world urn;" 
"all the year round." In other instances 
this construction is merely artificial, i.e., 
rhetorical or poetical ; e.g., " Law and 
justice he did not care a fig for " ; or 

" The wind without blows dreary, 
The fire within burns cheery 
The spacious hearth upon." 

These particles differ from prepositions in 
nothing but position. Of pronouns, the 
personals follow their prepositions, except 
in artificial constructions. With interroga- 
tives, and the relatives whom, which and 
their compounds, the prep, in formal com- 

10 So printed by Ileyne, rightly, as I think ; other 
editors join ')> with the verb. 

11 I haye borrowed these two examples from Koch ; 
their difference is probably due to the fact that the 
object in one is a subst., in the other a pronoun. 

position may precede, but in colloquial 
style follows : with the rel. tliat it must 
follow (as with ]>e in A.-S.); more generally 
we suppress the relative and leave the 
particle. The latter, when following its 
subst. or pronoun, might be called a post- 
position ; but although by our hypothesis 
(par. 14, 15) the two were originally 
different, we may be content to regard 
the latter as a transposed or "projected" 
preposition. However, the relations between 
prep, and subst. or pronoun are now of no 
great interest. 

18. It is otherwise with the verb. Here 
we have to remember, first and foremost, 
that whatever particle, whether conjunct or 
disjunct, qualifies a verb, although identical 
in form with a prep., is an adverb; and, 
next, that modern English has nearly lost 
the power of making compounds with 
native prefixes. We have even lost many 
such compounds formerly in use. We can 
no longer say, e.g., tdgdn, but only go to, and 
the like (par. 6). Modern as the latter form 
of collocation looks, the pattern is probably 
primitive (par. 14 in fine), and is very 
ancient within the Teutonic itself, as is 
shown by its appearance both in Go. and 
in Icelandic, as well as A.-S.; e.g. (Go.) : 
Atgaf siponjam ei atlagidedeina faur (Mark 
viii. 6) ; " He gave to the disciples that 
they might lay before " [sc. " the people "] ; 
Qui]>ands bata iddja fram (Luke xix. 28) ; 
"Having said this, he went ortrbefore" ; &c. 
(Ice!.), 12 B<j>rs synir. . . . toku upp trein ok 
skopuSu / menn (Gylfag.); "Bors 1 sons 
. .'. took up the trees and made [therejo/ 
men." So too in A.-S. : Stselhranas beoS 
swySe dyre mid Finnum, forStem hy f63 
ba wildan hranas mid ; " Decoy-reindeer are 
very valuable among the Finns, because 
they catch the wild reindeer [therewith." 

19. Returning to modern English, we 
have to face two or three important ques- 
tions. These relate to the degree of 
affinity between verbs and their following 
particles. Do the latter all remain dis- 
junct, or do some become, or tend to 
become, conjunct, like the prefix 1 If there 
is such difference, are there any tests for 
determining it ? and are there any means of 
representing it to the eye? There is no 
doubt whatever about the existence of the 
difference. Some of those particles should 
and do remain disjunct ; others do tend to, 
and should, coalesce with their verbs, and so 
become "postfixes." As for tests, that is 
not an easy matter; but as regards dis- 

12 I am indebted for my Icelandic examples to the 
kindness of my friend Dr John Lawrence, M. A . 


junct particles, the following may serve : 
(1) They bear a stress or accent 18 ; (2) they 
may be separated from their verb by the 
verb's object and other words; (3) they 
leave the force and meaning of their verbs 
unaltered ; (4) they are powerless to assist 
intransitive verbs to become passive. With 
these tests we may clear them out of our 
way. By, down, in, off, on, over, through, under, 
up, with, and even to (in " put the door to'," 
&c.) are, as adverbs indicating position or 
direction, easily recognisable; but some of 
them are also and often used with an 
intensive force, marking completeness of 
an action : these I sometimes see hyphen'd 
wrongly, as I think ; but let us consider 
an example : 

" Jack takes my doll, and, my stars ! 
He pokes her head between the bars, 

And melts of half her nose. " 
Here off, i.e., "quite away" (1) keeps its 
stress; (2) may be separated from melts 
by a whole phrase ("J. melts half the 
doll's nose off ") ; (3) leaves melts unaffected 
in both voices ("Half the doll's nose was 
melted off") : (4) does not apply, as melt is 
transitive. Other instances are (to use the 
passive only see par. 21): "These boots 
are-worn through' " ; " The pond it-frozen 
o'ver " ; and especially combinations with 
up, eat up', fill up', use up', wind up', &c. &c. 
20. As to the conjunct particle, or postfix, 
and the mode of indicating it, the analogy 
of the prefix suggests that it and its verb 
should be written as one word ; but nobody 
has taken the hint. Many writers, however 
(or is it the printers ?), have had recourse to 
the semi-uniting hyphen, although, so far as 
I have noticed, only sporadically, and as 
often wrongly as rightly. 14 This device, of 
course, if it can be consistently used, will 
serve our purpose quite well ; but we must 
first try to discover whether such consistency 
is attainable, or, if not completely, to what 
extent. This brings us to the necessity for 
detecting the particles in question ; for which 
purpose the tests ought to be, and in the 
main are, the reverse of those in par. 19. 
For (1) such particles do not bear stress or 
accent ; (2) they may not be separated from 
their verbs ; (3) they do generally affect the 
force or meaning of their verb ; in particular 
(4) they do enable intransitive verbs to 
assume the passive form and force. Take 
a provisional example (see next par.) : 
" Here lies poor master duck 
That Sammy Johnson trod'-on." 

13 Already noted by Koch, ii. 430. 

14 The only school grammar-book I have seen which 
gives instances of the hyphen'd postfix though only 
four js wrong in three of the four. 

Admitting this instance, on (1) is unstressed ; 

(2) cannot take the object before it ; i.e., we 
should not say, " S. J. trod the duck on " ; 

(3) seems to affect the meaning of its verb ; 
for tread (in " tread the deck," &c.) means a 
series of footfalls, with on it means only one : 

(4) does not apply, as tread makes a passive 
in its own right, "the duck was trod' den-on 
by S. J." But take an intrans. vb., say to 
laugh, and add at, then we can say, "he 
was laughed' -at for his pains," &c. And so 
the Opium-eater " was stared' -at, hoot'ed-at, 
grinned'-at, cJiat'tered-at, by monkeys, by 
par roquets, by cockatoos." In these and 
similar passives the particle is a genuine 
postfix (par. 21 in fine) and should be 
hyphened to its verb, or rather, the parti- 
cipial factor. 

21. But par. 20 requires some explanation, 
and especially our " provisional " example ; 
for on closer inspection it does not fully 
satisfy all the tests : thus (i.) although the 
object cannot come between trod and on, other 
words can : we can say, e.g., " S. J. trod very 
heavily on the duck," as he assuredly did ; 
and (ii.) the individualisation of the verb is 
really supplied by the phrase " on the duck," 
or any equivalent. In point of fact, in the 
active voice, we have to deal with the pre- 
position. Suppose we say, e.g., "the children 
laughed at the monkeys' pranks " ; then, 
psychologically, these pranks are the cause 
(expressed by at, &c.) of the laughter ; and 
grammar so far agrees with psychology that 
it attaches at to what follows. In careful 
reading accordingly we make a slight pause 
after laughed, and we may insert lengthy 
phrases between it and nt ; as, " the children 
laughed from morning till night at," &c. In 
fact, laugh being intrans., at, grammatically, 
" governs " a species of indirect object. We 
see this more clearly in another class of 
instances ; e.g., " I paid for the goods " ; 
" we sent for the doctor " ; or, to be Miltonic, 
" A was an Archer that sJiot ut a frog " ; 
where paid, sent, shot have become intrans. 
by the suppression of their direct objects, 
which, however, are still implied in the 
verbs themselves ; for I must have paid 
somebody for x ; we must have sent a 
messenger for y ; and A must have shot 
arrows at s. In all such instances we must, 
I think, treat the particles as prepositions, 
and refuse the hyphen. Then why grant it 
to the passive (par. 20 in fine) t Because 
passive and active are not simple correlatives 
here, as they are when the direct object of 
an active verb becomes the grammatical 
subject of its passive. For prepositional 
phrases like those above answer to the 


oblique cases of the substantives of the old 
inflexional languages (par. 15 in med.) ; and 
those old cases are firm conglomerates of 
which the component parts are not separ- 
able. If one of them the Lat. dative for 
example stood as object to an active verb, 
and it was required to form a passive, 
recourse was had to an impersonal construc- 
tion. The constituents of our phrases, on 
the other hand, are separable, and each lias 
its own modicum of meaning. Hence English 
can do what Latin could not, it can make 
a passive for which the indirect (preposi- 
tional) object of the active may be turned 
into the subject : but instead of clumsy 
impersonal constructions (" there was a 
shooting at the frogs," &c.), our linguistic 
instinct has hit on the happy device of 
abstracting the sign (at, for, in, &c.) of the 
indirect object from its phrase and transfer- 
ring it to its verb as a postfix, 15 thus leaving 
the previously-governed subst. free to be 
used as subject of the passive formed from 
the simple verb plus the said postfix. We 
will write, therefore, "x VMS paid' -far" ; "y 
was sent -for" ; "z was shot' -at "; "the mon- 
keys' pranks were laughed' -at," &c., &c., as 
prescribed in par. 20; and the composites, 
was paid'-for, &c., are to be parsed as 
postfixal passive verbs. 

22. Looking back, we now see that du 
wigan ana and du usfilhan ana (par. 6) are 
infinitive phrases attaching themselves to 
the general cases investigated in par. 18-21. 
What is most curious is that English should 
exactly agree in this construction with the 
Gothic and disagree with its former self ; 
for in A.-S. 10 the adverbial particle precedes 
the iiifin. with to, Sealde bsem adligan of 
16 supennf ; " He gave to the sick man to 
drink of;" etc., etc. This usage persisted 
till Wyclif's time at least (par. 7), although 
it had long been hustled and was soon after- 

15 Note how closely this resembles (the order being 
reversed) the process described in par. 14. 

16 A.-S. really means West Saxon : I have not yet 
discovered instances in the remains of the other O.E. 

wards expelled by its rival. But to what is the 
change due t Perhaps to Norse influence ; 
for the O.N. dialects might be expected 
to agree with Go. (par. 3, 4, 9) : yet in 
Icelandic we find both usages : Ok mun 
okkr ba hcegt urn tal ef okkr er ba leyft at 
lalaz m$ (Laxd. Saga) 17 ; " And it will then 
be easy for us as-regards conversation if it is 
then permitted us to talk with [each other]." 
This is the Go. form; on the other hand, 
" Olaf's sailors, when they saw a large troop 
of horsemen approaching, . . . became silent 
because beim botti mikill li'6'smunr ciS at 
eiga it seemed to them a great odds to 
have-to-do with " (ibid.) : and this form agrees 
with the A.-S. However, we must take our 
own form as now current, and for a moment 
consider its treatment. In this we follow 
the lines laid down in par. 21. The particle 
belongs to the infin. and is pro tern, an 
adverb. In the case of the active infin. 
(with which we may couple the gerund), as 
in the case of other actives, the particle is to 
be kept disjunct ; for, although it does not 
maintain its full stress, it may generally be 
separated from the infin. by an object or 
a phrase ; e.g. : " We set up a target to shoot 
at," i.e., to shoot arrows or bullets at ; " Land 
for sale to build on," or "This land to let 
/</ building on " ; i.e., for building houses, etc., 
thereon; "I gave the girls some dolls to 
play with," where we might say, " to play at 
school with " ; and so on. In the passive, as 
before, the particle becomes a postfix helping 
to make a virtually new verb, " the dolls 
were given you to be play ed' -with "; "this 
land is not to be built' -on " ; or, as gutter- 
snipes used to shout after soldiers, " Yah ! 
a shilling a day to le shot' -at." 

To conclude : I am very sensible of the 
scantiness of the foregoing inquiry : I have 
necessarily suppressed much subsidiary 
matter ; but I shall be content if I shall have 
instigated anyone else to deal with the 
subject more thoroughly. 


17 See note 12. 


' THE Court of Venus,' by John Rolland of 
Dalkeith, was printed at Edinburgh in 1575 ; 
of that edition only one copy seems to be 
known, now in the British Museum, and 
from this the poem was re-edited for the 
Scottish Text Society by its late secretary, 
Dr Gregor, in 1883-84. Rolland's poem is 
not in any sense a great work, but it de- 

served at least to be correctly reprinted and 
properly edited. That Dr Gregor's edition 
leaves much to be desired in both of these 
respects will be plain from the following 

The copyist employed by the editor is 
probably responsible for a large number of 
blunders in the text, many of which are 


obvious to any one who reads the book with 
attention, and yet are either passed over in 
silence or incorrectly explained. Others are 
of a more subtle kiml, and not to be corrected 
without reference to the original edition. 
All the passages which seemed in any way 
suspicious have been collated for me by 
Mr Walter Robinson, with the result that 
many of them turn out to be correct in the 
original : it seems probable that a thorough 
collation of the whole text would yield 
more results of this kind. 

Apart from these mistakes, however, Dr 
Gregor's handling of the text is far from 
satisfactory, and displays remarkable ignor- 
ance of the language and metre of the poem. 
In many cases the original is mutilated, so 
that the beginnings of lines are lost : these 
Dr Gregor has attempted to supply, with 
very poor results. It does not seem to have 
occurred to him to ascertain how many 
letters were missing, so that his insertions 
might at least answer to the space available. 
In consequence, wherever more than one or 
two letters have to be supplied, it may be 
taken as a general rule that Dr Gregor's 
filling up is wrong; it neither fulfils con- 
ditions of space nor (in many cases) yields 
a metrical line. When the end of the line 
is defective, he is also frequently at fault, 
and either prints it as if complete, or inserts 
words that will not suit the rimes of the 
verse. A glaring instance of this is pointed 
out in the note on i. 100-8 below. 

The notes in the volume, besides a large 
amount of irrelevant matter, show some 
curious misapprehensions of the author's 
meaning, and most of the blunders of the 
text are faithfully repeated in the glossary, 
which, however, does correct some of the 
more obvious misprints. In giving the 
correct reading of the text, I have frequently 
quoted the notes or glossary, or both, as 
evidence that the editor deliberately accepted 
and endeavoured to explain forms which on 
the face of them were wrong or suspicious. 
Nor is the glossary by any means complete ; 
there are many words throughout the poem 
which ought to have been included in it, as 
being far less common than others to which 
a place has been given. 

The punctuation throughout the poem 
is also bad, as it neither agrees with the 
original nor conforms to the modern standard. 
As the author's meaning is usually plain 
enough, I have left this question untouched. 
It would also be easy to fill up many of the 
blanks in the defective lines, but Holland's 
work is perhaps scarcely worth so much 

In the following list of corrections, the 
reading of Dr Gregor's edition is quoted 
first, and that of the 1575 edition is pre- 
ceded by ' Orig.' The number of passages 
which have to be dealt with will show that 
the ' Court of Venus ' is a book to be used 
with great caution. It is already responsible 
for one or two errors in the New English 
Dictionary, and perhaps only a new edition 
could make it a safe text to work upon. 


1-9. Note on p. 139. 'The meaning is 
plain, but the sentence is incomplete. 
It has no apodosis.' There is some 
truth in this, but the copyist is re- 
sponsible for a line being left out (see 
below). The want of a rime to line 7 
does not seem to have suggested this 
to the editor. 

1. Philosopher. Orig. Philosophour. 

3. verie poelimll. Orig. verse. 

6. Add the line, 

' And that throw heuinlie constellatiounis. 
11. sicklike. Orig. sidike. 
16. fiat. Orig.fat. 
20. blythnes. Orig. blyithnes. 
22. ch]olerik is adit of imture. Orig. is 

crabit of. 
25. Sultell (so in GL). Orig. SubteU. 

30. Drowpond. Orig. drowpand. 

31. feindill in game or glew. Note (p. 143), 
'cruel in amusement or glee.' GL 
' Feindill, adj. ill - natured.' Orig. 
seindill, ' seldom.' 

55. The line should be marked as in- 
73. Quliilk (if the self is lot ane liqumn-r. 

So orig., but a word is apparently 
wanting; perhaps ane waik liqueur/: 
87. lume complexioun. Orig. lunte his com- 


90. his is. Orig. lie is. 
108. stuirt. The orig. is much worn and its 
reading uncertain, but stait is required 
to rime with ulteruit. Stairt is not in 
the GL 

115. Sum lyke Sparhawks, and sum ar sw[yne\. 
Orig. Sparhalkis, and prob. the line 
should end with sweir as swyne. 
116-7. These lines are imperfect, and should 

have been marked as such. 
122. hive. Orig. haue. 
130. Cajus. Orig. Cayus. 
135. Titus his sone on Menstrallis set his seill. 
GL 'Seill, sb. soul.' Seill =' happi- 
ness ' ; cf. ' gaif his felicitie ' (Prol. 178, 
ii. 239). 


155. are . . . common. Orig. ar . . . com- 


173. hedis. Note, ' Read he dis.' Gl. 'Dis, 
v. dies.' The orig. has he di . . . and 
the word should be die to rime with 

175. A line has been dropped after this. 
The whole passage should probably be 
read thus : 
Sum with tume purse on his Paramouris 


Sum ar tratlaris, and other part pyke thank 
[is] 175 

Sum ar Pelouris, and part ar fals purse 
prifkis] 175* 

Sum ar Harlottis, and sum are Heretyk[is.] 
Dr Gregor prints 174 as if complete, 
and lacks 175,* yet he makes no com- 
ment on the want of rime which results 
from this. 
178-9. Sum geuin to glide, ami sum ar geuin to 


Sum traistis in GOD, mm rinnis qiiidk]. 
The second line requires three sylla- 
bles to complete it. The original rimes 
were no doubt, ' geuin to euill ' and 
' quick to the deuill.' In his ' Seven 
Sages ' (p. 38) Holland has 
' Sa vicious and vehement, ay prone to 

Thow wald rin to get thy intent quick to 

the Deuill.' 

205. Inmntmit (so in GL). Orig. incontrair. 
211. [Full of sa]v ne, and geuin to Geometrie. 
Gl. ' [Sajvne (?) sb. knowledge.' The 
word is of course impossible. 
222. Is als contrail, us ane slow to gar duns. 
Gl. ' Contrail, adj. contrary to.' 
' Slow, sb. a sloth.' But the orig. has 
conlrair and kow ! 

229. lie i.liiiilit refri-nntioun. Note (p. 150), 
'by cherished restraining,' etc. Dantit 
has evidently its more usual sense of 
' subdued ' ; ' temper and clant him- 
self ' occurs two lines above. 
242. Quhilk throw maishie of Idilncs is di 

The line should be completed dim in, 
'driven,' to rime with grain. 

244. Mannis iimneris mai/ oftymts clumrj[e\. 

It is very unlikely that chungt should 
rime with mmpanie ; ' chang[it />] ' is 
prob. the correct reading. 

249. / mud. Note (p. 151), 'I desire'; 
it means 'I desired.' 

252. quhair thair errand no dochl. Gl. 
'Docht, v. ought to be.' Docht has 
its ordinary meaning =' where their 
errand was of no use ' ; ' could do no 

257. So I infer a many may mak his fortoun. 

Orig. a man mat/. 
273. that the same reulis or he. it is. Orig. or 

Jtotrig (riming with effeiris). 
278. tluit thai/ be Correde. Orig. Corredar 

(riming with Ileidar). 
284. y, sail tlie better tak baith the sence, ami 


Gl. 'Leid, .s?>. argument.' Leid has 

its ordinary meaning of ' language.' 
300, 308. ri'i>rouit. Orig. repreuit (but reprouil 

in 311, 312). 


10-13. These mutilated lines are probably to 

be restored as follows : 
[Kakn^dis and Nonis war than all gone 


[Ofihatf]e\l Freik quhilk we call Feuerzeir, 

[Quhen Jamt]a,rie was of his Trone exclude. 

The expression ' fell freik ' occurs in 

iv. 606, 707, but neither word is in 

the Gl. 

35. Pausing. Orig. Pausing ' considering.' 
40. Mittanis tluit was. n[eat\. The missing 

word is no doubt nieit. 
44-45. And maist part was my prayers to con 
Knowit on breist, ami Cor Mundum I. 

These two lines are a remarkable in- 
stance of the editor's want of insight, as 
they contain three points which require 
to be amended, of which he notices only 
one. In the notes (p. 159), Knowit on 
breist is explained as 'known by 
heart ! ' The orig. has knoktt. There 
also the word ' cryde ' is suggested to 
complete line 45, which is no doubt 
correct, but there is no recognition 
that 44 is defective as well. That this 
is no mere oversight is shown by the 
fact that it is printed in the same form 
on pp. x. and xiii. of the Introduction, 
but as it has only nine syllables and 
must rime with words in -eit, it requires 
little ingenuity to expand mn to crnn- 
pleit. The lines ought to read 
' And maist part was my prayers to compleit, 
Knokit on breist, and ivrmundiim I cryde' 
58 To se gif the// wald ony nar me draw. 

Gl. ' Nar, prep, near.' Nar is a com- 
parative = ' nigher,' 'nearer.' 
65. / can nw git jirrfite affirmative. 

Note (p. 160), ' Noo is a misprint for 

not.' But git is also a mistake for gif, 

and both words are correct in the orig. 

71. schaw be Intellediue. Orig. be my Inf. 

96. rule of all remeid. link of course is 

'root,' but in the note Dr Gregor 


quotes Chaucer, Boke of the Duchesse, 218. 
816-818, the last line of which is 226 
' That was like noon of the rmde ' I 

100-106. The way in which Dr Gregor has 

dealt with these lines reveals the 244. 
astonishing fact that he never under- 
stood the structure of the stanza 250. 
which is used throughout nearly the 252. 
whole of the poem. This is the com- 
mon one of nine lines, with the rimes 304. 
arranged aabaabba b. In his hands 
it becomes abb aba ab. 

100. Ills dowblet was of yoldin bruid riche. 305. 

Orig. biiird (so in 119), and the line 
should end with rich[t fine]. 309. 

103. QuMlkdidresplendas thesterne .1/JV/vv//-]. 341. 

There is no star ' Merceir ' (probably 
Mercury is meant), and the rimes re- 369. 
quire the line to end with M[tttuti/ne\. 

106. With -ether stanis quhilk was done [fair 

and fine]. 380. 

The line must end in -eir, and prob- 
ably deir was its last word. 395. 

119. With buird of gold bm-dmit. Gl. 'Bor- 397. 
donit, v. embroidered.' Orig. bonlorit. 

122. Of biggest bind as he thocht best to haid. 
Gl. 'Haid, brightness. (Ic. held) (Prof. 
Skeat).' Haid is = ' have it,' just as 
dude (Prol. 628 and iv. 121) is = ' do 
it,' and keml (iii. 611) = 'ken it.' 
This change of it to -d is well known 
in modern dialects, and is fairly com- 
mon in old Scottish writers ; to it 
rimes with guid in Douglas, iv. 38, 17. 
Of. ii. 209 below. 

124. All thorlour drawin with taffeteis of blew. 
(Orig. ta/ateis). Note (p. 163), " There 
seems to be a misprint. It should be 
read, ' All thort ourdrawin.' " Thur- 

tour is quite correct : </. WaUwe, iv. 402. 
540, ' a strenth thai maid With thuor- 
tour treis,' and Rmtf Goilyar, 567, ' in 435. 
ane thourtour way.' 484. 

1 25. y gait. Orig. ye gait. 

131. Next twa houn\d rache uith all e.^mlii nee. 
Gl. 'Rache, adj. quick.' Barhe is M.E. 
make, ' sleuth hound,' and the com- 
bination hound rache is impossible. 

135. gret. Orig. grcit. 

143. quhairnin was many piiM. Footnote, 
' Read pound'; it should rather be 
pund. The orig. has also quhairin. 

159. His dowlet. Gl. ' Dowlet, sb. doublet.' 
Orig. dowblet. 

167. He was most like to be anc PhilistMm . 

Note (p. 164), 'Philistine was a name 
applied in the university towns of 489-! 
Germany to those who were not of 
University education ' ; [etc]. But 
the orig. has Phmtiaiui 'physician.' 

It is the rile of comfort. Orig. rule. 
Grtierdoun (said he) of the I court nocht. 

So in orig. apparently, but read couet, 
' covet,' for court. 

[B\ot sen I the to hir cure vassaill. Orig. 
/ se the. 

f >ixt rule. Orig. frustrate. 
This line belongs to the preceding 

[All the] abide. Abate cannot stand 
for ' about ' ; the orig. has . . . uhire or 
. . . alitte. 

[My spi]reitis thay feir, read [My 

that dots remoue in the. Orig. renume. 
.thy vwlantit barmige. Gl. ' Barnage, sb. 
courage.' ' Barnage ' means 'youth.' 
kest his cap ahite. Gl. ' Ahite, adit, in 
a boisterous manner.' Orig. alite, 'a 

constante. Orig. Constance, riming with 
obseruance, etc. 
holdis. Orig. haldis. 
Scho feidis me with fude of Lameurie. 

Note (p. 166), "'food of sorcery.' 
See iii. 481, where it occurs as Lawn rie. 
The word means ' witchcraft, sorcery,' 
from Lat. lamiari.' " It is obvious that 
Lameurie and Lamenrw cannot both 
be right, yet the two forms appeal- 
together in the Glossary. In this 
passage it is doubtful whether the 
original copy has u or n, but the word 
is only a different spelling of Letim /<///, 
' amours.' The other passage referred 
to (iii. 481) reads ' Gif siclik lufe 
cummis of jour Lamenrie.' (An ex- 
planation of ' Lat. lamiari ' would have 
been welcome.) 

fenyirnes. Orig. fenyitnes (as sug- 
gested in the note on p. 166). 
Intoxitait. Orig. Intoxicate. 
For weill I wait it icas never his will 
Men for to cans Incline in that behave. 

Gl. ' Behaw, sb. behaviour, way of 
living.' Behaw is only an unusual 
form of behalf, ' respect ' ; cf. iv. 1 8, 
' In that behalf thay are Maisteris 
allone.' The change of -// ( = -Iv) to 
-w is found in a few other forms, as 
ilawe = O.E. dealf, ' delved ' (Wyntoun, 
i., 1517), also dowin = ' dolven ' (ib., 
1596, in the St Andrews MS.). In 
later dialect it appears in cam- = 
nilver, 'calves,' and townwut = tolfmont, 

90. schaw me quhat is the ca[is] 

That Salomon wordis said in rune. 

ca[is] should be ca[us] to rime with 
sncis; and the orig. has ' sic wordis.' 









hier. Orig. heir. 
Lai we sic by, ccms 
Orig. sic ly and ar. 
Sclandour. Orig. Sclander. 
Orig. drawis. 
aspect. Orig. respect. 
sickill and friuoloits. 
suggested on p. 169). 

we are Ignorant. 






Scandalous. Orig. Slanderous. 

A space ought to have been left after 

this line. 

nefurder. Orig. na. 

With ferce fell oun he is rich fair Inuyit. 

Orig. richt fair, but the whole line 

would be improved by reading ' With 

force felloun he is richt sair Inuyit.' 

[Woil, ire]full, angrie, and rigerous. 

There is only room for three letters 

at most at the beginning of the line, 

and the orig. has angrie crabit find. 

A line has fallen out after this ; the 

.stanza has only eight lines. 

/ soil yne schaw. Gl. ' Soil, v. shall.' 

Orig. sail. 

Joys I my life, and bruik rowmes in this 


Note (p. 173), 'If I enjoy life and 
have food in this land,' etc., followed 
by remarks on the legal terms ' soum- 
ing ' and ' rouming,' as if Venus were 
a cow ! The note ends with ' Rowmes 
in this passage = means of living.' 
Rowmis, in old Scottish writers, means 
' possessions in land,' ' estates,' and 
has no other sense here. 
but mair no doubt means ' without 
more delay,' as explained on p. 174, 
but this does not warrant the inser- 
tion in the Glossary of ' Mair, sli. 
Saluted him with gretingis condecent. 

Gl. ' Condecent, adj. humble ' ; it 
means ' suitable,' ' seemly." 
/ wald nocht ettir the co-pie to giffre. 

Note (p. 176), 'I would not grudge 
to give thee it free.' Gl. 'Wald 
nocht, would not grudge.' The note 
is nearly correct ; the explanation in 
the glossary is a hopeless guess. For 
euir the original has cuir, ' care ' ; 
cf. iv. 503, ' I wald not cuir to grant 
to jour peticion.' 
With countinance and facts virginal!. 

So orig., but the line is a syllable 
short, and probably factis should be 
read ; -s is wrongly printed for -is in 
other passages. The Gl. has 'Facts, 
sb. face,' taking facts as = fax, which 
again is wrongly explained in the note 
on i. 50. 


1 2. Quhilk is in Greik ane maisler mervelous, 
drawes. And dispute first in all nature of thing. 

Gl. 'Dispute, sb. arguer.' The word 
is not a sb., but a verb, = ' disputed,' 
(as the preterite ending being com- 

monly omitted in words of this form 
e.g., couet, prol. 249 ; mitigat, iv. 
223 ; crucial, ii. 205, etc. 
22. The fift to name and hecht Poete Pittacus. 
and spoils the metre, and is not in 
the orig. 
25. emmient. So orig., but eminent should 

be read. 

42. Of argument, probleme or qiieslioun 
That y wald haif distrust or recountit. 

' Distrust, v. solved, explained.' Orig. 
discust, as might be guessed. 
62. Qithair throw y can not chaiplndignati\e\. 
Read Indignati\pui(\, riming with 
narratioun, etc.; the other rime in the 
verse is -ice, so that Indignatie suits 
154. This line belongs to the following 


161. Quhairfoir I traist the quader was his 

The Gl. has correctly 'quader, worse,' 
but the note on the line runs, ' Where- 
fore I know that was his lot ' : the 
omission may have been accidental 
208. In euerie Camp the proudest man armait 
His pray was ay, and maid him euer ford. 
Note (p. 182), 'and made himself 
always forth i.e., held on his way.' 
' Forth ' in old Scottish is furth ; ford 
is='for it' (cf. i. 112, ante). The 
phrase is not uncommon, as ' To take 
him in thai maid thaim redy ford ' 
(Wallace, iv. 482), ' To leide the range 
on fute he maid him ford ' (ib., 589), 
' Ordourit the feild, and maid thame 
frelie ford ' (Stewart, Chron., 48634). 
238. Ane Nobill king and Campioun. 

So orig., but two syllables are want- 
ing, probably some adjective before 

373. Plane bellief lawcht on the it war iceill 

Note (p. 187), 'were an arrow at 
once to fall on you, it would be well 
set or fixed.' Gl. 'Flane, sb. arrow'; 
' Bellief, adv. quickly ' ; ' Lawcht, 
v. light, fall.' Bellii'f is not a possible 
form for belyve, nor lawcht for licht. The 
orig. seems to read as above, but the 
correction is easy viz., 'Plane bellie- 
flawcht,' 'Flayed belly - flaught ' (see 
the latter word in N. E. D.). 


376. Fm tap to to thy bodie wald be let. 
Orig. wald be bet ('beaten '). 

441. yt he on kiwis askit ane petitioun. 
Orig. on kneis. 

497. opordtie. Orig. opardtie. 

514. For quhilk scho askit twelf scoir of 
Phillippis sine. 

Gl. ' Sine, sb. sign, image (1) ' ; but 
sign in old Scottish could not have 
this form. The line refers to the 
price of the Sibylline books, and Phil- 
lippis is not sing, but plural = Latin 
Philippi gold coins of Philip, so that 
sine is simply the adverb 'then.' 
The passage quoted from Lactantius 
on p. 189 contains the words ' et pro 
eis trecentos PhilippfOS postulasse,' 
which might have suggested to Dr 
Gregor the correct explanation of this 

52G. This line belongs to the next verse. 

588. Te enter. Orig. To enter. 

601. the warld hid king. Orig. dvl. 

631. held vp his Imrt alone. Orig. abone, 
which is required both by sense and 
rimes (: done, sone, trone). 

642. for name ar effeird. Orig. nane (sug- 
gested in note, p. 190). 

651. Ta work. Orig. To (?). 

696. Ay gladderand grace all man for to 

Gl. " Gladderand, making smooth 
i.e., conferring upon men the power 
of ingratiating themselves (Prof. 
Skeat).' This explanation might 
suit the word 'gluther,' but the 
orig. has gadderand, 'gathering.' 

707. Ane thousand rimes. Orig. times. 

775. / schaw thair mind as thay bid and 

Gl. 'Entent, v. intend, mean.' Note 
(p. 192), 'I show their mind and in- 
tention.' The latter explanation is 
the correct one. 

793. his cumpanie. Footnote, 'read her.' 
Orig. Mr. 

798. or. Orig. and. hier. Orig. heir. 

862. / am ane vncouth Knicht 

Cum frafar landis, and erandis hespedall 
To Dame Festa. 

Gl. ' Hespeciall, adj. especial .' The 
form is a possible one, but the orig. 
reads hes special i.e., 'and have 
special errands.' 

897. Prefer Ihoms qveir. Footnote, ' read 
lohnis ' ; it should rather be ' Uionis,' 
a common spelling of the name. 

906. I did not knaw, this was yet om port. 
Orig. $e at. 

924. Sa weil besene. Gl. 'Besene, adj. 

worthy of being looked at.' Beseem 
means ' provided,' ' dressed,' etc. 

920. Keipand tharn-e an into perfite ardour. 

Gl. 'An, sb. one.' The line refers to 
lamps, and there is no reason why 
only one should be kept burning; 
besides, an in this sense could be 
only a misprint for tine. But the 
orig. has ai/, 'always.' 

930. Thet. Orig. That. 

931-2. Sine Ltnli<> hoip scho past in uit[h 

Till that scho come to Dame Festai[x 


Dr Gregor evidently supposed that 
the words he supplied could rime with 
Icneuolen/v, etc., and that they .made 
the lines of the proper length. The 
h'rst line might end in several ways ; 
the second ought certainly to have 
/ 'esfai[s presence}. 

960. norine. It need not have been left to 
the glossary to correct this to nocitte, 
' hurtful,' as the rime shows the end- 
ing to be -iiie. The orig. has apparently 

975. Qahair I gat not be.- ansueir detesline. 

The blunder here is very ingenious ; 
for be,: read bat, the o and t being 
broken letters in the orig. The 
curious form detesline occurs again 
in iii. 369, where it is printed de- 
testhie, but the rimes prove -inf. Dr 
Gregor gives both forms in the Gl., 
'Detestine, adj. definite.' 'Detestiue, 
adj. to be detested or avoided.' ('De- 
testable ' seems to be the meaning in 
both cases.) He also explains not as 
' naught, nothing,' which is impos- 
sible in old Scottish. 



The day become with all expedience. 

Footnote, ' Piead be come. ' Become is 
past tense of becum (M.E. bicumen), 'to 
happen, come about, etc.,' and occurs 
also in i. 7, ' Quhilk cauld become be 
nature of sessoun,' but is omitted in 
the glossary. The proposed altera- 
tion is absuid. 

.3. Great membris. So orig. apparently, 
but evidently crent, ' created,' should 
be read. 

36. And Dalida, and Deiiill. Orig. ane 

43. Brint Hercules was sa antenna. Orig. 
Hercules quhilk was. 

45. Sliehes. Gl. 'Sliches, sb. charms.' 







Orig. slichts, 'tricks,' but slichtis is 

required to make ten syllables in 

the line. 

Orpheus wixt the Queue Enridm'. 

The orig. has irife. and Erudiees, 

which make both sense and rime. 

Gif sum wald seik, or to despyre be 


Gl. ' Despyre, v. desire.' As might be 
expected, the orig. has denyre ; the to 
seems misplaced. 

dekep. Orig. dekey (as suggested in 

And in the self point is suspensiue. 
Orig. self that point. 
Pleis y the same at Mr to heir or se. 
Orig. athir, 'either.' 
Qnhilk ressoun salbe. correspondent. 

Note (p. 202), 'which shall be accord- 
ing to reason. Reason is governed by 
correspondent.' Orig. Quhilk to ressoun. 
vith milt vererund. Gl. 'Vererund, 
adj. terrible.' Orig. verecmul. 
detestiue. Read di'testiiw (riming with 
deuine) ; cf. ii. 975 above. 
ayin. Orig. ay in (as suggested in 
footnote and on p. 202). 
schaw. Orig. xchew, ' showed.' 

(as suggested 
Orig. For thay the 






saw. Orig. faw, 
in Gl.). 

Far tliay quhilk. 

Bot quhen y, pleis sic castis y, can 
Inuent ; 

Me to defraude with gyle, aiid circumuene. 
Gl. ' Castis, sb. cases, law-suits.' The 
word occurs again in iv. 307, caslis 
cautelous, explained in the note (p. 
211) as 'events full of trick.' Cast 
means 'device,' 'trick,' as in 'But 
ony cast of fraud or gyle ' (Wyntoun, 
ix. 1964), 'Scho will play jow a 
cast' (Douglas, i. 97, 28). 
In latin toung was most fandent. Orig. 
was ane most. 

Throw y>ur derail. Also 650, Malice, 
defait. This strange word is not ex- 
plained either in notes or glossary. 
As might be supposed, the orig. has 
desait, 'deceit.' 

extirminate. Orig. exterminate, 
all pur Hue. Orig. luif. 
Plenit ivith sport. Gl. 'Plenit, adj. 
filled.' Orig. I'lenist. 
That pane may be put to Forfallouris. 

Orig. may be input (i.e., ' imputed,' 
' assigned '). 

The Partie si/thit. Gl. 'Sythit, v. 
cited.' Syth or assyth is a well-known 



'give compensation to.' Cf. 'Bot 

that assythyd nocht the party' 

(Wyntoun, vii. 3006). 
788. Of the thre Kingis richt vicious war. 

Orig. Kingis quhilkis richt. 
835. Antlk storyis. Apparently so in orig., 

but antllc is an evident misprint for 

antik. Yet it appears in the glossary 

'Antlk, adj. antique, old.' 
867. uith corrupt minded thocht. Orig. 

minde and thocht. 


3. Ruth, Rfgrnn in dite. Gl. ' In-dite, at 
will, as one pleases.' In dite means 
' in diction,' ' in composition,' as in 
'That fyrst compyld in dyt the Latyne 
buk' (Wallace, v. 540). 

145. Venus beheld the bill geuin Thisbe. 
Orig. geuin be Thisbe. 

156. That my honour /aid in ony sort. 
honour may faiil. 

201. [ ]nan solist be gnt<'i<mx also. 
solist scho le : the line would 
with We man. 

298. $ic. So orig., but read yd. 

360. sic thrift awl thraw (corrected in note, 
p. 211). Orig. thrist. 

386. iirith many skorne and knax. As the 
riming words are tak, wraik, Ink, staik, 
it is plain that knak is required, and 
this is what the orig. has. But knax 
is duly entered in the Gl. 

418. sum new burd. Gl. 'Burd, sb. device, 
plan.' Burd has its usual meaning of 
'jest,' 'pleasantry.' 

419. This be quhilk was on the Assise Chan- 

Note (p. 211), ' she who was Chan- 
cellor of the Assise.' This is a re- 
markable instance of missing the 
obvious. In iii. 918 it is said that 
the ' Chancellar on syse ' was ' the 
May Tisbe.' How Dr Gregor con- 
strued This be quhilk is difficult to 
see ; the orig. has Thisbe. 
deiioir. Correctly explained as ' duty ' 
in the note, but rendered by ' be- 
comingness ' in the Gl. 
For him that was all bocht. Orig. vs 
448. to come. Orig. cum. 

So sweir. Orig. To sweir. 

/ can no more compell. Orig. no man 





589. I dub Knight. Orig. / dub the Knight ; 

legal term, 

'to satisfy,' 601. soir. Orig. sair. 


610. but bald. Orig. butbaid. 

608-22. The lines which Dr Gregor quotes 
from Barbour as a parallel to his text 
make one wonder whether he saw the 
real meaning of this passage. 

650. wospreparait. Orig. was. 

665. neuer ane bkni to me. Gl. ' Blent, )'. 
turned.' The word means ' looked,' 

684. In my contrair scho grew matilent. 

Gl. ' Matalent, */>. rage ; adj. angry, 
iv. 684.' There is no adj. of this 
form, and the orig. has grew in mati- 
hnt, which also occurs in ii. 332. 

718. gide nicht now feldifair. Gl. 'Feldi- 
fair, a-field I fare, I go away ' ! Feldi- 

fair is ' fieldfare,' here used as a term 
of scorn ; the meaning ought to have 
been plain to any one who had read 
Chaucer. ('The throstel olde ; the 
frosty feldef'are.' Parl. of Foules, 364. 
'And singe, Go, farewel feldefare.' 
Eom. Roae, 5510. The harm is doon, 
and farewel feldefare. Troil, iii. 861.) 

725. their. Orig. thair. 

727. come. Orig. cum. 

741. with all requeist. Gl. ' Requeist, adj. 
requisite, necessary.' The word is 
simply ' request.' 

744. fory't. Orig. fargit, ' forged,' ' con- 



THERE is in every literature a broad stream, 
undisturbed by the cross-currents of modern 
invention ; and they who steer their craft 
down this imperial tideway avoid the shoals 
of misappreciation and despair. Their skill, 
half conscious of itself, is seldom exercised 
by the shallows and sandbanks which per- 
plex their more ambitious, less successful 
contemporaries. On either hand the shore 
is far away, and he who avoids the swirling 
eddies of the tortuous backwater commonly 
reaches home with sails full-set and favour- 
ing breeze. 

It is by this larger stream of tradition 
that the work of Alphonse Daudet has 
travelled to the admiration of the world. 
Though the creator of Tartarin lived his life 
in a generation curious of new forms and avid 
of experiment, though his spirit felt the pre- 
vailing curiosity, he took no part in modern 
movements, and wrote his stories in a per- 
fect detachment from the schools which were 
his constant interest. Heresies grew into 
dogmas, dogmas declined into outworn 
creeds ; but Alphonse Daudet only listened 
impartially to the far-off voice of the siren, 
and followed his road with resolution and 
contentment. It is idle, therefore, to find a 
place for him in any of the schools. He is 
not a psychologist, since his sense of pictur- 
esqueness always overcame his interest in 
character, and he would endow a hero with 
a set of new qualities, if thereby he might 
ensure a brilliant effect. He is not a realist, 
since, although he wrote with his eye upon 
life, he transfigured what he saw to suit his 
purpose. He even escaped the potent in- 
fluence of his friends, and remained in- 
different to the laboured phrase of Flaubert 

as to Goncourt's sensitive delicacy. While 
Flaubert spent days of anxious thought in 
the architecture of a phrase, and well-nigh 
lost his life in the hopeless struggle for per- 
fection, Daudet's turbid imagination runs riot 
in many-coloured epithets, and suggests by 
its swiftness that, like Shakespeare, he never 
blotted a line. Nor did he understand that 
desire of self -suppression, that ambition of 
impersonal artistry which excluded the 
author of Mad time Bovary from his work. 
On the contrary, he is ever anxious to 
buttonhole his reader, to take him into a 
special confidence, and to discuss with him 
the triumphs and failures of his favourite 
characters. So intimately, indeed, does he 
reveal himself in his works, that he tempts 
you to construct a biography from his novels, 
and though you may be more often than not 
upon a false trail, you cannot read Xmim 
Rownestan, or even Sapho, without getting 
some insight into the author's life and 
character. Again, he never shared Edmund 
de Goncourt's anxiety to invent a new litera- 
ture. Writing from the fulness of a well- 
stocked brain, he let the phrase take care of 
itself. He was romantic, of course, but even 
this statement demands qualification ; since 
his style and purpose were as remote from 
the Romanticism of 1830 as from the 
Naturalism of to-day. He never belonged 
to the school of the red-waistcoat ; his 
machinery was simple, and he knew nothing 
of stage-trappings or ragged costumes. In 
brief, he was himself, and far nearer to Le 
Sage than to Zola. 

A critic once said, and Zola has lately 
repeated the criticism, that Daudet was 
"hypnotised by reality." He could no 


more keep what he had seen from his 
works than he could exclude himself. But 
this does not imply the charge of realism. 
He observed everything because he could not 
help it. After the fashion of near-sighted 
people, he was quick to seize a general 
impression and resolute to retain it. Nothing 
came amiss to his notebook, and he regis- 
tered whatever struck his vision the sit 
of a coat, the colour of a necktie, the pitch 
of a voice. Yet he does not seem to have 
gathered facts for the mere advertisement 
of his pedantry. His was not the practice 
of the realists ; he did not prepare himself 
for the composition of a book by an elabo- 
rate process of cramming. He did no more 
than gather suggestions from the memory 
of the past. The sights he had seen, the 
sounds he had heard contributed to a 
general effect, but they were employed at 
haphazard, and not with a fixed design. 
Thus it is that his books are romans a clef, 
almost without his knowing it. The habit 
of reminiscence is inconquerable, and in his 
own despite he is found putting real men and 
real women into his pages, so little changed 
from their originals that recognition is inevit- 
able. Numa Rouimskm may or may not be a 
travesty of Gambetta, but les Hois en Exil 
is certainly an echo of the truth, and it 
is difficult to believe that le Nabab has not 
its foundations upon the rock of reality. 
If the Due de Mora be not the Due de 
Morny, the two dukes are so manifestly 
alike as to be indistinguishable, and that 
Alphonse Daudet should have denied the 
resemblance only proves how strong was the 
hypnotism. But it is monstrous to condemn 
a novelist for plucking the fruit of experience, 
and each roman a clef must be judged upon 
its merits. The master may trespass upon 
ground forbidden to the amateur; and as 
plagiarism is justified by success, so the 
great are free, if they will, to draw from 
the life. No one is so rash as to denounce 
Virgil, and Shakespeare, and Moliere as 
thieves, and it is no blot upon the fame of 
Dickens that he painted Skimpole. Beyond 
this, it is vain to dogmatise, and le Nabab 
must be judged on other than historic 

None the less it is true that many of 
Alphonse Daudet's novels are but his re- 
miniscences in another shape, and there 
is no lack of material for comparison. 
Le Petit Chose being an imaginative auto- 
biography, it is not strange that the cele- 
brated journey to Paris should have been 
taken straight from the book of experience. 
It was a story that Daudet was never tired 

of telling, and the Arrivee a Paris is an 
echo with variations of the earlier romance. 
Numa Boumestan, on the other hand, is not 
autobiographical ; yet Valmajour, on whose 
adventures the tragedy turns, comes from the 
notebook, being, in fact, none other than one 
Buisson, a tambourine-player, whom Mistral 
had sent to Paris on the hunt for fame and 
fortune. The little sketch, Mm Tam- 
bourinaire is Numa Eoumestan in the making, 
and a comparison of the two is enough to 
show how closely Daudet obeyed the voice 
of memory. The very phrase of Buisson is 
the phrase of Valmajour : " Ce m'est v^nu 
de nuit, une fois que z'etais assis sous un 
olivier en ecoutant 9anter un rossignou ; " 
in each case you have the failure in the 
theatre, the collapse at the cafe clmntant, 
and the narrow-minded, hopeful determina- 
tion to get a signature upon the stamped 
paper. That is to say, when Daudet sat 
him down to write Numa Rrnimestan he 
was hypnotised by the reality of Buisson. 
But he did not set out to study Buisson, 
as would the Naturalists, that he might pack 
him, living or dead, into a book. He merely 
profited by experience; and finding Buisson 
ready to his hand, he used him without the 
alteration of a trait to complicate the career 
of Numa Roumestan. 

He never forgot, he never confused the 
outward aspects of men and things. If 
he did not analyse his personages, he 
knew (and he made his readers know) 
precisely what they looked like. For him 
everything was visible and realised. Turn 
to what book you will, choose the first 
person that comes, and if the character 
be either vague or a bundle of attributes, 
the physical portrait is firmly and lucidly 
drawn. Take, for instance, the sketch of 
Bompard, Roumestan's shadow and para- 
site, born in the same street as the great 
man, and established in the family like 
a piece of furniture : " ce maigre per- 
sonnage a tete de palikare, au grand nez 
d'aigle, aux yeux en billes d agate dans une 
peau gaufree, saf ranee, un cuir de Cordoue 
taillade de ces rides speciales aux grimes, 
aux pitres, a tous les visages forces par des 
contorsions contumelies." There is the 
picture of a man you would recognise in 
the street, though you might not understand 
his foolish arrogance and his facility of 
falsehood. Again, here is the old mother 
Pilar, a horrible portrait .drawn in three 
lines : " Vraie macaque a peau deteinte et 
rapeuse, d'une malice feroce sur des traits 
grima9ants, coiffee en ganjon, les cheveux 
gris au ras de 1'oreille, et sur sa robe de 


vieux satin noir tin grand col bleu de maltre- 
timonier." There is a woman whom the author 
has seen, and whose features lie has confided 
to his notebook, while Wilkie Cob "toute 
mince, avec une taille jeunette qui faisait plus 
hideuse sa t6te decharnee de clown malade sous 
une criniere d'etoupes jaunes " is a worthy 
pendant. But on every page you get the 
impression of the thing seen and understood. 
Now it is the Marais, with its ancient hotels 
and its busy factories, its narrow stairways, 
and its smoke-grimed chimneys, that he 
sketches for your delight ; now it is the 
quay at Marseilles, with its burning sun 
and mineral-blue sky, where all objects are 
mirrored and dancing, and where the cries 
of caged birds mingle with the tinkling 
of harps. And in the briefest of his descrip- 
tions there is this abounding life and bustle, 
this sense of movement and of joy ; he even 
imparts to his landscapes something of his 
own sentiment ; transformed by his observa- 
tion, Paris becomes the fairyland of his early 
hopes, while Ville d'Avray and Savigny as- 
sume a boyish enchantment. His Paris, in 
truth, is less actual than romantic ; and thus 
he has failed where Balzac achieved his most 
conspicuous triumph. It is impossible to 
cross the garden of the Luxembourg without 
thinking of Lousteau and Rubempre. There 
are many streets whose interest depends en- 
tirely upon Balzac's invention. How many 
worshippers have sought the poor hotel 
where Rastignac first found Vautrin and 
inspiration ? The house is marked with 
a tablet where Chateaubriand died, and 
it is lack of habit, not lack of faith, 
which prevents us from doing a similar 
honour to the walls which once sheltered 
Madame Marneffe, or Baron Hulot, or 
Madame de Nucingen. Balzac, indeed, 
re-created Paris in making it the home of 
his great men and his beautiful women. 
But we do not think of Fanny Legrand 
as we cross the Rue d'Amsterdam, and the 
Marais is not in our imagination the home 
of the Rislers and the Fromonts. No, for 
Daudet, and for us when we read him, Paris 
is the city which the young poet set out 
from Lyons to conquer, and which he first 
saw in the grey light of dawn. His person- 
ages had there no abiding habitation ; they 
are still too shadowy to oust the phantoms 
of Balzac or the real heroes of the past. 

Indeed, though Daudet loved Paris, and 
sang many a paean in her honour, his true 
sympathy and understanding were in the 
South. " The Latins once more have con- 
quered the Gauls "this might have stood for 
the motto of all his books. The Southerner 

in Paris, the Parisian ] in the South, were for 
him studies of perennial interest. The South 
with its blinding sun, its ceaseless bustle, its 
blighting mistral, was always his real home, 
while the forty years of Paris did not blunt 
his loyalty. " They ask me if I love and 
regret Provence," he said one day : " I am dy- 
ing for it." He was, in fact, the Southerner 
hypnotised by Paris, and in the depth of 
his feeling he cared as little for Paris as for 
reality. He was a Provencal, spinning the 
gossamer web of fancy in pure forgetfulness 
of the actual life that buzzed round him in 
the Rue de Bellechasse. It was in such 
scenes as the arena of Aps-en-Provence that 
he best showed his talent the arena, with 
its white marble, and sky of vaporised silver, 
with its swirling dust and mad farandole, 
with its fife and tambourine, and its abound- 
ing gaiety. The crazy cry of the farandole 
is irresistible. " The head of the dance 
swayed between the vaulted arches of the 
first storey, while the tambourine-player 
and the last revellers were still footing it 
in the circus. As the dance progressed, 
the line was increased by all those whom 
the rhythm swept by force into the train. 
What Provencal could be deaf to the magic 
flute of Valmajour ? Carried away by the 
reverberations of the tambourine, the crowd 
heard it at once on every storey, passing the 
gratings and the air-holes, and even dominat- 
ing the noisy exclamations. And the faran- 
dole climbed, climbed, until it reached the 
upper galleries, still edged by the tawny light 
of the sun." No wonder the danciog figures 
silhouetted against the sky in the vibrating 
heat of a July afternoon excited the admira- 
tion of the Northern soul, and it is with 
such a background that Numa Roumestan, 
the South in person, makes his first appear- 
ance. But Daudet, for all his admiration of 
his own country, does not forget its faults. 
He pictures it as a land where words lose 
their meaning in sanguine exaggeration ; 
(truth, says he, depends upon latitude) ; 
where promises are lightly made and more 
lightly broken ; where thought does not 
precede, but only follows the spoken 
word ; where gaiety springs from a turbu- 
lent familiarity, a petulant verbosity, which 
are always in conflict with the hard, thrifty, 
conventional habit of every-day. Yet these 
same Provencals, despite their variant pas- 
sions and conflicting temper, are true classics 
at heart. They speak an idiom, whose 
Latinity has resisted all change ; the blue 
and white of their arenas would not have 
surprised the Athenians who listened to 
Sophocles ; and so strong is the ancient 


tincture in their blood, that once in Paris, 
they must cross the river to delight in the 
ancient convention of the Theatre Francais. 
Tims Daudet is reticent neither in praise nor 
reproach. He acknowledges his compatriots' 
snobbery with a genial shrug. The man of 
the South, he says in effect, loses sight of the 
woman in her coat-of-arms. But it is this 
admiration of Provence which best explains 
the novelist's talent and temperament. Not 
only is Numa forcible, irresistible ; even 
Tartarin, that amazing ' Quixote crossed by 
Sancho Panza," who one moment demands 
his sword and buckler, and the next clamours 
for his woollen stockings, is for his creator 
a figure of sympathy. " Ah ! the South is 
ascending, ascending ! Paris is ours ! Our 
hand is upon everything ! Play your part, 
gentlemen ! For the second time the Latins 
have conquered Gaul ! " That cry of exalted 
triumph is the sincerest note of Daudet's 

The novels of Daudet, then, are memorable 
rather for their material than for their shape. 
The writer cared little how he constructed 
a story, so long as its action was rapid and 
adventurous. His habit was to sketch a 
picturesque scene in the first chapter, to 
introduce his characters, and then to hark 
back to their previous history. Thus he 
opens Numa and Sappho and Frommd Jeune, 
and I know not what other. The method 
is dangerous, because it is apt to cut the 
thread of interest at the very beginning. 
But Daudet seldom cared to hold tight the 
interest of his romance. Few of his books 
are novels in the orthodox sense ; that is to 
say, he would rather tell a rambling story 
than illustrate a philosophic theory by a 
careful design ; his method, in brief, was 
anecdotic ; he ambled backwards or forwards 
as pleased his fancy, and cared little what 
happened, so long as he ensured the plea- 
sure of his reader. Goncourt's ambition 
to squeeze the very pressure of life upon 
paper never troubled him, and his way- 
ward construction carries you as far from 
reality as his trick of romantic observa- 
tion. So, also, he was little zealous in the 
creation of character. He preferred caii- 
catures to portraits, types to individuals. 
Now and again he presents a reasoned, 
consistent personage, and then he makes 
you regret his apprenticeship to Gil Bins. 
Sapho, for instance, lives a real woman in a 
real atmosphere. Never once does she do 
violence to the law of her being. Her 
desperate devotion springs from her past of 
easy love and outworn passion, and it is with 
a human hopelessness that she confesses at 

last the necessity of rupture. " I have loved 
too much," she writes ; " I am broken ; at 
present I want to be loved in my turn, to be 
pampered, to be admired, to be caressed." 
And so she returned to her forger, who would 
be faithful always, who would give more 
than he received, and who never would see 
her wrinkles nor her grey hairs. Here you 
get the logical development of a logical char- 
acter, but for the most part Alphonse Daudet's 
triumphs are won in the realm of caricature. 
Delobelle, for instance, the incomparable 
ailotin, is an eternal type. He carries on his 
back all the faults of all his brethren. He 
is lazy, arrogant, pleasure-loving. Though 
he scorns the provit ces, and is scorned by 
Paris, yet will he not renounce the theatre 
and his art. So he marches every day the 
length of the Boulevard from the Chateau 
d'Eau to the Madeleine, twirling his cane, 
and exacting admiration by his irreproach- 
able attire. His wife and child may work 
their fingers to the bone, but he will remain 
faithful to his theatre and his indolence. 
Though he is never given an opportunity to 
act upon the stage, he does not cease to act 
away from it, and his attitudes are the 
admiration of all the friends with whom he 
sips his vermouth or gulps his bock. He rises 
to the supreme occasion of his daughter's 
death as only the cuMin can rise. He reads 
the announcement in an obscure sheet that 
" M. Delobelle, formerly leading actor of 
the theatres of Metz and Alen5on, has had 
the misfortune to lose his daughter," with 
unalloyed satisfaction, but the real cry from 
the heart comes after the funeral, when, his 
voice choked by emotion, he murmurs : 
" There were two private carriages." Thus 
the cabotin will mouth and whimper till the 
end of time, and in Delobelle we have the 
undying type pushed to the very edge of 

So, too, Amaury d'Argenton, the egregious 
poet of Jack, is a travesty of life. Yet he 
is the rate typified, and stands for his class. 
No quality is wanting to the perfect charlatan. 
His manners are grandiose, as his verses 
are contemptible ; yet his false magnificence 
is enough to inspire a genuine passion in the 
poor heart of Ida de Barancy, who, even 
when she ceases to love the man, still reveres 
the poet. Of course the literary salon of M. 
de Moronval, and the Revue de Races futures, 
are the merest extravagancy, but d'Argenton's 
bearing is always admirable, and there are 
still a few ounces of blood in his veins. The 
venomous hate of success in others, the 
patent incapacity to achieve anything him- 
self, the fatuous acceptation of worship, 


these are the stock qualities of the charlatan, 
and in d'Argenton you find them properly 
combined. But now and again Daudet dis- 
appoints all your theories, and draws the 
character of a man, unburdened with the 
virtues and vices of all his class. M. de 
Monpavon, for instance, is a sensitively- 
realised, firmly-drawn individual, nearer to 
Twemlow than to Sir Mulberry Hawk, and 
as he lived his own life, so he marched to 
his death with a gait which was his and his 

Though Alphonse Daudet was little touched 
by the influences of his time, there is one 
master, his debt to whom is evident. If he 
was not an imitator of Dickens, he had so keen 
a sympathy with the author of David Copper- 
field, that he has not been called the French 
Dickens without reason, and this sympathy 
is notable less in Le Petit Clwse, which chal- 
lenges comparison, than in such composts of 
irony and pathos as Jack and le Nabab. The 
family Joyeuse might have walked straight 
from the page of Dickens, while M. de 
Moronval is a cultured cousin of Mr Squeers. 
Daudet, it is true, replaces the full-blooded 
humour of Dickens by a gentler irony, but 
f-ach writer is apt to pack more into his 
sentiment than it will carry, and the pathos 
of each is too often an affair of life rather 
than of literature. And this brings us to the 
most serious of Daudet's limitations : at 
times he harrows his reader, with no better 
reason than the desire of harrowing. The 
death of Jack is so obviously purposed and 
foreordained, that it cannot squeeze out a 
tear, and the tragedy of Desiree Delobelle 
leaves you unmoved. Again, the novelist's 
style, like his construction, or its lack, 
savours of the South : it is abundant, swift, 
coloured. He writes with a vast torrent of 
words, which carries you along without 
thought or circumspection. That his French 
was pure and polished, not even the en- 
thusiast will contend. He used whatever 
words came to his pen, and when at a 
loss he did not scruple to invent fresh 
symbols, or to borrow from the copious 
language of Provence. It was not for him 
to forge the burnished phrase, or to mould 
his periods in polished bronze. He wrote as 
he talked, with fire, fancy, and imagination, 
proving himself once more a true meridional. 
' You have troubled me,' he once said to 
Goncourt, 'you and Flaubert, and my wife. 

I have no style, that is certain. No one born 
beyond the Loire can write French prose. 

I 1 What am 1 1 An imaginator . . . and 
without you I never should have been 
bothered by this " chienne de langue." ' The 

confession is too frank, and may be was not 
meant for print, but none the less it holds 
a grain of truth. 

Alphonse Daudet's life was as romantic as 
his work, and he was of that temperament 
which, at all hazards, twists experience into 
romance. Many a poor boy, no doubt, sets 
out every year for the siege of Paris with no 
better arms than a headful of verses, but how 
few storm the summit of literary fame and 
material prosperity ! Yet Daudet was no 
more than fifteen when he left Lyons for the 
capital with unstockinged feet and an empty 
pocket. If his verses brought him no money 
they brought him recognition, and he had 
won some success in journalism and on the 
stage at an age when most boys are still at 
college. Moreover, he was fortunate enough 
to attract the notice of the court, and a 
secretaryship to the Due de Morny put him 
beyond the reach of anxiety. His talent for 
novel-writing developed later, and it was not 
until 1868 that he won his first triumph 
with Le Petit Clwse. Thereafter his works 
followed in rapid succession. By 1872 he 
had created Tartarin, and six years later he 
made himself in le Nabab the historian of the 
Second Empire. And all the while he was 
beset with a fever for work and for life. He 
had an insatiable interest in new books, new 
countries, and new friendships. Until the 
end he retained a hungry curiosity, which 
would be remarkable in a child, and which 
not even years of illness could appease. In 
fact he remained a child always, as he pro- 
phesied in Le Petit Chose, the gift of youth- 
fulness was never taken from him. His 
character, however, is revealed to us all. 
The one man of his century who found a 
Boswell, he will be known to future genera- 
tions as intimately as his books. For the 
Journal of Edmond de Goncourt is in one 
of its aspects a prolonged and accurate 
interview with Alphonse Daudet. When 
M. de Goncourt resolved to commit to his 
note-book all that he heard and all that he 
saw, he undertook a labour of infinite self- 
sacrifice. He was forced to violate his vows 
of scrupulous, unchanging truth, since hear- 
say was sufficient to justify an entry in 
his famous Journal, and it seems to have be- 
come a common sport to test the master's 
credulity. So he believed that the bird-cages 
of Glasgow were always shrouded on Sunday, 
lest the birds should sing. So he believed 
that the inhabitants of the Behring Straits 
read the pages of Germinie Lacerteux by a 
blubber candle. Moreover, he was compelled 
to represent himself as a gossip, hungry for 
praise and candid in the record of his friends' 


approval. But that is the fate of biographers 
to appear ridiculous to a superficial ob- 
server. Not even Boswell, the king of them 
all, escaped the manifest reproach, and he 
has been denounced by many recalcitrant 
generations as a drunken parasite, who knew 
not what he was doing. But being a man of 
genius he knew perfectly well. He had set 
out to paint the portrait of his illustrious 
friend, and he cared not how brutally he 
sacrificed his own character and his own 
vanity by the way. The result is that the 
world is the richer by a perfect masterpiece, 
and the world (or a part of it) has proved 
its ingratitude by laughing at the artist. 
Edmond de Goncourt's fate resembles, at a 
distance, Boswell's own. His purpose was 
to portray not one man but a generation, 
and if in the performance he incurs ridicule 
he has none the less placed us under an in- 
calculable debt. But there is no question 
that the supreme achievement of the book is 
the picture of Daudet. In a sense, Goncourt's 
Journal is the masterpiece of his friend. Be- 
fore Daudet came upon the scene, the record 
is grave, pompous, and sometimes dull. But 
no sooner did Goncourt meet the author of 
le Nubnb than he became the protagonist in 
the drama, and henceforth it is round Al- 
phonse Daudet that the other actors play 
their parts. Wherever it is, in Paris or at 
Champrosay, Daudet talks and talks and 
talks, as only a southerner of energy and 
spirit can talk. Now it is literature that 
interests him, now the theatre; now he is 
persuaded to unfold his reminiscences, to tell 

stories of the Paris before the war, of Villem- 
essant and Barbey d'Aurevilly, of Gambetta 
young and the Due de Morny old. Or he 
will hasten back to his still earlier youth, and 
cap M. Zola's stories of poverty and privation. 
But he is always alert, vivid, and in the right 
key. If he wrote like a mtisewr, he talked 
like a man of letters, and the world is fortun- 
ate, indeed, to have preserved by the patient 
pen of M. de Goncourt several volumes of his 
incomparable conversation. In the Journal, 
too, you may note Daudet's undaunted cheer- 
fulness despite the malady which oppressed 
him for many years. You may note his cease- 
less interest in his own life and the life of 
others. Activity being for him but an eager 
reminiscence, he could still discover and dis- 
cuss the activities of happier men, he could 
still remember the restlessness of his own 
youth. In the years before the war, he told 
his interviewer, "he did nothing, he only had 
a desire to live, to live actively, violently, 
clamorously, a desire to sing, to make music, 
to course through the woods with a bottle of 
wine in his head." At that time, he declares, 
he had no literary ambition, but only the 
instinct to record what he saw and felt. 
After the war he set himself to work, and 
with work was born ambition ; and now at 
last the ambition is satisfied by a shelf- 
full of novels. But we are left with a regret 
for the dimmed eye and the silent tongue. 
The best of Alphonse Daudet was still 
himself, for he was less an artist than a 



THK following homiletic fragments occur on 
a single piece of vellum used by a sixteenth 
century binder for the guard of a MS. Latin 
bible of ordinary fourteenth century type, 
now in the library of Christ Church, 
Oxford, where I first copied them some years 
ago. The hand is a good clear rather small 
book hand apparently of the later thirteenth 
century, and the writing is on pages of 
double columns of fifty-one lines each thus 
arranged : 

Back coll. 7 + 8 
Front coll. 3 + 4 

coll. 1 + 2. 
coll. 5 + 6. 

What is left of coll. 2 and 3 is slight, as 
all but a bit at the top is pared away, and 
c/>ll. 1 and 4 have suffered badly also; the 

other coll. are fairly well preserved, in spite 
of the leaf having been pasted down on one 
side to the bare boards of the binding by the 
miserable workman into whose hands the 
French MS. had fallen. There is a scribble, 
like ' hujus 8,' between coll. 4 and 5 near the 

The first treatise or discourse to the 
reader ends on column 7, where the second 
on the Paternoster begins and goes on as 
far as our fragment takes us. If continued on 
the scale on which it begins, it would be of 
some length. I have not traced these pious 
and hortatory pieces, but simply leave them 
to scholars better skilled than I am in the 
medieval, devotional vernacular literature of 
France and England in the thirteenth and 


fourteenth centuries, who will no doubt 
readily identify them. F. Y. P. 

auri, q' li a f et le chief maueis & li a f et briser sa j 'une 

q'eat g'nt pechie i & se il se saprist plui seul & puet che 

loir. Mes ilveut auoir compaignonsq auxi facet come 

li. li queus il tret de bien fere et meine auuec soi 

en en 

5 fer. Car il lour fist briser lour junes & faire les 
glot oni 

es. (lent il se gardissent i se il ne f ussent les mauueis 

conipaipries. Carcelbeueuretcil lecheurentre les_au 

tres maus quil font. Vn pechie q'est pprement 

au diable. q a nt il retraient de bien fere. II client 

10 ne puent juner. mes il mentent Car p . . . amaa 

dieu lour a ceo f et dire, car se il amassent taut la v 

raie gloire du eel '. come il font la vraie gloire du 

de. auxi come il junent p lour besoignes terns [ 1 

taut q'a nuit '. auxi junassent il bien in se [ 
15 p dieu ! si tant lamassent. Mes il son t uome li] 

enfant q'veut toute jors auoir le [ 

dois sauoir q auxi come len [fes 

magier ! auxi pecche len [ 

ces genz q' tant aimen [t et gaster 

20 lo tens en oiseuses [poles 

pechient en mlt d [ 

gastent le tens & 1 [ 

nuit io re i & de io r m [ 

le p phete. Car le [ 
25 dieu loier & p'er [ 

Veroit sener ! dor [ 

& son suite oir '. [ 

tens. & la nuit & l[e ior 

fet mlt de maus [ 
30 & dit om mlt d[e 

chetif ' son to [ 

ce dieu . & gra . . [ 

branche est de mag [ 

mesure. Cist [ 
35 come fet le glou[s 

de garder su [ 

te. Car mlt [ 

mlt des genz gUz [ 

voult ap'ndre oil d [ 
40 mlt demani [ 

selonc la ch [ 

lone lo" phisis [iens 

trs selonc ce q le |_ 

pent & selfonc ceo q 
45 char ! si com [ 

Car il font de [ 

reson [ 

nu san [ 

voelent tern [ 
50 ne prient ten [ 
q' sont martir) s 

COLUMN - 2. 

tarn [ 
mesure [ 
Et une a [ 
Cist ne tient [ 
i net ont tel [ 
& coman [d 
bourse [ 

Tlie rest cut away. 


en. & a 
p list om a 
ceoq'gnt li ang 
epreme Sa 
]nt et 
Tlie rest cut auay. 


sostener ne porter. Q"nt il en va ! il voit & oit & 
pie bien & entent. q'nt il reuient il a tut ces pdu 
come eel q'na ne sons ne raison. ne memoire. Tiex 
sont les miracles q li diables fet. Et queux lescons 
5 i list il ! toute ordure . oni aprent gloutonie. leche 
rie . jurer . piurer . mentir . mesdire . renoire dieu 
mescontrer . barattez & trop dautres maneres de 
pechier. La sourdent les tencons. les mellees. 
les homicides. La aprent om a embler & a pendre 
10 [L]a tau'ne est vnne fosse a larons. & forteresceau 
[dijable p guerroier dieu & ses sainz. Et cil q les ta 
[uernes] soustienet ! sont ptenieres de touz les 

[q' sont fejtez en lour tau'ne. Et certes si om i 

disoit ou 

[fesoit t]ant de honte a lour pere ou a lour mere 
15 [terriens] tons come home i fet a lour pere du 
[ceil & ason fils]et aus sainz de padis . mlt seu 
[rement autre garde & aut] re conseil mettroient q'l 

ne f ot 

i fin de fere tiex maus cjeser. 
26 letters, new paragraph ] e '. il esteut quil sache 

27 letters 
27 letters 

. 27 letters 

etui of parayrapli, 
nor paragraph 

ele eta seit & dout 
C ar il auient q la pole 

male '. k si rauient 

mauueis queer. & 
] pechie g'nt p a ce<"j. 

1 le & polie. Ore dois 
bre q' dieu maudit 
ieus fors feuille'. 
ont entendues po 
de nombrier toll 
't est ceo fortes cho 
ngne naissent 
ux nomer. Oiseuses 
m! Mensonges 
: Rebeliuns 

poles oiseuses 

vit il ne ptienft 

ens dont il auerut 

ens quil pussent fe- 
40 re de quoer & 

le pot ! & les 
pole s oiseuses i 

s & damagen 

voedent de 

come celes duet 

donat dieu' 


il couet*r 

rt come, de 
50 c iel. En ces o. 

d .... 1 


& loutrageuse charite dieu le pere dont il no" a 
ma tant qui p son mauueis serf 8 reehatier '. il 
dona son tresbon fils. & liuera a mort & a t n ment 
De ceste racine p le li p phetes & dit. que une 
5 v'ge istreit de la racine Jesse. Cist mot vaut 
autant come une brasier dam". Lifus est 
sa pHieuse char, li cuers di ceste arbre fu 
sa sainte ame en qui estoit la ptieuse moe 
le de la sapience dieu. La corce fusa bele con 

10 u'sacion p dehors. La gomme decest arbre & 
les larmes'. furent, iiii. tres pretieuses choses. 
& de trop g'nt v 'tu que de ses p'tieuses membres 
degouterent. Ce furent ewes & lermes & sueur 
& sane. Les foilles furent ses saintes poles 

15 qui gerissoient de toutes maladies. Les flours 
ses saintes pensees qui toutes furent beles 
& hon[e] stes & portant fruit. Et li fruit furent 
les. xii. apostres qui tut le monde repessoient 
& norissoient p lo doctrine & p lor example ouse' 

20 bones oueres & ses benefices. Les branches de 
eest arbre en un sen : sont tut li elit que onques 
furent & qui sont. & qui serrpnt. Car si com il 
dit a ses apostres. Jeo sui dit il la vigne ! & vo s 
estes les branches. En un autre sen i les bran 



25 ches furent les beles v'tus & les glorieuses ex 
amples quil monstra p ouere '. & enseigna par 
bouche. Ce furent les v'tus p fetes & pleynes 
de v'frai] beneurte quil monstr" a ses p'ues amis 
ce fu [li] xii. apostres quil mena en la haute 

30 montame pueemet. Ileuc sasist si com dit le e 
wangile '. s. si deciple ent lui. Lors si ouri sa 
bouehe i & son tresor quil auoit dedenz son cuer 
repont i & lo dit einsi. Benure sont le poure 
desperit ! car le regnes du ciel est lour. Benne 

35 sont li deboneire i car il serront seign" de la t e 
re. Beneure sait oil qui ci plurent '. car il a 
ueront la confort de deux. Benue sont oil qui 
ont fauir & soif' de justice i car il serront sa 
oulet. Bene sont le misericort '. car il trouerot 

40 misericorde. Ben'e sont li net di cuer '. caril 
v'ront dieu aptement. Bon e re sont li pesible '. 
caril serront apele li fils dieu. Ces sont les 
.vii. branches de larbre de vie. du fils dieu 
Ihucrist. En lombre de eel arbre se doit bon 

45 cuer ombroier. & regarder ces beles bran 

ehes [i] qui portent la vie p durable. En ces .vii. 
poles est enclose toute hautesce & toute pfec 
cion de g"ce & 'de v'tu '. & de v'raie beneur 'te 
tant com ome peut auoir en ce siecle : & a 

50 uoir .... endre en lautre. Ces sont les vii. 
li viu salemon e 


li saint! tote la sume de la nouele loi. q' est 
la loi dam r & de douceur. Ele est bien dite no 
uele ! car ele ne peut enueiller com fist la 
veille loi aus juis. Et p' ceoij ele fet lame 
en veille p pechie : rajouenir et novele deue 
5 nir Ele est nouele v'raiement i & desguisee 
des autres lois. Loi si est dite p ceoij ele lie. 
mes les autres lient '. & ceste deslie. Les autr 
chargent : ceste descharge. Les autres menacet 

10 ceste pmet. Es autres a plet ! et ceste pes 
Es autr 8 a p iur ". a. ceste am' Es autres ma 
leicon i en ceste beneicon. Dont ele est tote 
pleine de beneurte. & p*ceo sont beneure cil q' 
la tenent dit salemon. Car cil q' la ! il a gai 

15 gne larbre de vie. Dont ces .vii. choses q' diex 
ditj cil sont apele beneurtez. Car eles font 
home beneurez en ce siecle si com home peut 
estre en ceste vie '. et plus benur' en lautr". Ore 
as tu oi q' est li arbr 8 de vie. q' est en mi 

20 lieu padis q' plante en la sainte ame. En 
lombre de cest arbr" cressent et profitet & por 
tent fruit '. li arbres de v'tus .q. dieu li piers 
q' est li g'ntz jardiner's plante en ce jardin 
& les enrouse de la fontaine de sa g a ce q' li fot 

25 reuerdir & crestre ce pfitez : & les tient en v'dure 
& en vie. Ceste fontaine se divise en .vii. ra. 
inceles Ceo sait les. vii. donz du saint es 
perit q' esrousent tout Ce jardin. Or regar 
det q'le g*nt c u toisie nre tres douce mestr 8 Ihu 

30 crist le fiz dieu [fist], que ou monde [uint] quere & 


ces q . estoit pdu. P a ceoquil sout bien nre po 
urete. & nfe feblesce. q p no 8 poons chair ! 
mes p no" ne poons reluuer ne resoudre 
ne de pechie issir. ne v'tu aquere. ne uenir 

35 A vie benur" si de g a ce & de son don ne vient 
p* ceo ne no" fine il de semondre q' no" li pri 
om & requerrom ses dons & mlt no" pmet 
q si no" requerroms chose q' bone no 8 soit '. 
q no' laueroms. Et plu" no 8 fet il de c u toisie 

40 Car il est ntre auocaz qui no 8 f"me nre peti 
cion '. q' no 8 ne sauereions former '. se il nes 
toit. La peticion quil nos fme de sa beno 
ite bouche bele & bone & brieue & ateignat 
ce fu la pf nfe ou il a. vii. peticions. p 

45 les queles no 8 requerrons nre bon pere 
du ciel quil no" doint les dons du saint 
espit qui no' deliuerent des vii. pechiez mor 
tiex. 4 les estrepent du tout de nos quers 
4 en leur lieues plantent 4 norissent les. vii. 

50 v'tu qui no' mement a [vie perdurable et a] erased 
p feccion & de sainte vie. p quoi no 8 pussons 
80 rectiui qui. 


de vii petitions de la pat' nostre. Apres des. vii. v' 
tuz. q' sait encontre les .vii. pechiez mortex '. dont 
no' auons desus pie Le. vii. petitions sont auxi 
com. vii. tres beles pucelles qui ne cessent de puis 
5 sier de ces. vii. ruissiaus les ewes viues p aru 
sier ces. vii. arbres qui portent la fruit de vie 


Q vant om met un enfant a lettre : au come 
cemet om li aprent pat' nostre. Qui de certe 
10 clergie veut sauoir. devegne umble com enfe. 
Q ar a tiex escoliers aprent nre bon mestre Jhu 
crist ceste clergie. qui est la bele & la plus pro 
fitable qui soit. qui bien entent & la retient. Car 
tiex la quide bien sauoir & entendre ! q' onq's ne 

15 sauoit fors lescorce p dehors. cest la Ire q' bone est ; 
mes petit vaut au regard du mouel q' est p dedans 
si douz. Ele est mlt cointe en poles ! & mlt lo' 
ge en sentence, legiere a dire : & mlt soutiue a 
entendre. Cest oreison passe toutes autres en 

20 -iii. choses. en dignete. en briefte. en pfitablite. 
La dignete est '. en ci'ij li fiuz dieu la fist. A dieux 
le pere om pie. Dieu le saint espritz i ce est ij om 
demande. II vout ij ele fust brief ! p ceij [nuls] 

sat del aprendre. et p ar cesij nul ne sennuiat del 

25 la dire souet & volenters. Et p monstrier q diex 
le pere noB oit mlt tost '. com no' le prions de 
bon cuer. ij na cure de longe riote ne de pole po 
lies ne rimees. Car si come dit seint gregoirs. 
verraimet orer nest pas dire beles poles & 

30 polies de houche i mes getier plaintes & pfonz 
souppirs de cuer. La valeur & le pfitz de ceste o 
rison est si g a nt ! <j ele enclost a brefs poles ijnt 
ij om peut desirer de cuer. & per de bien fere 
Cest q'm soit delivers de'touz mauz ! & raampli 

35 de tous biens 

E uisint comeca la pat 'nfe. pere nfe q'es 

es ceius. Regarde comet nos bons avocaz 

et nfe douz mestre Jhucrist q'est la sapience Diex 

le pere ij siet toutes lois & les usages de sa 

40 court, tenseigne bien a pleder. & sagemet & sou 
tiuemet & briefmft pier. Certes cist p'mer moz 
q'tu dis se il est bien entenduz & p"suiz i te dorra 
toute ta querele. Car seint bernard si dit ij 
lorison q comence p le douz non du pere I no 1 done 

45 espance dempetrier toutes nos p'eres. Cest douz 
mot peres q' tost le remenant fet douz '. te mo 
stre ceo q tu dois crere. te semond a ce q' tu dois 
faire. & ce .ii. choses sauuet om. q a nt il croit bien 
& a droiti & il fet apr" a quil doit. Q a nt tu lape 
les pere '. tu conois quil est sires del ostiel. cest 

51 du ciel & de la tre. & cheuentains. & comecemet 


sa meinee. & nomeemet de ses enfans. & des 
homes quil mesmez a criez & fet a son si .... 
ce. & ainssint reconnois tu sa sapience. Dieu 

re ... f 

pus quil est peres i pnat u re & pdroit u re il aime tut 

5 ce quil a fet. com dit le liuer's de sapience [Diex est] 

douz & benures & debonairesi & si aime & nore 

s[t ses] 

enfanzi & lour fet lour preu miex quil ne se[uent] 
deuiseri & les bat & les chastre q a nt il meffontl 

pr leur 
preu '. com bon peres '. & volontiers les recoit 

[q'nt] il 

10 reuenent a lui. Ore te monstre done cist [q'nt tu] 
dis peres i sa puissance, sa sapience & sa . . . 
Jl le rementeit dautre toimesmes ta noblesce 
ta biaut6 & ta richesce. Plus g a nt noblesce ne peut 
estre. q' estre fiuz a si g a nt=Emjjour que est dieux 
15 Plus g a nt richesce ne puet estre ! q' estre oir de [tut] 
q' illi a. plus g'nt biaut^ ne puet estre q de [li resem] 
bier a droit. La qui biautl est si g a nt. q'ele passe 
pesee dome et dange Dont cist mot peres te re 
montoit q' tu les fiuz p"ce q' tu te peines de bien 
20 resembler com bon fiuz deit resembler son bon pere 
Cest a dire ij tu soiez preuz. & vigereus. & fors & pu 


issant a bien fair'. 'Que tu soiez sages & auis 

ges & eortois. douz & deboneres. nez & sa [ns ranc]une 

auxi com il est. q' tu liees pechee & ordures & toute 

'25 maueistez com il fet si com tu ne forloignes [do li] 
Cist mot donq's te remftoit toutes les foiz q tu 
dis la pat' noster q' si tu ies droiz fiuzi q' tu li 


resembler p nat u e. p comendemft &, 
p droiture q' tu li dois resembler p nate'. p comandc- 
ment [ep] 

30 droife ! q' tu li dois am" honour & reuerece . . . 
meur. seruice & obedience. Ore pense done q" 
tu dis ta pat' nre ! <j tu li soies bon fluz & .... 
si tu veils quil te soit bon peres & deboneirs . . 
se q' fiuz tu ies dit om au chiualer nouel 

29. There is a scribal error of repetition here of a phrase after 
' droiture " to next line " q' tu." 

35 en lys & tornoiement. Ou voistu bien c[ome] ce 
p'mer motz est douz. e comet il ramente 
soies vaillanz & preuz & tenseigne q tu & aussi 
Ore li demand ie p" que tu dis en p' nre 
non pas peres miens, et que tu comprei 

40 gnes ouec toi. qu a t tu dis done nos & ne dis 
mie done moi. Jeo li le dirrai se tu . . . . 
Nuls ne doit dire pere miens fors oil lenfes] q' 
est ses fiuz p nat u e, sans comecemet & sans fins 
li v'rai fiuz Diex. Mes nos ne somes pas ses tils 

45 p nafe ! fors en tant com nos sumes [criez as] imai 
ge. Mes ausi sont li sarazin. Mes no[s somes] to/, 
si fil p g ce & padopcion. Adopcion [est un 

mo/, de lois. Car selonc les lois des 

q'nt uns hauz homes na nul enfant 

50 tir' le fil de un pour' home se il ve . . . . 
On? /<'/('' ffiuif !< /- . 


DANTE is the first modern poet to make a 
consistent use, in narrative poetry, of the 
epic simile as derived from Homer through 
Virgil and the Latin poets ; and it is not too 
much to say that the use of this device in all 
the modern tongues may be traced back to 
Dante. It was from him first of all that it 
came into English poetry through Chaucer 
both from Chaucer's own reading of 
Dante, and also indirectly through the in- 
fluence of Dante on Boccaccio. For example, 
Troilus, ii. st. 139 

But right as floures, thonigh the colde of night 
Yclosed stoupen on hir stalkes lowe, 
Redressen hem agein the sonne bright, 
And spreden on hir kinde cours by rowe, 
Right so gan tho Ms eyeu up to throwe 
This Troilus, &c. 

This is exactly the simile in Inf., ii. 127 

Quali i fioretti dal notturno gelo 

Chinati e chiusi poi che '1 Sol gl' imbianca, 
Si drizzan tutti aperti in loro stelo, 

Tal mi fee' io di mia virtute stanca. 

Chaucer, however, does not take it from 
Dante : he had the Filostrato of Boccaccio 
before him, and there the passage is appro- 
priated by Boccaccio almost word for word 
(iii. 13, ed. 1789 ; ii. 80, ed. 1831) 

Come fioretto dal notturno gelo 
Chinato e chiuso, poi che "1 sol 1'imbianca 
S'apre e si leva dritto sopra il stelo 
Cotal si fece alia novella franca 
Allora Troilo. 

In the Tesdde (ix. 28) Boccaccio varies the 

Qual i fioretti rinchiusi ne' prati 
Per lo notturno freddo tutti quanti 
S'apron come dal sol son riscaldati 
E '1 prato fanno con piu be' sembiauti 
Rider fra 1'erbe verdi mescolati 
Dimostrandosi belli a' riguardanti 
Cotal si fece vedendola Arcita. 

It was in that way, sometimes by mere 
copying, sometimes by more original imita- 

tion, that this poetical device was made a 
commonplace in modern poetry ; and al- 
though, of course, later poets had access to 
the Latin authors whom Dante knew, and 
to Homer, whom he did not, still Dante can 
never be left out of account, in reckoning up 
the obligations of later writers on this score. 
The authors chiefly studied by Spenser, for 
example Chaucer in English, Ariosto and 
Tasso in Italian are all in this respect the 
disciples of Dante. 

The instance first cited has nothing 
peculiarly distinctive about it : it belongs 
to the common form, though it is not com- 
monplace to the same extent as the epic 
similes of lions among deer, or wolves 
among sheep, which must have been of old 
standing long before Homer. A different 
kind of simile may be quoted from Chaucer 
to prove a different kind of poetical in- 
fluence upon the disciples of Dante the 
example of Dante's vivid imagination mov- 
ing his scholar, not to borrow directly, but 
to think in a similar way : 

Have ye nat seyn som tyme a pale face 
Among a prees of him that hath be lad 
Toward his deeth, wheras him gat no grace, 
And swich a colour in his face hath had 
Men mighte knowe his face that was bistad 
Amonges alle the faces in that route : 
So stant distance, and loketh hir aboute. 

(Man of Law's Tale, 1. 547 seq.) 

There is nothing that exactly corresponds 
to this in Dante, but the character of Dante 
is stamped upon it; it has the quality of 
Dante's imagination, as shown whenever he 
has to translate his emotional meaning into 
a pictorial image, and chooses to do so with- 
out going very far from his subject. This 
comparison in Chaucer of the anguish of 
Constance to the anguish of a man led to 
execution, whose face is dignified and made 
remarkable among the indistinct faces of the 


crowd, is not a simile from alien matter, like 
those in which an army is compared to 
cranes or to flies : it is a repetition of the 
same kind of situation, a case of another 
person under the same sort of distress. A 
large number of Dante's comparisons are of 
this sort : not analogies from something 
superficially different, but very close repeti- 
tions of the original, in which the poetic 
effect is produced by detaching and em- 
phasising 'one particular aspect of the sub- 
ject without alteration of its features. So in 
the simile of the gamesters at the beginning 
of Purg. vi., both the original and its illus- 
tration belong to the same order of things. 
The picture of Dante saving himself from 
the crowd of spirits thronging about him 
is of the same kind as that of the lucky 
gamester escaping from his importunate 
friends. At a distance, one might mistake 
the one scene for the other, and the imagina- 
tive value does not consist in any ingenious 
analogy, but in the vividness with which 
one aspect, one gesture, is singled out and 
brought before the mind : 

Quando si parte il giuoco della zara, 
Colui che perde si riman dolente, 
Ripetendo le volte, e tristo impara : 

Con I' altro se ne va tutta la gente : 

Qual va dinanzi, e qual di retro il prende, 
E qual da lato gli si reca a mente. 

Ei non a' arresta, e questo e quello intende ; 
A cui porge la man piu non fa pressa ; 
E cosi dalla calca si difende. 

It is the great virtue of the Homeric 
simile the simile of Homer, Virgil, Dante, 
and Milton that although it has often been 
made stale and ridiculous, though it lends 
itself to any bad poet, and is fair game for 
every parodist, it is always able to recover 
itself. It is among the most commonplace 
of literary formulas, and still its freshness, 
its power of new life, is unimpaired. Not 
the Rehearsal, not even The Tragedy of Tom 
Thumb the Great, has spoilt the Homeric 
simile for the Idylls of the King, or for 
Sohrab and Rustum. In Dante's use of it, 
and in its effect upon his successors, is to be 
found one of the best proofs of the vitality 
of classical poetry in its influence upon the 
moderns. It is through the classical similes 
capable of the most abject degradation, but 
also ready to spring up afresh in the minds 
of every new poet ; among the oldest 
fashions in literature, yet inexhaustible 
that the influence of Dante as the first 
scholarly poet, and the mediator between 
ancient and modern poetry, has been most 
clearly exerted. Dante's use of similes has 
been, directly and indirectly, a fructifying 
influence in modern poetry, akin to the 

influence of Homer ; keeping alive what is 
old in the tradition of poetry, but at the 
same time using the old forms in such a 
way that they act as stimulants to original 
imagination, and not as pedantic restric- 
tions. Was he himself at all indebted to 
earlier vernacular authors, in translating 
the Homeric simile into modern poetical 
usage 1 

It is rather strange that there should 
have been so little imitation of the clas- 
sical methods before Dante, except in the 
medieval Latin poetry, which made use of 
similes as a matter of course, as it made 
use, to the best of its power, of the classical 
vocabulary. In spite of the diffusion of 
Latin poetry, and a very general interest in 
grammar and rhetoric, there was for long a 
want of intercourse between the forms of 
classical and vernacular poetry. Ideas might 
be borrowed, the facts of history or myth- 
ology might be transferred from Latin into 
French or German verse, but the form of 
early poetry in the vulgar tongues is 
generally independent of classical influence. 
Similes, of course, there are, but similes 
were not invented by Homer; they have 
a larger range than literature, they come 
by nature more easily than reading and 
writing. It is not the simile that is in 
question, but the Homeric expansion of the 
simile, that which makes it into a distinct 
piece of ornament, a picture in the margin 
of the narrative. Comparisons such as 
Homer might have used are common in 
the old French epic poetry, of which Dante 
probably knew more than he has expressly 
stated. But they are not used in the 
Homeric way. They are not made into 
pictorial passages ; they do not tend, like 
the Homeric similes, and like many in 
Dante, to go beyond the exact point of 
contact, into particulars that have nothing 
to do with the likeness. Bolts fly like fine 
rain in April, 1 warriors discomfit their 
enemies like a wolf among sheep, or a 
falcon among small birds ; but with that 
the comparison is ended : there are no con- 
ventional set pieces, no " ac veluti," or " so 
have I seen." One remarkable exception 
may be noted, both on its own account and 
because of its correspondence to a Homeric 
simile on the one hand and to Dante on the 
other. In the poem of Garin le Loherain, a 

1 In Ekkehard's Latin poem of Waltharius Manu- 
fortis, a comparison of this sort is treated with an 
amplification, which we may be sure was wanting in 
the German original : "Ac veluti Boreae sub temporc 
nix glomerata Spargitur, hand alias saevas jeccre 
sagittas." Walthariw, 188. 


warrior goes through the ranks of his op- 
ponents " like an otter through a fish pond, 
when he makes the fishes hide in the water 

Knsement va com loutre par vivier 
Quant les poissons fait en la dois mucier. 1 

The same kind of terrified rush for shelter 
is rendered by Dante in his own way 
(Inf., ix. 76):- 

Come le rane innanzi alia nimica 
Biscia per 1' acqua si dileguan tutte, 
Fin ohe alia terra ciascuna s' abbica. 

This simile is preceded by another one de- 
scribing the vehement onset : 

E gia venia su per le torbid' onde 

Un fracasso d' un suon pien di spavento, 
Per cui tremavano ambo e due le sponde ; 

Non altrimenti fatto die d' un vento 
Impetuoso per gli avversi ardori. 

The Homeric simile is rather nearer to the 
particulars of the French instance than 
Dante's simile of the frogs ; in fact, the 
French simile might almost be taken as a 
translation of Homer into the terms of 
common life in the twelfth century. In 
Homer, instead of the fish-pond (vivarium), 
with its pipes, there is a harbour, and the 
invader is a dolphin, scattering the fish into 
the corners. 

" As before a dolphin of the sea the other fishes 
are crowded into the nooks of a fair haven, stricken 
with fear, for verily he will devour them if he find 
them, so the Trojans huddled under the banks along 
by the stream of the grim water." H., xxi. 22. 

Just before this there is another simile in 
the same matter, which is more like Dante's, 
and not so like the French : 

" As under the stress of fire the locnsts are wafted 
to the river ; and burning, with indomitable flame, 
it suddenly comes upon them and they shrink into 
the flood ; so before Achilles the stream of the deep- 
welling Xanthus was filled with the rout and noise of 
horses and of men." 

The French simile has only one line of ex- 
pansion, but even that is exceptional in the 
chansons de geste ; an exception which proves 
the rule. Both Homer and Dante need two 
similes to express what they mean, and the 
similes correspond to one another, each to 
each ; Homer's fire and Dante's storm, 
Homer's dolphin and little fishes, Dante's 
snake and frogs. They have the same way 
of looking at the event, beginning with the 
tempestuous rush of the conqueror, and 
ending with the disgrace of the vanquished. 
The French poet sees clearly, and his picture 
is true, but it is not his habit to spend much 
on that kind of decoration. His one line of 

1 Ed. Paulin Paris, 1833, t. i., p. 264. 

explanation is already more than was gene- 
rally approved by those of his school. 

In the modern poetry which was of more 
importance to Dante than the French, in 
the courtly lyrical poetry, Provencal and 
Italian, he probably found a good deal that 
helped him, consciously or otherwise, in his 
adaptation of classical methods. In this 
kind of verse, unlike the French epic, there 
was some definite attempt to secure the 
Latin art of poetry for the benefit of the 
illustrious vulgar tongue. There were, how- 
ever, several things that told against the 
classical simile in the courtly lyric. The 
simile belongs to epic, not to lyric ; and 
though some of the lyric poets in both the 
tongues show powers of imagination akin to 
Dante's, they are of course limited by their 
conventional subject. Their sentimental ex- 
periences afford no opportunity, or very little, 
for pictures like those of the Divine Comedy. 
Further, they were in command of an order 
of metaphor quite unlike the Homeric 
similes, and this kind of metaphor was 
almost as much a part of their conventional 
apparatus as the sentimental casuistry of 
their Art of Love. The distinction between 
the courtly lyric metaphor and the epic 
simile runs through the whole of modern 
poetry ; the two kinds seem to have nearly 
equal vitality, and they are seldom recon- 
ciled. The metaphors of the Provencal 
poets and the early Italians survive in 
Petrarch and all the Petrarchists, in all the 
courtly schools, in the " metaphysical " 
poets. Unlike the Homeric similes which 
spring up fresh from experience in Dante and 
Chaucer, the conceits of the courtly poets are 
handed down like heirlooms from one genera- 
tion to another. As they were, so they con- 
tinue ; the same in Cowley as in Petrarch, the 
same in Petrarch as in any poet of the first 
Italian century, or in any of the Provencals. 
They may be known at once : the similes of 
fire and ice, winds and floods not those of 
the Iliad, but those of the despairing lyrist 
and the cruel fair one l similes from certain 
parts of mythology, especially the Metamor- 
phoses Narcissus, Echo, Pyramus and the 
mulberry tree similes from natural history, 
such as the moth (sometimes called a butter- 
fly) and the candle the Phoenix the turtle 
the basilisk. These are among the oldest 
things in modern poetry at least they are 
found in the first courtly poets of Provence, 
but although they are so old they come 
again in every new school that has any pre- 

1 Flames, sighs, and tears were of much more 
importance in Italy, especially after Petrarch, than 
in Provence. 


tensions to be more refined in sentiment than 
its neighbours. They distinguish Petrarch 
from Dante more than anything else that is 
obviously demonstrable on the surface of 
their poetry. Petrarch, with all his modern 
ambitions, is quite content with these ancient 
poetical jewels. His poetry was not of a kind 
that perpetually demanded fresh illustrations 
from study and experiences like those of 
Dante. The matter of one of Petrarch's 
Canzoni (xiv.) is of the same kind as in 
one by Inghilfredi Siciliano 1 each verse 
devoted to one of the favourite idols. 
Petrarch chooses the Phoenix ; the Load- 
stone Rock ; the Catobleb, an innocent 
creature with lethal eyes ; the fountain that 
boils at night and freezes by day ; the 
fountain in Epirus that kindles the quenched 
torch ; the two fountains of the Fortunate 
Isles. Inghilfredi's selection is the Sala- 
mander, the Phoenix, the Tiger which is 
pacified by a mirror, and the Panther. 

Dante was, of course, a freeman of this 
guild, and knew all their mystery as well as 
any of them. In the Divine Comedy, how- 
ever, he separates himself almost wholly 
from their manner of thinking. Yet there 
are traces of the old school even here ; it is 
true that he shows his divergence from it 
even when he makes use of its properties. 
The Phoenix comes into the Comedy, but 
not in the same character. Ovid supplies a 
number of comparisons Pyramus, Echo, 
the spear of Achilles, and others but not 
in the old context, though the simile of 
Glaucus has some affinity with the lyrical 
allusions, Par., i. 65. One of the very few 
metaphors used in the old way is that of the 

Posto t'avem dinanzi agli smeraldi, 

Purg. xxxi. 116. 

where the allusion is evidently to the pro- 
perties of the smaragdus in the old natural 
history : it is the most joyous of all precious 
stones. 2 This comparison may be reckoned 
along with those derived from Physiologus 
and similar authorities by the lyrical poets, 
some of which were classified and explained 
didactically by Fournival in the Jiestiaire 
d' Amour, long before the fashion was revived 
in Euphues. 

While the conventional established imagery 
was cherished and preserved by the Amour- 
ists in their lyrical verse, there were at the 

1 Poeti del primo secolo, i. 136; Nannucci, Manuale, 
i. p. 57. 

5 Nihil his jucundius nihil utilius vident oculi 
. . . deinde obtutus fatigatos colons reficiunt 
lenitate, nam visus quos alterius gemmae fulgor re- 
tuderit, smaragdi recreant (Solimts, 15, 24). 

same time some of them' who tried occasion, 
ally to get away from it. Among the Pro- 
venijal poets there were some whose genius 
led them towards freedom, and some of the 
Italians, even under lyrical restrictions- 
anticipate the similes of the Divine Comedy 
in their vivid observation and their original 
record of experience, for instance, Guido 
Cavalcanti, in the line 

E bianca neve soender senza venti, 

which is compared by Nannucci with Inf., 
xiv. 29 

dilatate falde, 
Come di neve in alpe senza vento. 

Guide's vivid line, it may be remarked, 
occurs in a sonnet of a very well-known 
type that in which the beauty of the lady 
is described by comparison with all sorts of 
excellences in nature and art : one of the 
most favourite forms of praise in all the 
courtly schools. The lines of Guido and of 
Dante, though so much alike, have a quite 
different poetical function. In Guido the 
comparison is meant to enhance the beauty 
and grace of the lady ; in Dante it is to 
define and explain part of the adventure 
which he is narrating : the flakes of fire 
that he saw were like that. 

One of the poems of Bernart de Ventadorn 
may be cited as showing both the direct 
original observation which is like Dante, and 
the ingenious learned analogy which is in the 
manner of Petrarch and the " metaphysical " 
schools. It begins 

Quan vei la laudeta mover 
De joi las alas central rai, 
Que s' oblid' es laissa cazer 
Per la doussor qu'al cor li vai, 
Ailas, quals enveja m' en ve 
De cui qu' eu veja jauzion ! 
Maravilhas ai car desse 
Lo cors de desirier nom fon. 

" When I see the lark moving her wings in 
joy against the light of the sun, and she 
forgets herself and lets herself sink, by 
reason of the sweet pleasure that goes to 
her heart ; ah me, how great is the envy 
that comes upon me when I look on any 
joyous being ! I marvel that my heart is 
not melted within me for longing." 

The opening of this (which is not exactly 
a simile) must have been in Dante's mind 
when he wrote of the lark : 

Quale allodetta che in acre si spazia 
Prima cantando, e poi tace contenta 
Dell' ultima dolcezza che la sazia. 

far., xx. 73. 

It is. not exactly the same thing, but it is 
observed in the same way as Bernart's, and 
rendered almost in the same tone. But 


when Eernart in the third stanza of this same 
poem complains that looking in the mirror 
of his lady's eyes he is in danger of the fate 
that befell Narcissus, the mood is changed 
altogether : Petrarch or Cowley would re- 
cognise their ancestor here, but this kind 
of imagination has little in common with 

A poem of Folquet of Marseilles presents 
a similar contrast between the two kinds of 
imagery. The first stanza begins : 

" Now that I am made aware thus late, like him 
that has lost everything, and swears he will play no 
more, I may well reckon it great good fortune, for 
now I know the guile that was practised by Love 
against me. " ' 

The second stanza offers one of the many 
instances of the moth and the candle a 
conventional elegant simile following on a 
plainer and less hackneyed comparison. 

The Provencal poetry gives proof that the 
authors would have made more use of the 
simile if they had had more room for it : 
they were limited by their forms of senti- 
ment, and could not illustrate the whole of 
experience from itself, but only the senti- 
mental part : all their similes are applied 
either to the poet, or to the lady, or to the 
sentimental relation between them. While 
they are thus debarred from the wide region 
of narrative heroic poetry, with its succession 
of various adventures calling for illustra- 
tion, they are nevertheless able to develop a 
kind of simile, a variation of the Homeric- 
Virgilian simile, which is taken up by Dante, 
and which makes one of the characteristic 
differences between his poetry, and the 
common form of epic. The Prove^al poets 
did the best they could to illustrate their 
own sentimental dispositions and circum- 
stances by means of similes. The kind of 
illustration that they found most convenient 
was that derived from the " Saints' Lives of 
Cupid," the history of true lovers in the 
past, Paris and Helen, Tristan and Ysolt, or 
from the traditional natural history with its 
moral signification. Besides this, however, 
they occasionally tried to vary their poetry 
with other and more original comparisons, 
modelled upon those of Latin heroic poetry. 
They had to bring the Homeric simile into 
the service of lyric poetry, to illustrate the 
fortunes and the moods of distressed lovers. 
Here Dante followed them, while he fol- 
lowed the freer narrative poets as well. 
Like the epic poets he uses similes for any 
adventure that may fall to be described : 
like the Provencal lyric poets he uses the 

Sitot me sui a tart aperceubutz. " 

Bartsch, Chrcst. Prov., p. 123. 

simile for the changes in his mind. His 
poem is not purely epic ; it is descended in 
one line from the sirventes, the lyrical satire 
of the Provencals, and in so far as the mind 
of the poet is the subject of the poem, so far 
is the Provencal lyrical simile applicable. 
Hence the great number of similes that follow 
the pattern of the first in the book. 

E come quei clie con lena affannata, &c. 

The instance from Folquet quoted already 
is one of this sort, and there are others of 
different kinds. Four of the poems of the 
Monk of Montaudon begin " Aissi com eel," 
or "aissi com om," which answers precisely 
to the Italian " come quei." 1 

In all these cases the subject is the poet 
himself. " As one who has lived long in peace 
on his own freehold without a lord, and after- 
wards is by an evil lord put under constraint." 
"As one who is losing a bad case at law, and 
dare not hear the judgment, and willingly 
would leave it all to two friends to bring 
about a good agreement, so would I fain do 
in the pleas of love." 

"As one who is in an ill lordship, and gets 
no grace, but is taxed and tolled, and would 
gladly change his estate, so gladly would I 
escape from her dominion who has taken my 

"Even as one who is persecuted by his 
lord, and begs for mercy, but his lord will 
have no mercy, and holds him fast till he has 
paid his ransom." 

Other instances of a similar kind might be 
found without much difficulty ; e.g., Pons de 
Capdoill (ed. Napolski), No. xi. 

Aissi m' es pres con sellui que cerquan 
Vai bon seignor, &c. 

These all resemble Dante's similes about 
himself, and differ from the common run of 
conceits in their evident intention of bringing 
out the literal meaning of what they illus- 
trate. They are not extravagant or far- 
fetched ; as ornament they have little to 
take the fancy ; they are quite unlike the 
ornamental work composed of the Phosnix 
and the Basilisk. The poet keeps close to 
his subject, and the reality is too strong to 
be dissipated in imagery. 

The similes of the Divine Comedy might be 
classified according to their greater or less 
variation from the ordinary epic type. Some 
keep very closely to the old form, like 
that of the snake and frogs already noticed, 

1 Aissi com eel qu' a estat ses seignor, p. 10. 
Aissi com eel qu' a plait mal e sobrier, p. 14. 
Aissi com eel qu' es en mal seignoratge, p. 20. 
Aissi com om que seigner ochaizona, p. 28. 

Ed. Puilippson, 1873. 



which illustrates part of the action of the 
poem in a way that has every right to the 
name Homeric. The first step of divergence 
from this type is due to the difference be- 
tween Dante's poem and all other epics. 
The business of his poem is not the common 
matter of feasting and fighting and parlia- 
ments : he requires fewer similes in order to 
fcive variety to familiar scenes : his object 
is to give clearness of detail to a personal 
narrative : hence the great number of similes 
which give the right accurate description of 
a thing, and not a comparison with some- 
thing else : e.g. the famous passage about 
the pitch in Malebolge is Homeric in its 
digression, its description of what goes on 
in the arsenal at Venice, but the central 
part of the simile is unlike Homer, for 
it is merely meant to tell you what the 
pitch exactly was, not what it poetically 

When Homer compares the wound on 
Menelaus's thigh to the purple stain on 
ivory, 1 the work of a Mseonian or a Carian 
woman, and then goes on to think of the 
uses to which the ivory may be put as an 
ornament for harness, the digression may 
appear to have the same sort of value as 
Dante's description of the dockyard : neither 
has anything to do with the story. But the 
original motive is quite different : Homer is 
moving away from the subject, he does not 
wish to make you see the blood more clearly, 
but to translate it poetically into something 
different ; whereas for Dante the meaning of 
the comparison is in the matter of fact which 
it contains : Venetian pitch is not an illus- 
tration, but, as near as may be, an equi- 
valent for the thing which he wishes to 

1 II., iv. 141 sqq. 

bring as exactly as possible before the 

To this class belong the great number of 
local comparisons in the Inferno: there are 
hardly any in the Purgatorio, and none in 
the Paradiso l : because the country in the 
Inferno is more varied atid difficult, and 
requires some notes from more familial- 
scenery in order to explain as clearly as 
possible what it is like. 

Much greater deviation from Homer is 
occasioned by the need for illustrations of 
the changes in the mind of the narrator, 
and it is here that Dante may possibly have 
derived some hints from the practice of the 
lyrical poets in the vulgar tongue. They 
also provided him with one very consider- 
able class of illustrations, for any kind of 
subject, by their fondness for references to 
Ovid and other poets ; not excluding the 
contemporary romances. Bertran de Born, 
in one poem, refers both to Gawain and to 
the story of William of Orange ; and a less 
famous poet, Richart de Berbezill, makes a 
beginning, in one case, by comparing him- 
self to Percival, who was silent when he 
should have spoken, -and failed to ask the 
meaning of the Lance and of the Grail.' 2 
The literary similes of Dante, as well as 
those arising from his own states and 
changes of mind, may be put down pretty 
certainly to the credit of his Provencal 
studies. W. P. KER. 

1 None, at any rate, of the same kind as those most 
usual in the Inferno. The Cliiana is introduced in 
the Paradiso (xiii. 23) but merely for the slowness 
of its stream, as an example of slowness, and an 
illustration of what is not in the poet's vision. 
2 ' Atressi com Persavaus. ' 

Parnasse Occitanien, p. 276. 


Delivered at the Taylorian Institution, Oxford, Nov. 18, 1897. 

I desire to associate this Lecture with the memory of two friends whose labours in the promotion of English 
Goethe studies will not easily be forgotten: HERMAN HAGER (d. Feb. 1895) and HEINRICH PREISINGKR 
(d. Feb. 1896). Their work (especially as successive secretaries of the Manchester Goethe Society) owed its 
fruitfulness not less to the brilliant scholarship of the one and the wide literary culture of the other than 
to rare qualities of heart and character which make the loss of both still poignant to their many friends. 
Like few others, they stood in close touch with the two elements, English and German (so kindred yet 
so alien), of the community in which they lived, and drew them together largely by virtue of their own 
rich endowment in some of the finest characteristics of both. 

THK ideal traveller is a man in whom the 
single-minded fervour of the pilgrim is 
mingled with the intellectual ardour of the 
discoverer and the alert sensibility of the 
cultivated tourist. There is something in 

him of Saint Louis, something of Dante's 
Ulysses, and something of Lawrence Sterne. 
Such a combination is most naturally attained 
among those whose goal of travel is Italy. 
For Italy is a shrine which few approach for 


the first time without a nascent thrill of the 
pilgrim's awe ; yet the shrine is also a micro- 
cosm, a little universe full of problems for 
the intellect and of various delight and 
picturesque charm for the sense. It is 
probable that no book in the world pre- 
sents all these aspects of Italian travel so 
vividly as the Itulienische Seise of Goethe. 
In an age when Europe was full of senti- 
mental travellers bent only upon pretexts 
for smiling the inimitable smile of Sterne, 
or for dropping a caricature of his exquisite 
tears, Goethe, with a sensibility far richer 
and more versatile than Sterne's own, set 
forth across the Alps resolute to see and to 
know, to work and to live. His journey was 
perhaps the most deliberate act of a life con- 
trolled throughout by conscious design, like 
a work of art, an act in which the whole 
man moved together, into which he cast 
his whole capital of hope and faith nay, 
hazarded, like that Dantesque Ulysses, the 
one possession of a love ' lo qiial dovea 
Penelope far lieta.' The record of a 
journey so planned, at the crowning 
moment of his maturity, by a man of 
Goethe's genius, necessarily interests us 
even more as biography than as travel ; 
and it is as biography, not as travel, that 
I propose to deal with it to-day. And 
not even, chiefly, as a narrative of his 
outward experiences in Italy ; but rather 
as a document, almost unique in its kind, 
of the psychical history of a great poet 
during the central crisis of his life. Let 
me only add, that the materials available 
for that purpose have been within the last 
years notably increased. The work called 
the Italienische Reise was worked up by 
Goethe, thirty years after the journey 
itself, from the journals and letters written 
at the time. A large number of the ori- 
ginals he then destroyed. But the valu- 
able Journal sent to Frau von Stein and 
a number of the letters to Herder were 
happily preserved, and have now been 
issued by the Goethe Gesellschaft, admir- 
ably edited by Erich Schmidt. 

Italy burst upon Goethe like a revelation. 
To describe his transport during the first 
weeks, nay, months, of his sojourn, this 
disciple of Spinoza instinctively borrows 
the theological phrases of the converted 

" The scales fall from my eyes. He who 
is plunged in night takes twilight for dawn, 
and a gray day for a bright one ; but what 
is that when the sun rises 1 l Certainly, out 

1 Ital. Reise, 4 Jan. 1787, Tagelnich, 30 Sept. 1786 
(ed. E. Schmidt, p. 128). 

of Rome one has no conception how one is 
here put to school. One must, as it were, 
be born again, and one looks back on one's 
former ideal as at shoes one wore as a child. 1 
I may be the same man still, but I believe I 
am changed to my inmost marrow."' 2 

Still more explicitly a week later. " The 
new birth which is transforming me from the 
core outwards, still proceeds. I expected to 
learn something here ; but that I should so 
go back to school, that I should have to 
unlearn, nay, to learn anew, so much I did 
not expect. Now I am convinced of it, and 
have completely surrendered, and the more 
I have to repudiate myself, the more I 

And a year later, in language less flushed 
with the ardour of first impressions: "All 
that I learned, conceived or thought in 
Germany is to what I am learning now 3 
as the rind of the tree to the kernel of 
its fruit. I have no words to express the 
quiet alert joyousness with which I now 
begin to contemplate works of art." 4 

Expressions such as these make it excusable 
to regard the Italian journey as a still more 
significant turning-point in Goethe's life than 
it really was. Legend loves the sudden con- 
version, pedantry the well-defined epoch, and 
the large sinuosities of Goethe's career have 
been apt to acquire a certain angularity under 
their manipulation. In England, at least, it 
is not uncommon to hear language which 
suggests that the Italian journey was the 
terminus ad quern of his relations with 
naturalistic or realistic art, the faratmua 
a quo of his strivings after the antique 
and the ideal. It would be truer to say 
that Italy, by bringing the antique in its 
living reality before his eyes, not only ful- 
filled the cherished dream of years, but 
finally delivered him from a haunting 
phantom of the antique, more antique 
than antiquity itself, and thus restored 
him to the company of the great poetic 
realists, his true kindred, from which that 
phantom had beckoned him away. Both 
these distinct if not antagonistic effects, 
the fulfilment of the dream and the lay- 
ing of the phantom, are clearly to be read 
in Goethe's narrative, and have to be borne 
in mind in studying his mental deportment 
as this new world sweeps in upon him. 

It was the fulfilment of a dream. Sixteen 
years before he saw the Apollo or the Paestum 
temple, Goethe had been led by Herder at 

1 Jb., 13 Dec. 1786. 

2 2 Dec. 1786. 

3 From the teaching of Heinrich Meyer. 

4 25 Dec. 1T87. 


Strassburg into the glorious thraldom of 
Greek poetry. At Wetzlar, in 1772, he 
found a refuge in Homer from hopeless 
love, installed himself in the palaces of 
Pindar and Plato, and wrote letters to 
Herder about them which throb and tingle 
with an ecstasy poured forth with the 
unreserve of twenty-three 1 an ecstasy not 
yet in the least incompatible with an equal 
fervour for the Gothic glories of Strassburg, 
which his little pamphlet " Von deutscher 
Baukunst" glowingly interpreted to the 
world in the following year, " O to be 
Alcibiades for a day and a night and 
then die ! " 2 he cries, yearning to have 
met Socrates face to face. Even now, 
however, he is full of zest to turn his 
Greek knowledge into action, to master 
art as well as facts, and weld matter into 
new shape as well as luxuriate in sensa- 
tion. "An artist is nothing so long as his 
hands do not work and shape." 3 At Weimar 
this bent found expression, not only in the 
repeated workings and shapings of his own 
poetry, but in a peculiar attraction to Greek 
plastic art. Winckelmann had traced the 
evolution of Greek sculpture so far as this 
was possible without visiting Greece, and 
given a penetrating analysis of its aesthetic 
qualities. Goethe was, on the observant 
and intellectual side of his nature, deeply- 
akin to Winckelmann, a kinship which gives 
a fraternal intimacy of appreciation to the 
life he subsequently wrote of him ; 4 and the 
ideas of Winckelmann determined, during the 
whole of his first eleven years at Weimar, his 
relation to the antique. Phidias and Scopas 
and the unknown hewer of the Laocoon and 
the Apollo Belvedere appealed to his delight 
in plastic expression, but they appealed as 
through a glass, darkly, in woodcut and 
plaster-cast. Face to face their creations 
could be studied, out of their native land, 
only in Rome. The deep-seated veracity of 
Goethe's nature chafed at this blurred half- 
knowledge of the beauty he divined, and 
towards Rome, for the greater part of these 
eleven years, with growing tenacity and 
maturing resolve, his heart and his eyes 
were set. Desire is an inadequate word for 
the gravitation which impels a man of this 
stomp to get out of the region of notions 
into the region of direct experience, of in- 

1 To Herder (July 1772) Hirzel-Bernays, Der 
junge Goethe, i. 307. 

*Ib. (end of 1771), i. 303. 

3 lb., i. 308. 

* Of. e.g., his naive reproof of Winckelmann's 
hatred of philosophers. Winckelmann : Philosophie 
(Hempel ed., xxviii. 219). 

tuition, of Anschauung. To gratify that 
impulse is not, for such a man, to indulge 
in a luxury, but to overcome a disease ; and 
Goethe's state during the last years before 
his journey was full of morbid symptoms. 
He could not endure to open a Latin author 
or to look on an Italian landscape ; Herder 
rallied him with getting all his Latin from 
Spinoza, because he shrank from the sight 
of any other. " Had I not carried out the 
resolve to make this journey," he wrote to 
Fran von Stein from Venice, " I should have 
gone mad. In every great parting there 
lies a germ of madness," he wrote later, on 
the eve of his return home ; and the words 
were true now, for his love to the unknown 
land had the poignancy of remembered loss. 
And Italy brought him instant relief. It 
brought him the full sensible experience of 
what he had imperfectly divined ; and in 
those rapturous descriptions of his new birth 
we have a measure of the gulf which, for 
him, separated the imagination fed upon 
things taught and the imagination fed upon 
things seen. "I have had no wholly new 
thought, found nothing wholly strange, but 
the old has become so -definite, so living, so 
consecutive, that it has the effect of novelty. 
It was as when Pygmalion's statue, already 
endowed with all the being art can give, at 
length came to him and said, ' It is I.' " 
And he goes on to breathe the profound 
content which fills him,- -the content of one 
who suddenly finds himself in the world for 
which he was made, and with which all his 
instincts and activities harmonise. Here at 
length that fidelity to sense-impressions which 
disqualified him for all that is fantastic or 
speculative in art. found its reward. " I 
live here now," he writes, " with a clearness 
and calm which I had for long not known. 
My habit of seeing and interpreting all 
things as they are, my trust in the light 
of the eye, my entire exemption from preju- 
dice, serve me once again right well, and 
make me at least supremely happy. Every 
day a new and notable object, daily fresh, 
grandiose wonderful images, and an entirety 
long conceived and dreamed but never 
grasped with the imagination." 2 

But a phantom was laid as well as a dream 
fulfilled. In other words, Italy not merely 
defined and vitalised his conceptions of the 
antique but modified and transformed them. 
Winckelmann had taught Goethe and his 
contemporaries to regard the beauty of sculp- 
ture as resting upon the repose and generalis- 
ation of the forms, and thus as in its nature 

1 1 Nov. 1786. 

- 10 Nov. 1786. 


opposed to movement and to character. Ex- 
pression he explicitly represents as hostile to 
beauty; and the highest beauty was to be 
won by promiscuously assembling the love- 
liest lines of a host of faces, a process which 
necessarily disintegrates and shatters ex- 
pression. Winckelmann, no doubt, im- 
plicitly qualified this position in his dealing 
with concrete examples; 1 but, as usually 
happens, his scholars ignored the involun- 
tary inconsistencies of the master's finer in- 
sight, and gave a more unlimited scope to 
his dominant teaching. No one can read 
Goethe's Iphigenie without feeling that the 
ideals of sculpture have there obtruded 
themselves, in spite of Lessing, upon those 
of drama. The grace of Sophocles is upon 
the supple yet finely chiselled verse ; but in 
the conception and shaping of the dramatic 
matter the repose and ideal abstraction of 
form which we still call statuesque seems 
to have been a more controlling inspiration 
than the life-like pity and terror of Sopho- 
clean tragedy. Iphigenie is a noble and 
pathetic figure, but the pathos is expressed 
with a resrrve borrowed rather from the 
methods of the Greek chisel, as Goethe 
understood them, than from those of the 
Greek pen. She has been aptly called a 
Greek Madonna, and Goethe himself, stand- 
ing before the picture of Saint Agatha at 
Bologna, recognised his heroine in that ideal 
form, and resolved to permit her no language 
which he could not attribute to the Saint. 
As is well known, another saint, but a breath- 
ing and human one, was already faintly re- 
cognisable, to Weimar Society, in Iphigenie ; 
and we can hardly doubt that the sway 
exercised over him by a woman of high- 
bred distinction and intellectuality, calm 
without coldness, tender without passion, 
increased the hold upon him of all in the 
Greek genius that was self-controlled, ideal 
and reposeful, and withdrew him from the 
spell of the lyric cry which Antigone can 
utter no less than the heroes of Homer. 
Thus the passion for the antique which 
drove him across the Alps contained an 
element of illusion, and the joy of satis- 
fied desire was far transcended, in his 
immensely strenuous intellect, by the loftier 
joy of discovery. 

Let us now proceed to watch the steps in 
this process. The Italian journey may be 
regarded as a drama in three acts, with a 
prelude. On Sept. 3, 1786, Goethe stole 
away in the dead of night from Carlsbad, 
hurried over the Brenner, by Verona, 

1 Of. the admirable treatment of Winckelmann in 
Mr Bosanquet's History of Esthetic, p. 239 f. 

Vicenza, Padua, to Venice ; thence after 
three weeks stay, without a pause by 
Bologna, Florence, Perugia, to Rome (Oct. 
29). There he spent the following four 
months, from October to February the 
first act. Towards the end of February he 
went south to Naples and Sicily, thence 
back to Naples, and again to Rome in June 
1787. The records of the second Roman 
sojourn, from June 1787 to April 1788, are 
of the utmost interest in Goethe's develop- 
ment, though wanting in the picturesqueness 
and charm which place the descriptions of 
Naples and Sicily among the most delightful 
literature of travel in the world. Through- 
out these various phases of his journey 
Goethe is before all things an observer. He 
had come to Italy to get his eyes upon the 
things he had dreamed of ; and it was by 
getting his eyes upon them that he dis- 
covered all the other things he did not 
dream of. Imagination was, in Goethe, we 
may almost say, a function of the eye ; and 
almost all his poetic history is implicitly 
written in his ways of using the eye. It is 
therefore of primary importance to notice 
what he sees and what he does not see. 
Certainly the limitations of Goethe's ob- 
serving power and its comprehensiveness are 
equally striking. Its limitations : for Goethe 
serenely ignores entire provinces of the 
world of Italy which the hardiest modern 
philistine would not dare be known to have 
passed by. Republican and Christian Rome, 
mediaeval and Christian Italy, he heeds not : 
at Assisi he turns with loathing from the 
colossal memorials of S. Francis to feast his 
eyes on the temple of Minerva. Byzantine 
and Gothic architecture are anathema to 
him ; the man whose wonderful prose hymn, 
thirteen years before, to Strassburg Minster 
had anticipated Ruskin's equally wonderful 
chapter on the Nature of Gothic Architec- 
ture, now compares the dreamlike wonder of 
S. Mark's to a crab on its back, and dis- 
misses Gothic at large from his attention. 
" The rows of miserable statues of saints on 
stone brackets," he says in a passage added 
in 1816, but doubtless true enough to his 
mind in 1786, "the pillars like bundles of 
tobacco-pipes, the pointed pinnacles and 
petal-points; with these, thank heaven, I 
have done for ever ! " l His interest in 
painting begins with the Renascence. 
Giotto's frescoes in the Arena at Padua 
concern him as little as Fra Angelico's in 
S. Marco at Florence. Of Mr Ruskin's 
" three most precious buildings in the 

1 Ital. Reisc, Nov. 9, 1786. 


world," two, S. MarkVat Venice and the 
Arena, he thus ignores, or worse. To the 
third alone, the Sistine Chapel, he does full 
justice. History, again, added attraction for 
him to no monument or site ; at most, the 
spectacle of the Via Sacra where the roads 
from the uttermost points of the world had 
their meeting-point beguiles him for a 
moment to fancy himself follow the legions 
to the Weser or the Euphrates, or standing 
in the crowd which thronged the Forum on 
their return. A generation after Goethe's 
visit, these defects were visited on him by 
the reproaches of two very different classes 
of his countrymen at Rome, the Romantics, 
who were the first to vindicate the early 
art of Italy, and the historical students of 
the early Republic, who gathered round 

All these notable things which Goethe 
passed by failed, in one way or other, to 
appeal to his sense of form. Gothic offended 
his Hellenist's eye by the want of repose 
inherent in its soaring lines ; the pre- 
Raphaelite painting by its stiffness and 
crudity : and history lay out of the region 
of Anx<-haiiHn<i altogether. On the other 
hand, the great painters of the Renascence, 
as well as the sculptors of Greece, and the 
architects of Rome, discovered to him for the 
first time the possibilities and significance of 
form in art. He had long known the 
Belvedere Apollo in plaster-casts, but when 
he stands before the marble contours of the 
original he passes into one of those accesses 
of rapt intuition in which, as Wordsworth 
says, of another kind of rapture, " the sense 
goes out." " The Apollo," he cries, " has 
plucked me out of the actual." l Even the 
dull imitative symmetries of Palladio become 
to him a revelation of " all art and all life." - 
He had hitherto regarded art as " a faint 
reflexion of Nature ; " now, he writes to 
Karl August shortly before his return, it has 
become a new language to him. 8 No wonder 
that he looks back on the transalpine Egypt 
as the formless North. Nothing contributed 
so powerfully to develop this sense of form 
as his persistent use of the pencil. Goethe's 
talent for art lay entirely in his eye, not in 
his hand, but so powerful was the impulse 
derived from the eye to recreate form that 
the hand was forced into an activity uncon- 
genial to it. During the whole of his 
journey, but especially in the two Roman 
sojourns, Goethe drew. In the first, under 
the guidance, first of Tischbein, then of 

1 Tagebuch, Oct 4 (ed. E. Scluiiidt, p. 139). 

2 Hal. Rc.ixe, Oct. S, 1786. 

3 Jan. 2f>, 1788 ; ed. Diintzer (Hempel, xxiv. 915). 

Meyer and Hackert, he sketched from 
Nature ; during the second winter he spent 
the best part of his time in drawing, and 
later in modelling, the human figure. His 
sketches, a selection of which has been pub- 
lished by the German Goethe Gesellschaft, 
have at first sight a purely pathological 
interest. In reality, however, they were 
simply the rude auxiliary scaffolding to an 
educative process which was going on unseen 
behind. The painter and the modeller failed 
to model or to paint, but combined to train 
the poet. As M. Cart expresses it, "he 
learnt to draw, not with the pencil, but, 
thanks to the pencil, with the pen." l In a 
formula of Goethe's own, he learnt to see 
with a feeling eye, and feel with a seeing 
hand. 2 

Plasticity was no doubt the first and 
greatest gift of Italy to Goethe. Yet the 
plastic quality of his later work is not 
adequately expressed by the analogies of 
sculpture or painting. The figures in 
Hermann wnd Dorothea are at least as 
delicately chiselled as those of the Iphigenie ; 
but the chisel is felt to' be a less appropriate 
image in their case, and we seek involun- 
tarily for analogies to their breathing and 
supple delicacy in a totally different region 
that in which the rosebud unfolds into the 
rose, and the child's face is silently moulded 
into the woman's. I do not mean merely, 
what is obvious, that these figures are nearer 
to ordinary life than the others, but that the 
analogies of organic nature have in the mean- 
while taken hold of the poet's imagination, 
and shared with those of art in controlling 
his eye and determining the quality of his 
touch. And this process, like the former, 
though it had begun long before, was 
consummated in Italy. 

Very early in his Weimar time Goethe 
had become a keen student of natural his- 
tory. The paternal administration of a little 
German State, watchfully bent on exploiting 
the economic resources of the land, provided 
many openings for the study. His official 
supervision of the forests led him to botany, 
of the mines to mineralogy. 3 Werther's 
somewhat abstract worship of Nature be- 
came defined and articulated into a passion- 
ate effort to understand in detail how the 
flower grows, and how this goodly frame, 
the earth, fitted itself to be the cradle and 
the home of man. Weimar smiled at these 
eccentric pursuits of its poet, and Schiller, 

1 Theophile Cart, Goethe en Italie, p. 179. 

2 Rmnische Elegien, v. 

3 This and much more is set forth in a luminous 
page of Scherer, Oesch. d. d. Lit., p. 546. 


not yet quite ripe for his friendship, wrote 
with serious indignation to Korner of his 
" zur Affectation getriebene Attachement an 
die Natur, the infantine simplicity of under- 
standing which permitted him to abandon 
himself to his five senses and dabble in herbs 
and mineralogy." 1 To such dabbling Italy 
offered a host of new seductions ; and the 
eagerness of the pilgrim to gaze on the 
shrine of ancient art did not in the smallest 
degree check his alert observation wherever 
he went of plants and soils. Lists of minerals 
diversify the praises of Palladio and the pas- 
sionate words of love in the vivacious Journal 
which the ' Great Child ' sent home to Char- 
lotte von Stein. At Palermo he goes out 
for a quiet morning's work at his Odyssean 
tragedy of Nausikaa, but the marvels of 
strange plant life in the public garden put 
to flight his vision of the garden of Alcinous. 
And on his return to Rome even the tapes- 
tries from Raphael's cartoons hardly per- 
suade him to forget the lava-streams of 
Naples from which he had with difficulty 
torn himself away. 

To the purely literary student of Goethe 
these activities are apt to appear more or 
less idle divagations from his proper work, 
just as scientific specialists have often dis- 
dained them as incompetent intrusions upon 
their own. Yet it may be questioned whether 
the profoundest instincts of Goethe's mind 
are not more transparently legible in his 
study of nature than in his study of art. 
In that study the bias of prejudice, the 
bias of system, which disturb his serene 
appreciation when confronted with Gothic 
or pre-Raphaelite beauty, had far less place ; 
there, above all, he exercised that gift 
which the maturer Schiller beautifully de- 
scribed in the analysis of Goethe's mind 
which opened their correspondence and 
sealed their friendship : " Your observant 
gaze, der so still und rein auf den Dingen 
mht, never exposes you to the danger of 
those vagaries in which both speculation and 
the imagination which follows its own lead 
alone so easily go astray. In your veracious 
intuition all that analysis toils to discover, 
lies entire." 3 To Goethe himself his acquisi- 
tions in natural science seemed to fall into 
their places in his mind, like new individual 
utterances of an intellect whose scope and 
cast he thoroughly understood. " However 
much I find that is new," he had written to 
Frau von Stein, 8 "I yet find nothing un- 

1 12 Aug. 1787 (cit. Koberstein, Grundrissd. GescJi. 
d. deutschen Nat. Lilteratur, iv. 274 n. ) 

2 Briefwechscl, i. 6, Aug. 23, 1794. 

3 An Frau v. Stein, ii. 231. Of. the same phrase used 
of liis art studies, Ital. Keise (Hem pel ed., xxiv. 393). 

expected ; everything fits in and joins itself 
on, because I have no system." We know 
from countless utterances what system meant 
to Goethe the 'theory' which is always 
' gray ' while ' life ' is always ' green ' ; or as 
one of his bitterest epigrams has it, the 
wooden cross whose only function is to 
crucify a living thing. 1 Goethe had no 
system, no rigid classification against the 
barriers of which new experiences might 
jostle, to the system's detriment or, too 
probably, their own ; but he had what Bacon 
called an anticipation of Nature, a way of 
thinking about Nature which over a wide field 
of phenomena corresponded with the way in 
which Nature herself thinks. Throughout 
Nature he anticipates organic unity; complete 
isolation, ultimate discrepancy, exist only as 
figments for his mind. No doubt Goethe at 
times pursued this anticipation where it did 
not hold, as in his vain onslaught on New- 
ton's Pfijffischer Einfall of dividing the prim- 
eval unity of light into seven ; ' 2 no doubt it 
led him at other times only to such a half 
truth as the theory of the metamorphosis of 
plants. Yet his half truths were but rash 
formulations of conceptions which the whole 
course of nineteenth century discovery has 
elaborated and defined, and his recogni- 
tion of the skull as an expanded vertebra 
was itself a discovery of the first rank. He 
delights to trace organic affinities in the in- 
organic world. The weather polarises itself 
into recurring antithesis of wet days and fine, 
his own poetic faculty has five or seven day 
cycles of alternate production and repose. 3 
" I must watch more closely," he writes in 
the Diary of 1780, "the circle which revolves 
in me of good and bad days. Invention, exe- 
cution, arrangement, all revolve in a regu- 
lar cycle gaiety, gloom, strength, elasticity, 
weakness, desire, likewise. As I live very 
regularly the course is not interrupted, and 
I must get clear in what periods and order I 
revolve round myself." 4 And as he intei'- 
prets the material and the intellectual worlds 
on the same analogies, so he recognises no 
final division between them ; with his master 
Herder he begins the history of man with 
that of the planet. Few travellers, and fewer 
poets, in his day apprehended with so keen a 

1 Epigramme, 80. 

*Xenien (Hempel, iii. 252). 

3 " Sonst hatte ion einen gewissen Cyklus von fiinf 
oder sieben Tagen, worin icli die Besehiiftigungen 
vertheilte ; da konnte ich unglaublich viel leisten," 
1827. Gespr. vi. 164 (quoted by R. M. Meyer in 
a fine and suggestive article), "Goethe's Art zu 
arbeiten," G. J., xiv. 179. 

4 Tagebuch, i. 112 ; quoted by Meyer, u.s. 

5 Herder's Idem ~nr Philosophic der Qeaehichtt 
der Menschlieit (1787), which Goethe read in Italy. 



zest the influences of physical environment ; 
of soil upon plant life, of site upon the con- 
formation of towns. It must be allowed that 
he betrayed the weak side of this particular 
zest in the famous letter in which he gravely 
took Charlotte von Stein to task, in the 
depths of her anger and grief at his union 
with Christiane Vulpius, for over exciting 
her passions with coffee. 1 

The central conception upon which all 
Goethe's interrogations of organic nature 
converge is what he calls the type. Pene- 
trated with the instinct of evolution, he 
feels out in each individual specimen the 
elements which attach it to the life of all 
other living things. 2 The crowning moment 
of his botanic studies is not the discovery of 
some rare species, but the day when he can 
report to Frau von Stein that he is on the 
point of finding the grand type of all plants 
the Urpflanzf, "a marvel which nature 
herself might envy me." But the type is 
not, in Goethe's hands, isolated from the 
multiplicity of single plants. It is rather 
a sort of intellectual nucleus, about which 
the impressions of the individual plant-world 
in all their concrete richness spontaneously 
arrange themselves in his mind, so that his 
intuition of the concrete individual has no 
sooner liberated the typical elements than 
these are caught and converted back into 
intuition, the concrete living thing appearing 
to him clothed as it were in its affinities, 
closely inwoven with the images of its 
kindred forms, and of the gradual phases of 
its growth. It was the intensity of this pro- 
cess in Goethe which made it impossible for 
him to believe that anything was ultimately 
isolated. This is what a scientific critic, in 
Goethe's last years (1822), celebrated as his 
Gegenstandliches Denken, a phrase which the 
old poet seized upon with undisguised 
pleasure, explaining it to mean that his 
thought did not detach itself from the con- 
crete objects, their impressions being absorbed 
into and penetrated by it, so that his intui- 
tion was itself thought, his thinking intui- 
tion. 3 It went along with this " objectivity 
of mind," that his way of getting to the 
typical elements was not a despotic construc- 
tion of them out of the data at hand, but a 
watching for the fruitful instances, for what, 
in an admirable phrase, he called the pregnant 
points of experience. 4 

'Letters to Fran v. Stein, ed. Schb'll, ii. 364. 
*Ital. Jlfise, 17 May 1787. 

3 Hence his characteristic difference with Schiller, 
who took the Urpfltinze to 1>e an " Idee," while 
Goethe insisted that it was an ' ' Erfahrung. " 

4 Btsondre Fiirflerung dnrch tin einziye* tteiftlrficlifs 
Wort, 1822. Hempel ed., xxvii., 351 f. 

" I never rest until I find den prcegnanien 
PunTct, from which many conclusions can be 
derived, or rather, which spontaneously be- 
gets and lays before me, conclusions which I 
with careful fidelity gather up." So, with 
benign Olympian egoism, Goethe expounds 
himself. This process of gathering up the 
typical elements at the point where they are 
most richly stored is not to be confounded 
with that which simply abstracts from a 
number of individuals what they have in 
common, arriving at a series of generic 
qualities. That is a process valuable in 
logic, but not very instructive in the study 
of living organisms. A man who tried to 
arrive at the typical Englishman by eliminat- 
ing, one by one, all the qualities in which 
Englishmen differ, would find in the crucible 
at the end of the process no John Bull, but 
an impalpable phantom of a man without 
probably so much as a taste for roast-beef to 
define him. Probably enough, too, it would 
turn out that no complete light would be 
thrown on the English type by the most 
exhaustive analysis of the commonplace 
Englishman ; that originality, far from being 
an out-of-the-way nook occupied by mere 
vagaries and eccentricities, was often the 
haunt in which the inmost secrets of national 
life were written large, and could be read 
plain ; the pregnant place, in Goethe's 
phrase, which spontaneously begets and 
brings forth large conclusions ; so that we 
should understand the common Englishman 
himself better by fathoming Shakespeare 
than by fathoming John Smith. To reach 
the type in this way demands not merely an 
analytic comparison of specimens, but, above 
all, the brooding penetrative interpretation 
of, it may be, just those specimens which 
seem to have individual stuff in them, and 
are apt to be cast aside as anomalies. And 
this was Goethe's procedure ; this was the 
inveterate habit of his mind. The famous 
instance of the intermaxillary bone need only 
be mentioned : he himself compares with this 
Gegenstandliches Denken his equally Gegen- 
stiindliche Dichlung. His finest lyrics were 
occasional poems, not merely suggested by a 
particular actual occurrence, but retaining 
the very individual stuff, so to speak, of the 
occurrence intact, merely lifted to the high- 
est level of expressive speech, and thereby 
necessarily brought into relation with 
universal experience, since this is what 
supreme expression means. He himself 
notices how it was said of his lyrics that 
each contained something individual etwas 
Eigenes. An old traditional story took pos- 
session of him ; he bore it about with him at 


times for forty or fifty years, not as an inert 
mental deposit, but alive and quick in the 
imagination, continuously transformed, but 
without suffering change, ripening towards a 
purer form and more decisive expression. 1 
So it was with the great ballads of '97 Die 
Braut von Korinth and Der Gott und dieSajadere. 
This imaginative interpretation of particulars 
differs from a mere generalisation of them, 
as the flower in the crannied wall seen in the 
light of what it is, " root and all, and all in 
all," differs from an abstract exposition of 
pantheism; or, as Millet's wonderful creation 
The Sower ' gaunt, cadaverous, and thin 
under his livery of misery, yet holding life 
in his large hand, he who has nothing 
scattering broadcast on the earth the bread 
of the future' differs from the blurred 
abstraction which Mr Galton might obtain 
from the combined photographs of all the 
sowers that ever lived. 

It was probably in his dealings with 
natural science that Goethe first became 
vividly conscious of his own method. But 
it reacted in Rome upon his interpretation 
of art, and thence upon his ideals of style. 
The Italian journals show us the former 
process as it goes on, the Roman elegies 
exhibit the latter complete. He had arrived 
in Rome, as we saw, imbued with the con- 
ception which Winckelmann had made 
general, that the essence of antique art was 
a calm and abstract beauty, to which expres- 
sion and movement were, as such, hostile. 
So prepared, it was not unnatural that his 
wholly untrained eye, ardent to discover 
that harmonious calm, had at first gazed with 
ecstasy on the insipid, and held him spell- 
bound for a week in the Pnlladian desert of 
Vicenza. At Rome, too, he found Winckel- 
mann's teaching still dominant among his 
scholars, with its least profitable elements 
exaggerated and its undeveloped germs of 
truth suppressed. During his first sojourn 
he was entirely a pupil in the hands of these 
accomplished artists, and too much their 
inferior in artistic sensibility to criticise 
their artistic methods. But he was already 
unconsciously gathering, by long days of 
delighted study in the Sistine Chapel, 
material for a different judgment; and 
when in the summer of 1787 he returned 
to Rome, and plunged with boundless zest 
into his art studies, his attitude was far 
more critical. Bungler as he remained in all 
the executive processes of art, he was now 
something more than an amateur in the 
training of the eye, and his close and familiar 

1 Bedevterule Forderung, etc., u.s., p. 352. 

intercourse with the organic life of nature, 
his sympathetic understanding of leaf and 
flower, and of the structure of the human 
body, opened to him a way of approaching 
art to which none of his artist friends had in 
any degree access. Goethe's complete ab- 
sence of pretension gave these merits their 
full weight in the society of Rome, from 
which he now affected a less severe seclusion 
than at first. Younger men gathered about 
him, fell under his spell, underwent his 
benign moulding and formative power, be- 
came incipient disciples. Already in August 
we find him hitting out what he calls a new 
principle of art interpretation, and contrast- 
ing it with that of 'the artists.' He has 
begun to model the human figure ; or, as his 
ardour phrases it : " Xow, at last the A and 
fl of all known things, the human figure, has 
got hold of me, and I of it, and I say : ' Lord, 
I will not leave go of thee, except thou bless 
me, though I should wrestle myself lame.' I 
have come upon a thought which simplifies 
many things for me. It comes to this, that 
my indomitable study of Nature, my anxious 
toil in comparative anatomy, enable me now 
to see much as a whole in Nature and in the 
antique, which the artists with difficulty dis- 
cover piecemeal, and what they do discover, 
they cannot communicate to others." * On 
Sept. 3, he wrote : " My art studies make 
great progress, my principle fits everywhere 
and interprets everything." Finally, on 
Sept. 6, more explicitly : " So much is cer- 
tain ; the old artists had as complete a 
knowledge of Nature, and as definite an idea 
of what can be represented and how it must 
be represented, as Homer had. These great 
works of art were at the same time supreme 
works of Nature, produced by men according 
to just and natural laws. All that is arbi- 
trary or fantastic falls away ; here is neces- 
sity, here is God." The ideas which he here 
conveys in allusion and epitome are probably 
those which he afterwards unfolded in the 
introduction to the Propylden, the short-lived 
effort of the prophets of art in Weimar to 
preach their gospel to a deaf nation. 2 There 
he contrasts two methods of artistic produc- 
tion. " An artist may, by instinct and taste, 
practice and experiment, succeed in eliciting 
the beautiful aspect of things, select what is 
best from the good he finds, and produce at 
least a pleasing effect ; or he may (which is 
far rarer in modern times) penetrate into the 
depth of Nature and into the depths of his 

1 Ital. Reise, Aug. 23, 1787. 

2 This suggestion is made by 0. Harnaok : 
" Goethe's Kiinstanschauung in ihrer Bedeutung ftir 
die Gegenwart," G. J., xv. 194. 


own heart, so as not only to produce what is 
superficially effective, but, vying with Nature, 
to create an intellectual organism, and give 
the work of art a content and a form by 
which it seems natural and supernatural at 
once." l Clearly, the former procedure of 
arbitrarily selecting and contriving beautiful 
forms is that piecemeal study which he 
branded in the journal, and which we know 
to have been taught by Raphael Mengs. It 
was the procedure inevitably suggested by a 
theory which would throw over the higher 
as well as the lower truthfulness of art in a 
blind pursuit of beautiful form. For a mere 
compilation of beautiful forms cannot, save 
by accident, have expression, any more than 
a volume of elegant extracts, however ingeni- 
ously pieced together, can make a poem. 
Goethe never to the end completely over- 
came Wickelmann's antithesis between beauty 
and expression ; but a man who had for 
years been reading in the single organism the 
signs of the type, and had lately achieved as 
he thought a momentous discovery in the 
process, was not likely to wholly ignore the 
aesthetic value of expression. And now 
came his eager studies of the human figure. 
From two totally different directions, through 
osteology and antique sculpture, he had con- 
verged upon this study ; now it became the 
meeting-point at which his presuppositions 
in classic art and in organic science met and 
flashed through both regions of his thought 
with an electric illumination. The creation 
of a statue became for him now akin to that 
searching interpretation of the particular 
organism by the aid of the fullest knowledge 
and the subtlest insight, which makes every 
fibre in it significant and expressive. The 
statue was for him analogous to those preg- 
nant points of organic nature in which the 
type reveals itself without being extorted 
an organism expressive in every contour of 
the permanent and persistent qualities and 
relationships of man. 

It was inevitable that when his new prin- 
ciple had thus unlocked for him, as he 
thought, the secrets of sculpture, he should 
look with other eyes upon his own art of 
poetry. The poet, like the sculptor, had not 
to pursue an abstract ideal of beauty, and 
assemble beautiful forms from all sources, but 
to reveal the typical in Nature. In this reve- 
lation Goethe now found the essence of style. 
In the profound and luminous little essay, 
written soon after his return, Einfache 
Naclwhmung der Natur, Manier, Stil, 2 he dis- 

1 Einleitung in die Propyliien (Hempel ed., 
13). Cf. Harnack, n.s., p. 187 f. 


1 Hempel ed., xxiv. 525 f. 

tinguished under these names three phases 
in the artistic rendering of form. By the 
' simple imitation of nature ' he understood 
the accurate copying of forms by one without 
insight into their origin and structure. As 
soon, however, as the detail becomes com- 
plex and minute, as in drawing a tree or 
a pebbly brook, accurate imitation tends 
to give way to some kind of convention, 
in the choice of which the artist betrays 
his own idiosyncrasy ; in Goethe's words, 
he " devises a language of his own to render 
what he has seen, a language in which the 
mind of the speaker is directly expressed 
and defined. And just as the opinions en- 
tertained on moral questions group and 
shape themselves differently in every think- 
ing spirit, so every artist of this class will 
see, apprehend and imitate the world in 
a different way." Thus arises what Goethe 
calls Mannerism. " But if the artist, by 
imitating Nature, by striving to find a uni- 
versal expression for it, by exact and pro- 
found study of the objects themselves, finally 
attains to an exact and ever exacter know- 
ledge of the qualities of things and the mode 
of their existence, so 'that he surveys the 
whole series of forms, and can range together 
and imitate the various characteristic shapes, 
then what he achieves, if he achieves his 
utmost, and what, if achieved, sets his work 
on a level with the highest efforts of man, is 
Style." In this interesting passage Goethe 
distinguishes what we might otherwise call a 
conventional treatment of things (Mannerism) 
from two modes, a lower and a higher, of 
realism. Simple imitation, he says, works, 
as it were, in the vestibule of Style. The 
more faithfully it goes to work, the more 
calmly it perceives, the more quietly it 
imitates, the more it accustoms itself to 
think about what it sees viz., to compare 
what is similar to separate and what is un- 
like, and range single objects under universal 
points of view, the more worthy it will 
become to cross the threshold of the sanc- 
tuary of style. 

It is easy from this passage to understand 
why Goethe in Italy wrestled so passionately 
with the fate, which, otherwise so bountiful, 
had denied him the artist's forming hand. 
To shape the marble or the clay would 
alone have completely solved the problem 
of the artist as he now, under the spell 
of plastic art, understood it. Again and 
again, in the Journal and Letters, he scorn- 
fully turns aside from the futility of words, 
abstract sounds which only by an indirect 
and uncertain process bring the thing to 
the eye. 



" But of a single craft Master I am, or well nigh : 

Writing German. And thus I, hapless poet, for ever 
Shaping unshapeable stud', squander my life and 
my art." 1 

In words, however, and German words, fate 
compelled him to work. Words were a 
pis alter, and he strove to make them do, as 
far as they might, the work of plastic form. 
The Roman elegies are reliefs carved in ivory 
and glowing in mellow sunlight. With the 
dull skies of the North he has left behind its 
featureless forms ; we are in a world teem- 
ing with light and colour, and where the 
light is caught and flashed back from the 
clear-cut profiles of gods and men. The 
Rome in which we find ourselves is not 
the Rome of the antiquarian or the 
tourist ; not a church, not a picture meets 
the eye, not one familiar outline of the 
historic monuments shapes itself under the 
poet's pen; the stones of Rome are silent 
in spite of his appeal ; but from the ruined 
or vanished temples the gods of the ancient 
world have come forth, their immortal youth 
fresh upon them as in the days of Phidias 
and Praxiteles, unconscious of the eighteen 
centuries of Christendom, unconscious of the 
faded figments which pseudo-classicism had 
put in their place, receive the poet's homage, 
mingle in his story and serve as symbols for 
his thought. Goethe's neo-paganism is equally 
distinct from that of Shelley and of Pope. 
The deities of Twickenham are the expiring 
pulsations of Greek myth, under the stress 
of the extruding pressure which all ethereal 
things underwent in the grip of the Latin 
tongue, where Ceres meant corn and Bacchus 
wine. The gods of Shelley, on the other 
hand, still glow and tremble with the vital 
energies of which myth is born ; they are 
of the kindred of the sun and dawn, divine 
presences detected through the shimmering 
woof of Nature, but not yet completely 
defined with human form. Goethe's deep- 
seated instinct for harmonious completeness 
and sensuous definiteness, drew him to the 
intervening epoch in which the mythic tradi- 
tion, detached from all mystic suggestion but 
not yet dissipated into phrase and fable, found 
expression under the chisel of the great sculp- 
tors in ideal human forms. For him, as for 
them, the human body is (in the words of 
Ottilie) the nearest likeness of the divine ; 
and of the antique representations of it he 
had written from Rome in words already 
quoted, ' there is necessity, there is God.' 
Human enough these gods of Goethe cer- 

1 Epigramme 29 ; ef. 77. The reasons adduced for 
understanding 'den schlechtesten Stoff' merely of 
the subject of his epigrams arc not to me convincing. 

tainly are; but their humanity clothes 
itself in unfailing grace. Olympus is not 
far above the earth, and it does not surprise 
us to find the gods the poet's guests in his 
Roman studio. He looks round the room 
with its treasured trophies of Roman art- 
shops, and it becomes a Pantheon before 
his eyes : 

<; Jupiter's godlike lirow is bent, and Juno's is lifted, 
Phoebus Apollo steps forth, shaking his crownet of 

curls ; 
Downward cast and austere is the gaze of Pallas, and 

Mercury shoots side-looks sparkling with malice 

and charm. 
But Cytherea uplifts to Bacchus the dreaming, the 


Eyes that with blissful desire still in the marble 
are moist." 1 

Or, instead of their being his guest, he in- 
voluntarily finds himself theirs. Surely neo- 
pagan rapture never found more intense ex- 
pression than in the close of the seventh 
Elegy, where he dreams himself strayed 
into Olympus : 

" May a mortal partake such bliss ? Am I dreaming ? 

or is it 

Thy Olympus indeed, father Zeus, that I tread ? 
Ah me ! here I lie, in supplication uplifting 

Unto thy knees my hands ; Jupiter Xenius, hear ! 
How I entered I know not ; but Hebe my steps as I 

Turn'd aside, and led, clasping my hand, to thy 

Hadst thou sent her to bring some hero, haply, before 

Was the fair one at fault ? Pardon I Her fault lie 

my gain ! 
Art thou the god of the guest and of them that 

welcome him ! then 
Thrust not thyown guest-friend back from Olympus 

to earth ! 
Bear with me, Zeus ! And at last may Hermes, 

tranquilly leading, 

Guide me, by Oestrus' tomb, down to the homes of 
the dead ! " 

Byron's ' Rome, my country ! city of 
my soul !' expresses a passion as ardent as 
Goethe's ; but in him the passion breaks 
forth as a thrilling lyrical cry ; Goethe's 
masterful art constrains it into living 
human or godlike shapes. The human 
form has become for him, we may almost 
say, not only the supreme but well-nigh the 
only adequate language of art ; whatever 
he has to say he strives to render in the 
idioms of this tongue. Not only the 
Roman elegies, but the few poems actually 
composed in Italy, illustrate this. That 
love opens the eyes to the splendour and 
beauty and colour of the natural world is 
a common enough poetic idea : notice how 

1 Rom. Elcgicn, xi. 


Goethe expresses it in the brilliant little 
apologue Amor als Landschaftsmaler. The 
poet was sitting at dawn upon a crag, 
gazing fixedly on the morning mist, which 
spread like a gray canvas over the land- 
scape. A boy came and stood at his side. 
Wny do you gaze thus idly on the empty 
canvas ? I will show you how to paint. And 
he stretched out his finger, that was ruddy as 
a rose, and began to draw on the broad sheet. 
Aloft he drew a beautiful sun, which glittered 
dazzling in my eyes ; then he made the 
clouds a golden edge, and sunbeams breaking 
through the clouds ; then the delicate crests 
of luxuriant trees, the hills rising boldly one 
behind another ; then, below, water that 
seemed to glitter in the sun, seemed to 
babble under the steep brink. Ah, and 
there stood flowers by the brook, and there 
were hues on the meadow, gold and pearl 
and purple and green, all like emerald and 
carbuncle ! Overhead in clear and pure 
enamel the sky, and the blue hills far and 
further; so that utterly ravished and new- 
born I gazed, now at the painter, now at his 
work. But the hardest remains. Then he 
drew again with pointed finger a little wood, 
and right at the end, where the sunlight 
blazed on the ground, a bewitching maiden, 
featly formed and daintily clad, fresh cheeks 
under brown locks, arid the cheeks were of 
like colour with the finger that drew them. 
' you boy ! ' I cried, ' what master has 
taken you to school ? ' While I yet spoke, 
lo, a breath of wind wakes and stirs the tree 
tops, ruffles all the wavelets of the brook, 
fills the perfect maiden's veil, and what 
made me more marvel as I marvelled, the 
maiden begins to move her foot, steps forth, 
and approaches the spot where I am sitting 
with my wilful master. And when all was 
moving, trees and brook and flowers and 
veil, and the dainty foot of the fairest one, 
do you imagine that I upon my rock, like a 
rock, sat still 1 " 

Some three years before the date of this 
poem, and two before he went to Italy, 
Goethe had written the yet more famous 
Zueuinuny, now prefixed to the entire series 
of his poems. It is interesting to contrast 
them. Here too an abstract thought about 
art is conveyed through an allegory. The 
German language contains no verses of more 
finished loveliness than these, but how 
different is the method ! Instead of the 
brief statement of the situation at the 
outset the poet at dawn on his rock, 
the mist, the boy we have three stanzas 
of description : the poet wakened from 
sleep, climbing the hillside to his upland 

hut, his joy in the flowers by the way, 
then the river and the mists and the sun 
breaking through ; then at length amid 
the dazzling vapours, the godlike form of 
poetic Truth. A dialogue ensues ; con- 
fession, worship on the one side, counsel, 
playful irony on the other : finally, near the 
close she lays in his hands a veil and tells 
him in two stanzas more how to use it. 
Evidently here Goethe has not yet learnt to 
suspect the futility of words which he was 
to declare so peremptorily in Italy. Had 
this been written shortly after his journey 
instead of shortly before it, how differently 
that throwing of the veil the one fragment 
of action which the poem contains would 
have been related to the scale of the whole ! 
We should not have been told how the veil 
would turn the world into poetry for the 
poet ; we should have seen it flung and 
watched that transformation going on before 
our eyes, as we watch the landscape growing 
under the hand of Amor. 

But this is not the only interesting point 
of comparison. Italy has given Goethe a 
totally new apprehension of colour, of 
definitcness in form. The Amor als Land- 
scluiftsmaler was written in the intervals of 
a sketching tour amid the autumnal splen- 
dour of the woods of Frascati. A letter of 
nearly the same date as the poem (Nov. 
24, 1787) brings this vividly home to us. 
" There is a brilliance and at the same time 
a harmony, a graduation in the colouring of 
the whole, of which in the north we have no 
conception. With you everything is either 
hard or dull, gay or monotonous." Brilliant 
and harmonious too is his own landscape in 
the Amor ; it has the clear bright colouring 
of Raphael's frescoes in the Farnesina, with 
their deep blue background, like blue hills 
and pellucid enamelled sky. The Zueignung 
landscape has the quite different charm of 
the North; the clear outlines grow delicately 
uncertain ; mists lie low along the river and 
wander in fantastic drifts and eddies along 
the mountain side, or make a dazzling veil 
of sheen for the sun : it is not the brilliance 
of the blossoms which strikes him but their 
dewy freshness. And most significantly of 
all, the delight in a nebulous and tremulous 
beauty thus communicated to the landscape 
is embodied also in the image which figures 
the relation of poetry to truth ; it is not the 
wonder-working rosy finger of Amor, glorify- 
ing the blank canvas with colour, but a veil, 
not a veil like the maiden's to float grace- 
fully in the breeze, but one "of morning 
vapour woven and radiant sunlight," that 
softens and modulates the harshness of 


actuality, allays the throb of passion, and 
makes day lovely and night fair. 

It is not, however, in the Amor or the 
Roman elegies, brilliantly plastic as they 
are, that we find the most enduring artistic 
fruit of his Italian journey. The sensuous 
splendour of the Italian world, culminat- 
ing in the glory of the human form re- 
vealed in antique sculpture, for a time 
hurried him along paths which were not 
absolutely his own. He returned home 
after twenty months' absence full of the 
deep content of one who has stilled the in- 
tellectual hunger of years, to find a chilly 
welcome in the little German court from 
which he had fled. Weimar had not quite 
forgiven his disappearance : it retailed 
scandalous stories of his habits, and grudged 
him his well-salaried leisure ; he on his part 
chafed at the constraints of German Sitte, and 
remembered the free Bohemian carnemderie 
of the studios of Rome. His literary 
prestige itself was threatened. When the 
MSS. of Iphigenie and of Egmonf, laboriously 
re-written, reached Weimar from Rome, his 
friends admitted their merit but regretted 
the author of Werther ; and now all the 
youthful impetuosity of genius which the 
author of Werther had flung from him in its 
pages was renewed in the young poet of the 
Robbers, who had come to Weimar in Goethe's 
absence, and had moreover emphatically dis- 
approved of the Egmont. Not without 
pique at this want of response, Goethe gave 
his Roman humour full bent ; sacrificed with 
hardly a pang the friendship of Charlotte 
von Stein by an informal union with a 
burgher's daughter, and wrote of his love as 
Propertius and Tibullus had written of theirs, 
in the aggressively pagan Roman elegies. 
Aggressively pagan Goethe clearly was in 
these first years after his return. The 
German north was slow to emerge for him 
from its mantle of Cimmerian darkness, slow 
to recover its power of appeal to an eye 
steeped in the glow of Raphael and of Sicily. 
And Christianity was not lightly or soon 
forgiven its ascetic chastisement of the 
senses, its flagellations of the form that 
Phidias had carved, its monastic sequestra- 
tions of beauty, its tramplings upon passion. 
Thirty years later Goethe, though still com- 
pletely untouched by Christian theology, was 
to find a noble expression for Christian 
religion as that which teaches the reverence 
for what is below us. 1 But in 1797 it was 
rather his humour to tell with imcomparable 
Alan the legend of the betrothed maiden of 

1 Ifilhelm Mcister's Wanderjahre, Book ii. 

Corinth who dies under the ascetic con- 
straints of her Christian parents, but wins 
back through the unconquerable power of 
love from the grave itself to the embraces of 
her unseen and unknown lover ! l 

But Goethe was too great and too deeply 
rooted in the mind of his time to be ab- 
solutely and completely the ' old pagan ' 
he pleasantly called himself. Antiquity 
was once for all gone, and to be literally 
ancient was to fail to be truly antique. 
The moral consciousness of the world had 
been definitely enriched, its horizon enlarged. 
To feel and think like Propertius or even 
like Plato in the nineteenth century, is to 
be something less tlian Propertius and some- 
thing less than Plato ; for " the ancient 
civilisation," as the Master of Balliol has 
said in an admirable essay, "was not im- 
poverished, as such a revival of it must 
be, by ignoring problems which had not 
yet been opened up." Goethe of all men 
could not ignore the problems of the modern 
world ; he was penetrated by them. His 
deep-rooted instinct for the organic, which 
had thrown a new light for him upon the 
expressiveness of antique art, tended yet 
more inevitably to dissolve the barriers 
which, for him, severed the antique, like 
a] sacred precinct, from the profane modern 
world. The passionate student of natural 
history could not persist in disdaining all 
flowers but the rose. And the student of 
the natural history of man could not per- 
sistently refrain from applying the new-won 
wealth of his art to the living organism 
which alone he intimately and profoundly 
knew, the German burgherdom about him. 
Many other influences, with which we are 
not here concerned, contributed to the 
production of Hermann und Dorothea ; the 
stimulus of Schiller's friendship, the habitua- 
tion to epic narrative gained (under what- 
ever different conditions) in Keineke /V7i.-- 
and J-yUhelm Meister ; the example of Voss ; 
and the exorcism by which F. A. Wolf had 
banished (1795), as he and Goethe thought, 
the great constraining shade of Homer, and 
made it possible to step out and walk in 
the large Homeric way without adventur- 
ing to do battle with a god. We are rather 
concerned to see how those two lines of 
Goethe's development which we have been 
following out his discipline in Greek Art 
and in organic nature, after meeting in his 
theory of criticism and in his theory of 
style now, at length, came together har- 
moniously blended in his poetry. Goethe 

1 Die Brnut von Korinth. 



himself, recognising perhaps most clearly 
what he had reached with most toil, de- 
clared that all the merits of his epic were 
those of sculpture. How much it owes to 
sculpture is obvious : the plastic beauty of 
the forms, the absence of those critical or 
reflective divagations which escape the pen 
so much more easily than the scalpel, the 
subordination of effects of colour to those 
of contour and mass. And the entire draw- 
ing is guided by an exquisite instinct for 
the typical, in that kind which we have 
seen to characterise Goethe. Hermann and 
Dorothea are perfectly individual, yet they 
are at the same time pregnant points in which 
the life-history of an endless vista of German 
manhood and womanhood may be read. A 
typical German community, with its habitual 
activities and routine, yet everywhere dis- 
closing the secret of its own persistence, 
the stuff of heart and character in which, 
generation after generation it stands rooted, 
is unfolded before us with the simplest 
yet profoundest art, steeped in that implicit 
poetry which for Goethe habitually invested 
the enduring relations of things. And the 
subtlest feeling for environment inspires the 
drawing of the human figures of this com- 

' Wo sick nah der Natur menschlich der Mensch noch 

In the simple story of the innkeeper's son, 
we read the whole economy of a community 
firmly planted in the soil ; we see its 
orchards and gardens and vineyards, we 
see the burgher's thrift and the watchful eye 
of the house-wife. And across this thriv- 
ing community is thrown, with the finest 
effect, the wreckage of one abruptly up- 
rooted and dispersed, while again out of 
that wreckage detaches itself the noble 
figure of Dorothea, homeless and exiled, 
but a perpetual wellspring of all the qualities 
which give cohesion to society and build 
up the home. In drawing of detail too, 
the sculpturesque intuition is persistently 
blended with organic feeling : there is a 
suppleness in the clear forms, a tenderness 
in the unhesitating profiles. This large 
flexible speech impresses on all that enters 
its embrace a delicate precision of form, 
but also elicits everywhere subtle sugges- 
tions of growth. When Hermann and 
Dorothea walk homeward through the corn- 
fields towards the stormy sunset, they are 
gladdened by the tall waving corn, which al- 
most reaches their tall figures ; the gladness 
of harvest, and the comeliness of goodly 
stature, stealing upon our imagination from 
the same two lines. The stamping horses 

whose thunder we hear under the gateway, 
or which we watch speeding homeward eager 
for the stall, while the dust-cloud springs 
up under their mighty hoofs, are drawn 
by a man who has looked on the glorious 
fraternal four of bronze that champ and 
curvet over the portal of Saint Mark's. Yet, 
on the other hand, what depths of patri- 
archal sentiment, of the feeling that gathers 
about the home lands where for unremem- 
bered generations men have sown and 
reaped and garnered, taking their life from 
the earth, and at last laid to rest in it, 
lies in a single utterly simple line : " These 
fields are ours ; they grow ripe for the morrow's 
harvest." Here those two springs of poetry 
well up apart; more often they blend too 
intimately for the finest analysis. At other 
times their currents meet and mingle with- 
out indistinguishably blending, like the gray 
Danube and the green Inn at Passau. Her- 
mann and Dorothea descend in the gloam- 
ing through the vineyard to his father's 
house. On the rough unhewn steps her 
foot slips and twists ; she is near falling. 
" Swiftly he spread his arms and supported 
her; gently she sank on his shoulder, 
breast drooped upon breast, and cheek upon 
cheek. So he stood, rigid as a marble 
image, controlled by resolute will, did not 
clasp her closer, but stayed himself against 
her weight. And so his senses were filled 
with his glorious burden, the warmth at her 
heart and the balm of her breath, exhaled 
upon his lips, and he felt the man in him 
as he bore her womanhood's heroic stature." 
One easily feels the hand of the sculptor in 
that fine description ; in the precision with 
which not only profile, but pose, the strain or 
relaxation of muscle, are realised, the fearless 
insistance on weight and stature, heedless of 
the Romantic canon which forbids a heroine 
to be heavy. Yet, on the other hand, what 
breathing vitality, what warmth and frag- 
rance, in every line ! 

Let me, finally, in a few sentences, give a 
somewhat wider horizon to this study of 
Goethe's style at the moment of its maturest 
perfection. In his later poetry the exquisite 
balance between plastic and organic feeling 
is somewhat disturbed ; under the influence 
of Schelling, the mysterious and impalpable 
aspects of organic nature grow more and 
more dominant in his mind, and it becomes 
the office of poetic expression not to strive 
to body forth the impalpable, but to suggest 
it by likeness and symbol. Alles Vergiing- 
liche ist nur ein Gleichniss all the vesture of 
man's thought and speech becomes but a 
parable of the eternal infinity of Nature. 


Goethe lived in a time when, alike through 
poetry and science, the universe of sense and 
thought was at countless points acquiring a 
new potency of appeal to man. All things, 
as Wordsworth said, were speaking; and the 
multitudinous chorus found nowhere so 
complete an interpretation as on Goetlie's 
clear harp of divers tones. Wordsworth 
and Shelley render certain aspects of ex- 
ternal Nature, the loneliness of the moun- 
tains, the tameless energy of wind, with an 
intensity which makes all other Nature 
poetry pale. But they looked with cold or 
uninspired eyes on the whole world of art, 
on the mystery of the Gothic vault, the glory 
of Attic marble. Except under certain broad 
and simple aspects the patriot, the peasant, 
the child they were strange to the world of 
man. Their ' Nature ' was not yet the 
unendliche Natur, at whose breasts all things 
in heaven and earth drink of the springs of 
life. Wordsworth's aspiration to tell of man 
barricaded ever more within the walls of 
cities remained an unfulfilled item in the 
programme of a recluse ; and Shelley's cham- 
pion of oppressed humanity hung far aloof 
from men among the caverns and precipices 
of Caucasus. Physical Nature they 
spiritualise rather than interpret. Words- 
worth has, like Goethe, the " quiet eye," 
and sees and renders with a precision as 
delicate as his the forms of things the 
daisy's star-shaped shadow on the stone ; he 
feels with equal or perhaps greater intensity 
the being of the flower, but he does not, like 
Goethe, feel its becoming. Nature for him 
has something of the rigidity of his own 
character. With Shelley, on the contrary, 
the vitality of Nature streams and pulses 
through its whole fabric with an intensity 

which dissolves all form and structure into 
light and air, and anticipates the slow aeons 
of organic change with momentous crises of 
convulsion. Goethe alone is the poet of the 
Nature that evolves. In this direction, no 
doubt, we must also recognise the sources of 
his limitations. He was so penetrated with 
the instinct of harmonious evolution that he 
pursued it by too short and simple paths, 
arrived too easily at the goal. The mathe- 
matician, who lays the concrete totality on 
the rack of a disintegrating analysis, was as 
abhorrent to him as the caricaturist who 
mutilates the beauty of truth with burlesque. 
From the tragic side of life he turned with 
an aversion not wholly born of pity. And 
tragedy itself insensibly missed, in his hands, 
the supremest heights of pity and terror. 
Faust is not wrung with the remorse of 
Othello, and his reconciliation attains a har- 
mony more complete, perhaps, but of a 
lower kind than that which we enter through 
the purifying pity which the merciless poig- 
nancy of Othello's tragedy inspires. Yet 
harmony is the last word of art as of life, 
the final postulate of religion and phil- 
osophy ; and if Goethe rarely, like Shake- 
speare, evoked poetry from the supreme 
agonies and anarchies of men and states, if 
he knew neither the divine anger of Dante 
nor his diviner love, and had seen neither 
the depths of hell nor the heights of heaven, 
he yet toiled for two generations towards 
the mastery of a world, of which their 
horizon encircled but narrow portions, the 
image of the indwelling reason of the uni- 
verse slowly growing articulate through the 
ages in the intellect and imagination, the 
ordered knowledge and ideal art of Man. 


AMONG the scanty fragments of shorter Old 
High German poems which have come down 
to our times, but few surpass the political 
ballad " De Heinrico " in interest and diffi- 
culty. Its peculiar North Rhenish dialect, 
its metre and style, at once popular and 
learned, especially the mixture of Latin 
and German with which we meet here for 
the first time in Old German poetry, 1 are no 

1 For the only other O.H.G. specimen of this 
kind of maccaronic poetry, the text of which is 
almost entirely erased from the MS., but which 
very probably was a dialogue between a cleric and 
a nun, see Haupt's Zeitschrift, xxx. 190 sqq., 
and R. Kogel, Geschichte d. d. Litt. bis zum 
Ausgaug des Mittelalters, i. 2, pp. 136-140. 

less interesting than the investigation into 
the historical circumstances under which 
the poem may have been written in the 
second half of the tenth century. 

Up to quite recently it was considered 
to refer to a reconciliation of the German 
Emperor, Otto I. (936-73), with his re- 
bellious brother Henry I., Duke of Bavaria. 
About the time and place of the reconcilia- 
tion different scholars held different views, 
but all agreed that a friendly meeting of the 
brothers was celebrated by a singer whose 
sympathies were with Henry, and who was 
anxious to praise and to justify the Duke's 
conduct. For the study of the different 


views proposed as to the time and place of 
this meeting, I must refer to the bibliographi- 
cal notes given at the end of this article. 

All conjectures as to the historical foun- 
dations of our poem were mainly based on 
the three lines which follow immediately 
on an introductory stanza of four lines, in 
which the minstrel implores the help of 
Christ for a song in praise of ' a certain 
duke, Lord Henry, who gloriously protected 
(i.e. ruled over) the realm of the Bavarians.' 
The following three lines run thus in all the 
older editions of our poem : 

Intraiis nempe nuntius, then keisar manoda her thus : 
' cur sedcs ' infit ' Otdo ' ther unsar keisar giiodo ? 
hie adest Heinrich, braother hera kuniglich. 

If the reading of the last line should 
prove to be doubtful or incorrect, of course 
all speculations as to the historical events 
referred to must be carefully re-considered. 
Grave doubts as to the correctness of the 
reading bruother kunirjlich '(thy) royal 
brother,' i.e. Henry, have arisen of late, 
and it is of the greatest importance to 
have this question settled definitely before 
the historical investigations can be pro- 
ceeded with. 

The precious poem has been preserved 
for us in but one manuscript, a most valu- 
able parchment volume of the eleventh 
century, containing a. number of very 
interesting pieces by different hands. The 
portion containing the so-called ' Cam- 
bridge songs' was, according to Sir E. M. 
Thompson of the British Museum, not 
written by a professional scribe, but by an 
English lover and collector of poetry. The 
MS. (marked Gg. 5. 35) is now preserved 
among the treasures of the Cambridge 
University Library, and our poem is 
written in a very neat and careful hand- 
writing on fol. 437 ro - b - and 437 voa - close to 
the end of the manuscript. 1 

The writing of by far the greater portion 
of the poem is still very clear, and does not 
admit of the slightest doubt ; the dark ink 
shines in most places as if it had been 
used but yesterday, and not 800 years ago. 
Unfortunately, however, those very words 
which are of paramount importance for 

1 Every leaf has the length of 21 '85 cm., and the 
width of 14'85 cm., hence approximatively 22 to 15. 
On every page there are two columns of 40 lines 
each. The initials of the poems are painted in red ; 
in the case of " De Heinrieo " a space for the initial 
was left open by the scribe, but it was afterwards 
not put into its proper place, but only added in a 
somewhat reduced size on the margin of the manu- 
script. For a more detailed description of the MS. 
see the book by R. Priebsch mentioned hereafter. 

the historical explanation of the whole 
are now partly gone. 1 The most im- 
portant line is the fifth from the bottom 
of the page, and the end of each of the 
last lines has become either obscured or 
quite rubbed out, probably through the 
action of the fingers turning over the leaf. 
In these places the parchment is now com- 
pletely worn off, and its former yellowish 
tint has become whitish-grey. 

As a basis for the following observa- 
tions, I now print the last eight lines on 
fol. 437 ro - b - exactly as they are now legible 
in the manuscript : 

Intranf nempe nuntiuf then 
keifar namoda her thuf cur fede?. 
infit otdo ther unfar keifar 
guodo hie adeft heinrich bri 
her hera kuniglich dignum tibi 
fore thir felue nioze fine 

Tune furrexit otdo ther unfar 
keifar guodo prex illi obuia 

Thus it appears that the all-important 
word bruother does not really now stand in 
the MS., if, indeed, it ever stood there. 2 

When, in 1885, I collated 3 and tran- 
scribed from our Cambridge MS. all the 
poems which had been printed in the 
Denkm aler, I did, of course, not fail 
to call Scherer's attention to the doubtful 
reading of the MS. concerning this im- 
portant passage. When, after Scherer's 
premature death, Steinmeyer brought out 
his excellent new edition of the Denk- 
maler (1892), he was in possession of all 
my collations and transcripts. In the 
Notes to the text (ii. 106), Steinmeyer 
made the ingenious conjecture that in- 
stead of br[uof]her, the reading should be 
br[ingi(]her. I turned at once to the MS. 
again to see if by any chance this conjecture 
would be confirmed by some faint traces of 
letters ; but, in spite of repeated efforts, I 
was unable to see anything. 

In the following year Dr E. Priebsch, who 
was at that time collecting the materials for 
his admirable book " Deutsche Handschriften 
in England" (Part i., Erlangen, 1896), natu- 
rally bestowed a great deal of time and 

1 In the case of some other poems the reading is 
impossible, or at best most doubtful, because at a 
very early date the lines were erased and darkened 
by the use of chemicals. Holes in the parchment 
existed even before the poems were written down. 
They have in no place spoilt the text. Mistakes of 
the scribe are pretty frequent in other poems, and 
also in " De Heinrieo. " The last edition of the 
Denkmiiler gives in every case reliable information. 

1 The final es in Tedes is almost completely rubbed 
out, and the final bi in tibi is nearly gone. 

a See also my article, " Zu den Cambridge!' 
Liedern," Zeitschr. f. d. d. A..XXX. (1886), 186-92. 


attention upon our MS., of which he 
elaborated a most minute description, and 
one day, with the help of a reagens, he 
read quite clearly, not indeed bringit, but 
bringt. He told me immediately afterwards 
of his discovery, and inserted a preliminary 
notice of it into the Anzeiger f. d, d. A., 
xx. (1894), 207. He subsequently dis- 
cussed the passage at greater length and 
with much critical acumen as to its altered 
political bearings in his " Deutsche Hand- 
schriften in England," i. 25 sqq. When, a 
few days after his discovery, I looked up 
the passage once more, the place was as 
dull as ever ; and when I was anxious to 
repeat the experiment, the principal librarian 
shrank from allowing a second use of the 
reagens. It was, however, applied at last 
in 1886 in the presence of our principal 
librarian, F. Jenkinson, and Sir E. M. 
Thompson, the widely experienced keeper of 
the MSS. of the British Museum. Neither 
Dr Thompson nor I could then see anything 
definite after bn, while Mr Jenkinson 
believed to see part of the tail of an old 
English g (,"]), and after it a very faint t. 

In the meantime German scholars began 
to investigate the poem afresh, and quite 
recently Braune adopted the reading Irimjit 
in the new edition of his " Althochdeutsches 
Lesebuch" (Halle, 4 1897), while Kogel took 
pains to defend the older reading bruother 
in his " Geschichte der deutschen Litteratur 
bis zum Ausgange des Mittelalters " (I. 2, 
132 sqq. Strassburg, 1897). Several other 
scholars are said to be at present working 
at the poem. It may therefore, after all 
that has been said on the subject, still be 
of use to state clearly where we now are, so 
far as the mere reading of the contested line 
in the MS. is concerned. 

First of all, it should be borne in mind 
that most of the writers who have discussed 
the passage, and have often materially con- 
tributed to the proper understanding of the 
text, have not been able to see the MS. 
themselves. From this fact a few miscon- 
ceptions have naturally arisen. 

J. C. Eccard, who in 1720 edited "De 
Heinrico " for the first time, had no access 
to the MS. itself. He published the poem 
in his "Veterum Monumentorum Quaternio" 
(pp. 49-52), with a few additional remarks, 
under the title "Poema in Henricum Pala- 
tinum Rheni," adding " ab anonymo 
Lotharingo." On p. 51, Eccard informs 
the reader that the poem had been sent 
to him (ex codice membranaceo Cantabrigiense 
trammissum). He does not mention when 
and from whom he received it, or when the 

transcript was made. 1 Eccard's text is very 
unreliable, and unfortunately contains no 
statement as to any possible doubt or 
difficulty in the reading of the MS. He 
prints simply (without any regard to the 
division of the phrases in the MS.): 

Intrans nempe nuntius 
Then Keisar namoda, 
Herthas, cur sedis, infit, Otdo 
Ther unsar Keisar guodo 
Hie . . . adest Heinrich 
Bruother, hera Kuniglich 
Dignum tibi fore 
Thit selve more. 

From these facts one would be inclined to 
conclude that in 1720 the letters making up 
the word brwtjher could still be plainly read 
in the MS., as it seems hardly probable that an 
Englishman unacquainted with old German, 
as the rest of the transcript proves him to 
have been, would have been able to make 
up this word. 

Wackernagel and Lachmann, who did so 
much for the improvement and explanation 
of the text, did not inspect the MS. either ; 
nor did Hoffmann v. Fallersleben, who 
printed Wackernagel's improved version 
(Fundgruben, i. 340), endeavour to obtain 
a new collation. At the end of the sixties 
Jaffc5 came to Cambridge, went carefully 
through the part of the MS. containing 
the songs, and published the result of his 
labours in the Zeitschr. f. d. d. A., xiv. 
(1869). But, strangely enough, he has 
not (on p. 451) a single word of doubt as 
to the correctness of the reading bruot/her, 
although he set right several trifling mis- 
takes in the first edition of the Denkmiiler. 
This looks as if Jaffe accepted the reading 
bruot/her, the importance of which he cer- 
tainly realised. After him, Braune, Piper 
and others printed the text, without 
apparently having had recourse to the 

When, in 1885, I went over the same 
ground again, and could not find any 
distinct traces of letters after the bn, I 
asked my late friend Henry Bradshaw, 
then principal librarian and one of the 
greatest authorities in all matters concern- 
ing manuscripts, to look with me at the 
passage. We repeated our readings several 

1 It is difficult to guess who may have transcribed 
it, together with the few purely Latin poems which 
E. published from the same MS. The influence of 
Hickes and his friends seems to be noticeable. 
Hickcs, it is true, had died in 1715. In 1722 John 
Smith published at Cambridge his edition of the 
Old English Bede. The University Librarians were : 
1712-18, P. Brooke, B.D., Joh.; 1718-21, T. Macro, 
M.A. , Caius College. 


times on the brightest days of May and 
June, but neither he nor I could decipher 
any more. Being scrupulously particular 
as to the handling of the MSS. entrusted 
to his care, he felt unable to permit the 
use of a reagens for which I then asked 
him more than once. I consulted the MS. 
again in 1886 for my friend W. Seelmann 
(see his article in the Ndd. Jb., xii. 75 
sqq.), who, while not doubting the correct- 
ness of bruother, wondered if, instead of the 
following hem, the reading should not be 
rather hori. But hera stands unmistakably 
in the MS. 

The last scholar who came to Cambridge 
in order to inspect the MS. was Professor 
Paul Piper. He took a copy at Christmas, 
1895, but he apparently did not suspect the 
original reading bruother. 

Thus the matter stands at present. Several 
people who, in former years, were able to 
consult the MS. have read bntot/her; Priebsch 
is perfectly convinced that, with the help 
of his reagens, he has clearly seen bringt ; 
now, only bn can be read for certain, even 
with the help of a fresh reagens and a good 
magnifying glass. It is scarcely to be hoped 
that, after the repeated treatment with chemi- 
cals, the MS. will ever disclose to our eyes 
the few strokes on which so very much de- 
pends for the interpretation of the poem. 

Under the circumstances, it is difficult to 
arrive at a satisfactory decision. It cannot 
be denied that the fact that bruotjher, a form 
not easily to be guessed by an Englishman 
transcribing the poem in the early eighteenth 
century, was originally read, and was NOT 
challenged by scholars so careful as Jaffe and 
Piper, speaks much in favour of adhering to the 
older reading. Again, in spite of Priebsch's 
clever argumentation, it seems very doubtful 
whether we ought to admit in so early a 
poem the form bringt instead of bringit. 
Braune consequently prints bringit in the 
last edition of his Lesebuch. Still, it is 
but fair to admit that the space would 
permit the longer form bringit; it will be 
seen from my transcript that words are 
more than once put close on to the margin. 
A much greater difficulty, as far as room 
goes, is the admission of a complete n 
before the g (see below). The t, which 
Priebsch asserts to have seen clearly, and 
faint traces of which I have now and again 
also believed to discover (only with the 
horizontal stroke a little more downward 
than usual), would do equally well for bruot. 
A very slight, roundish impression just before 
it would rather speak in favour of an original 
o, than of the upper part of an old English g 

( 5), 1 the tail of which Priebsch is convinced 
to have recognised ; while to me it seemed, 
if anything, rather to be a casual and mean- 
ingless spot on the parchment. And if one 
would really read a g before the t, it would 
be most difficult to find room for an n. 
After the bn there is only room for one 
more stroke before the g (or o) begins. This 
would well do to make bru-o, but would not 
quite suffice for brin-g. 

But if most of these points are rather in 
favour of the reading bruot/her, another point, 
not mentioned by Priebsch, seems to speak 
against it, and supports his own reading. If 
we look at the way in which the words are 
divided in our MS., we find in " De Heinrico " 
the following : fan/tor, be^thiu, scojne, michfjlon; 
in the purely Latin pieces : sal/wret, salujte, 
mo/uendo, 'piejtatis, etc. Thus we see in every 
instance a proper division of the words, Ger- 
man or Latin. The most instructive instance 
is be/thiu, ' both,' which seems to prove that 
the two letters (th), which denote but one 
sound, were not separated by the scribe, 
who himself spoke the voiced spirantic sound 
(which once, in 1. 20, he rendered by the 
proper Old English runic letter }>). If he 
had wished to divide the word, he would 
in all probability have written bruo/ther. 
This seems to me a very strong argument 
in favour of bringit. 

I will not here discuss the historical bear- 
ing of the new reading, but I readily admit 
that some words of the poem, especially the 
most puzzling ambo von aeqiiivoci (I. 13), would 
find a much easier explanation by theadoption 
of Steinmeyer's conjecture and of Priebsch's 
interpretation of the historical allusions. 

[Some recent literature on the 
subject TEXT OF THE POEM: K. Miil- 
lenhoff und W. Scherer, Denkmiiler 
deutscher Poesie und Prosa aus dem viii.- 
xii. Jahrhundert, 3rd ed., by E. Steinmeyer, 
Berlin, 1892 ; I., 39-40; II., 99-106 (notes). 
W. Braune, Althochdeutsches Lesebuch, 
Halle, 4 1897; No. xxxix., pp. 147-8. P. Piper, 
Nachtriige zur alteren deutschen Litteratur 
von Kiirschners deutscher National-Littera- 
tur. pp. 221-2. Stuttgart (no year, 1898). 
DISCUSSION: W. Seelmann, Jahrbuch des 
Vereins fiir niederdeutsche Sprachforschung, 
xii. (1886), 75-89. J. Kelle, Geschichte der 
deutschen Litteratur von der altesten Zeit 

1 In the part of the MS. which contains the 
' Cambridge Songs,' many letters occur indis- 
criminately, now in the Knglish and now in the 
Continental form, or in double forms current on the 
Continent. These letters are g, r, t, f, uu, th, d. 
See also Z. f. d. d. A., xxx. 188, and Priebsch, 
D. H. i. E., i. 22-23. 


bis zur Mitte des elften Jahrhunderts, Berlin, 
I. (1892), 194 sqq. R. P r i e b s c h, Deutsche 
Handschriften in England ; Erlangun, I. 
(1896), 25-27. R. Kogel, Geschichte der 
deutschen Litteratur bis zum Ausgange des 
Mittelalters ; I. ii. (1897), 126-130 (here the 
older literature is given in full). K. 
the Anzeiger f. d. d. A., xxiv. (1898), 59 (this 
note was written more than two years ago). 
FACSIMILE: F. Vogt und Max Koch, 

Geschichte der deutschen Litteratur von 
den iiltesten Zeiten bis zur Gegenwart, 
Leipzig und Wieu, 1897 ; pp. (53-)55. (The 
passage selected does, unfortunately, not 
contain the line discussed above, but is 
its direct continuation. It gives the last 
two lines of fol. 437 r - 1) and the rest of the 
poem from fol. 437. 




AN MEHREREN PLATZEN der Additional-hs. 
n r 11, 66 1 1 des British-Museums hat ein 
gewisscr Arno Waghemans die Schrif'tziige 
setzen ihn ins XVI. Jh. Eintriige gemaeht. 
teils in lateinischer, teils in niederliindischer 
Sprache. Um die letztern handelt es sich 

Der erste, der unter dem Titel ' Hier wield 
een geestelijck referet/n ' Bl. 86 b -87 b einnimmt, 
erweist sich als ein Refereyri der Anna Bijns, 
gedruckt in ' Nieuwe Refereinen van Anna 
Bijns, Maatsch. d. Vlaam. Bibl. 4 C Reeks n r ' 
als n r XI. S. 40-43. Nur fehlt das ' Prince ' 
und die Fassung zeigt in den vorhandenen 
4 Strophen betrachtliche Abweichungen, die 
ich hier notiere, abgesehn von solchen rein 
orthographischer Natur. 

A 4 ghymoetse nwt eruen, 6 Het eynde alder 
iuecht, 10 wijsheit, 14 En geproefl fehlt, 17 
lautet: Muer nochlans ten leste heffi lekent, 18 
D<it alle eere wuechde en rijcdu es ee idel net, 
19 al fehlt durchgehend in diesem Verse. 

B 5 Die, hier voermuels leefde[n] zander 
trueren, 1 inder eerde, 8 lautet : Van god ver- 
laten, 9 nv buten, 10 oft triuplieringhe. 

C 3 ooc fehlt, 6 Liet hem van letsabee o'sette 
god vreesende irient, 10 Als sij ginck die creatuere 
beswuwen, 11-15 Die Coninck Salomon wijs 
ghesint Van gode bemint Wert soo seer wrUint 
Aenbiddende afgoden door die vr/mwen, 16 zij 
fehlt, ebenso dagelijcj;, 18 Want ic singhe noch 
eens mijn mtde lief. 

D 2 noch lewijsen (ein klar liegendes 
Versehn des Schreibers fiir xpijsen), 3 ... 
ex bitterheit geminct, 4 irel fehlt, 5 nae niet, 
6 ... loopt niet thuijs cnbrinct, 1 Siet hoemen 
bncketteert houeert oft drineU, 8-9 Hoe vrnlijcl: 

1 Perg. XV. Jh. Bl. 131, quarto, mit Werken 
Johannis Gerson, Cancellarii Parisiensis, besonders 
(1-36) tractatus duo de theologia mystica, et de 
practica theologiae mystioae. Auf 3 a : Bibliothecae, 
D. Michaelis, Antuerpiae. 

datmer (!) singei Speelt danst oft spingt, 10 
A 14 al . . . soo mod . . . dachtich wese, 11- 
13 Och die werelt meer galle dan honincxs 
sdncU Altijt hier op dincU. Vseluen be- 
diinckt, 14 sal v, 15 en uilt, 16 werelt witf r 
i/ln-.-ii'liicf, 18 Wairi ic seg wederom myn ici-ntr 

Darauf : Amen. Mint god bove al. 

E fehlt. 

Ob diese verhiiltnismiissig bedeutsamen 
Abweichungen auf die uberarbeitende Hand 
Waghemans zuriick zufiihren wiiren oder ob 
sie schon seiner Vorlage (etwa einer ersten 
Niederschtift der Anna Bijns) angehort haben 
mogen, weiss ich nicht zu entscheiden. Bes- 
serungen sind sie indessen in der Gesammt- 
heit der Falle nicht. 

Der zweite Eintrag, auf den Blattern 127 1 '- 
1 29 b ,istdie PARAPHRASE des schonen Hymnus 
'VENI SANCTI SPIRITUS.' Unwillkiirlich 
driingt sich die Frage auf, ob nicht auch an 
ihr Anna Bijns Eigentumsrecht besitzt. Die 
Nachbarschaft des erwahnten Refereins, die 
bei der Lectiire ihrer Gedichte ins Auge 
springende Aehnlichkeit des Stils und ein- 
zelner Bilder, 1 nicht zum mindesten endlich 
der behandelte Stoff, scheinen das Recht zu 
dieser Vermutung zu geben. Auch die 
gewiihlte dichterische Form die 4 zeilige 
Strophe lindet sich bei Anna Bijns wieder. 2 
Auff'allend bleibt es nur, dass weder in der 
sonstigen hsl. Uberlieferung noch in den 
Drucken soweit ich aus deren neuerlichen 
Publicationen ersehn kann, unser Gedicht 
vorkommt. Ich begniige mich daher obige 
Vermutung ausgesprochen zu haben. 

1 Man vgl. z. b. Refereyn X. in v. Helten's Ansgabe, 
Rotterdam, 1875, S. 253 ff. 

2 Vgl. a.a.O. Refereyn XI. und Refereyn XCI. in 
der Ausg. d. vlaam. Biblioph.; freilich ist in beiden 

* Fallen die Reimform gekiinstelter (Ketendichten en 


Unserer Fassung, die 35 + 2 (offenbar 
Schreiberzusatz) 4 zeilige Strophen nach 
dem Reimschema abab ziihlt, liegt, wie schon 
angedeutet, der Hymnus ' Veni sancte 
spiritus ' (Mone L, n r 186) zugrande. Er ist 
laut den lat. Randglossen verarbeitet in den 
Strophen in.-v., xix.-xxi., XXIIL, xxv., 
xxxiv. f. Ebendiese Glossen weisen aber 
auch Beniitzung der Hymne 'Veni creator 
spiritus' (Mone I., n r 184) fiir II. (IV.) und 
xxn. nach, ferner von Ps. 93, 12 fiir XXVIIL, 
von Esaias 40, 31 fiir xni., Lucas 12, 49 
fiir xvii., Rom. 8, 26 fiir xxxn. f., und 
Galat. 6, 14 fiir X. Woraus dagegen die 

zu VI., xxn. (Infunde, etc.) und xxvn. 
notierten Stellen entnommen sind, weiss ich 
nicht ; die rythmische Form der beiden, 
letzten mag ebenfalls auf einen Hymnus 

Bei dem folgenden Textabdrucke habe ich 
die Interpunction eingefiihrt, die Ortho- 
graphie aber dahin geregelt, dass ich vor e 
und i durchwegs gh schrieb, dann w fiir das 
stellenweis stehende v ; ferner wurde hie 
und da auftretende Langenbezeichnung in 
offener Silbe beseitigt, fiir oe (o) in geschlos- 
sener Silbe oo, fiir y in derselben Stellung ij 


I. O heiligJten gheest, mijn god, mijn heere, 
Een stepper almachtich, een gottelijck wesen, 
Ghelijck in glorien, in macht, in eere, 
Met god den vader en christum ghepresen. 
II. O licht der lichten, o suiter fonteync, 
Van alien gratien een leuende adere, 
Het alder soetste in der gotheit reyne, 
Die hooghelycke gaue van god den vadere. 

III. Coompt, voder der annen, vol charitaten, 
Coompt, alder salichste licht der herten, 
Coompt, geuer der gauen, milt bouen maten, 
Coompt, saechte gheneser van alien smerten. 

IV. Coompt, alder beste (rooster van binnen, 
Coompt, soete' vercoelinghe in quasi er welluste, 
Coompt, lieffelijck gast der zielen, vol minnen, 
In swarm arbeit een voile ruste. 

V. Coompt, Manna verborghen, der zielen aes, 

Coompt, dalder ghetrouste aduocaet der armen, 

In weynen, in seheyden een troostelijck soloes, 

In nicer lief den doet my venrarmen. 1 
VI. Coompt, vierighen brant der godlycker minnen. 

Die alien heylighen van des werels beghin 

Den vyant soo vromelijck liebt doen verwtnnen 

Ende om god te dienen ghegheuen den sin. 
VII. Hoe scJwon van lichaem, hoe rijck van goede, 

Hoe teer van complexien, hoejonck vanjaren, 

Hoe cranck van natueren, hoe edel van bloede, 

Weer mannen, weer vrouicen, hoe danich 

(dat) sy waren, 
VIII. AJs gJiy haer herten metten brant der minnen 

Verwermden en onsfaeckt, sy verden ter stont 

Soo slerck van gheeste, soo vroem van binnen, 

Dat syt al versmaden nut hertsen (/) grant : 
IX. "Braggeren, houeren, dansen en gpringhen, 

Rijckdom, f/hemaek, des vleesch wellust, 

Ohenucht hanteren, spelen en singhen, 128" 

Het was haer een pijn en groot onruste ; 
X. THaer veel te vanten, te bidden, te waken 

Ohenufht te deruen dliehaem i-astyen, 

Te schreyen, te kermen was haer vermake 

Ende Jhesum ter eeren veel te li/en. 

Fans viuiis. 

Donum dei altissimi. 

Veni pater pauperum. 
Veni lumen cordium. 
Veni dator miinerunb 

Consolator optime. 
In estu temperies. 
Dulfis hospes anime und : 
Qui paradetus diceris Didce 

In fletu solatium. 

I finis charitas qui omnium 
seeulorum sanetos tui 
numinis docuisti instinvtu 
covplectendo spiritns. 

Mihi mundus erucijixus est et 
ego mundo [Galat. vi. 14]. 


Ernie xl. (31). 

Qui sperant in domino mae- 
tabunt fortitudinem cur- 
rent et non labordbunt etc. 

Ignem veni mittere in ten-am 
etc luce 1 2. 


XI. Hoe swaerder pijn, hoe meerder li/den l 
Dat sy verdroeghen om Jhesus mile, 
Soo 2 sy hem meer in den Jieer verblyden 
Tot dat sy den doot smaeckten al stille. 
XII. A.nnoede, ghebreck, beschaemtheit en druck, 
Slaghen, torments*, wade en schande 
Was f/aer een vruecht, spy's en gheluck 
Tot dat sy haer leuen lieten te pande. 

XIII. S.V ghinghen ter doot met blyde gemoede, 
Off sy ter bi-uloft hodden ghelopen. 

Hoe dat sarbeyden, sy en werden niet moede : 
Met was hem al soet om den hemel te copen. 

XIV. Dit sijn v icercken, seer wonder om lesen, 
U heylighen gheest, om dencken, om horen 
Die ghy hier voormaels dick hebt bewesen 
In alien heilii/hen ran god uutvercoren. 

XV. O crachtighen brant der vierigher minnen, 

Die in die santen dit hebt ghewracht, 

Wilt my toch gunnen, om eemte beginnen 

Een ander leuen, v godlycke cracht. 
XVI. Eew voncke van dyen vier soo crachtich, 

Een strale van meer gratien soet, 

Die es veel beter ende die acht ic 3 

Bouen alien scatten en lijteli/ck goet. 
XVII. Coompt, gottelijck vier, van Jhesus ghesonden 

Om die menschen tonsteken in sijnder minne, 

Wilt toch purgeren den roest mijnder sonden, 

Wilt my rerwermen en verlichten van binnen. 
XVIII. Ic ben soo slap in alien mijn dinghen, 128. b 

Soo coudt in liefden, soo traech tot duechden. 

O heer, hoe mocht ic eens vromelijck beginnen 

Wat goets te doen met viericheit en vruechden. 
XIX. Coompt, leuende water, eoompt coel fonteyne, 

Wilt in my bluschen alle vrembt vier 

Van quaden begerten, van liefden onreyne 

Der creature ende swaer dangier. 
XX. \Nilt toch begieten, als een groen iceyde, 

Metter deuotien loateren soet 

Mijn ziele die dorre is als een drooch heide 4 

Om altijt te lidken nae dat opperste goet. - 
XXI. Coompt, crachtighen balsem, eoompt, termentyn soet, 

Wilt toch ghenesen mijn diepe iconden, 

Ic ben soo doorcranck 5 ende traech tot goet, 

Maer seer gheneycht tot alderlei sonden. 
XXII. Coompt, salvinge des gheest, seer crachtich in wercken, 

Diet herte versterckt door v soet invloeyen, 

Wilt my inwendich alsoo verstercken, 

Dat ic in alien duechden mocht groeyen. 

XXIII. Ic ben soo crygel in alien mijn opset, 
Soo stijf nae jemants raet te leuen, 

Mijn eyghen voornemen behaecht my al bet 
Dan tgoet onderwijs dat dander my geuen. 

XXIV. Coompt toch en boocht al dat in my stijf es, 

Wilt temmen 6 die sinnelyckheit der redenen we(d)er- 


Wilt 1 temperen en seicken dat in my ongeseickt es, 
En maken dat vleesch den gheest onderdanich. 

1 MeerdZ lyden. 2 Hoe. 3 Darnach v. jiing. Hand : godt almachtich. 

Ubcr ein durchstrichenes groe weyde. 5 =Perinlinnus. temen. 

7 Die beiden folgenden Verse stelm in umgekelii-ter Folge in der hs ; die obige Stellung wird aber dureh 
ba am hande aiigedeutet. 

Foue quod est frigidum. 
Laua quod est sordidum. 

Riga quod est aridum. 

Sana quoil est saucittm. 

Spiritalis vnctio. 

Infunde clemens vuctionem 

tuam nostris sensibus. 
Flecte quod est rigidum. 


XXV. Coompt, leydtsman getrouwe ter reehter banen, 
Coornpt, sekeren toevlucht van alien die dwalen, 
Wilt my ter dueclit soo stieren en manen, 
Dat ic mocht liowlen die rechtepalen. 

XXVI, JHylacen, ic gaen al crupel en manck, 

Ic wandel soo ducwils die cromme strate, . 
Wilt toch recht maken voortaen mynen ganck, 
Dat ic alien uutweglien mocht ganselijck laten. 

XXVII. Coompt, opperste meester, coompt hemelsche doctoor, 
Coompt, dalder sekerste ende beste leeraer, 
Doet ons altijt v glieuen ghehoor 
Ende v soet inspreken 1 icel nemen waer. 
XXVIII. Hoe salich sijn sy die ghy inwendich 
Het rechte verstant der geboden leert 
En tot duechden soo sijdt behendich 
Dat sy tot god sijn heel toe ghekeert. 

XXIX. Coompt, alder salichste lieht der lichten, 
Diet al verlicht in die werelt rant, 
Wilt alle hwsten menschen r,erlichten 
Tot in den binnensten haers herten grant. 
XXX. Sonder v goddelijck licht van werden 

Eest al met swaerder duusterheit beuaen ; 
Tis al onreyn dat heeft op der erden 
Dit cort ellendich leuen ontfaen. 

XXXI. Coompt, licht der lichten, wilt onderwijsen 
In alien dinghen ons plompe sinnen, 
Wat dat icy doen sullen oft wat misprijsen, 
Wat hopen, wat vresen, wat haten, wat minnen. 
XXXII. Wy als die onwetende, hoe wy den vader 
Best mochten bidden, seer luttel bevroeyen, 
Maer ghij die alderwijste beraeder 
Doeghet hert der menschen in deuotien vloeyen : 

XXXIII. Ghy helpt ons cranckheit, ghy maeckt ons cond 
Wat dat wy biddende sullen begeren, 

Ghy doet ons versuchteji uut thersen (!) grant 
Om bystant tseghen die helsche beren. 

XXXIV. NM om te sluten dit simpel dicht, 
Wilt onse dorstige sielen lauen, 

0, alder soetste ende salichste licht, 
Met v seuen godlycke gauen. 

XXXV. Geeft ons der duecliden verdienste soet, 129 1 '. 
Verleent ons een salich eynde mede, 
Gondt cms taensmuwen dat opperste goet 
En dat te ghebrucken in dewighe mede. Amen? 

Rege quod est devium. 

Magistrorum optimus. 

O lux beatissima. 
Reple cordis intima 
tuorum fidelium. 

Sine tua numine nihil est in 
lumine nihil est innosium. 

Quid oremus sicut oportet 
nescimus sed ipse spiritus 
postulat pro nobis gemitibus 
inennarabilibus, Ro. 8. 

Ipse spiritus adiuvat infir- 
mitatesnostras [Rom. 8, 26]. 

Da tuis fidelibus in te confi 
tentibus sacrum septen- 

Da virtutis meritwm 
Da salutis exitum 
Da perhenne gaudium. 

1 In aus mi corr. 

- Schreiberzusatz : Lof, heilighen ghcest, uut god den vader 
Uut god den soon inder ewicheit geresen, 
Den bant der liefden cnoopende te gader 
Den hemelschen vader ende Jhesum ghepresen. 
Lof, heilighen ghecst, mijn god, mijn heer 
Mijn scepper almacJilich, een godlijck wesen 
Ghelijck in glorien, in macht, in eeren, 
Met geste 
Arno Waghemans. 





(THE " OEDMON " MS.). 

PROFESSOR WULKER, in a note upon Exodus, 
532 (Dibliothek der Ags. Poesie, ii. 2, p. 472), 
says that the word wreccum in this line, 
though in any case the one which must 
be adopted, is not so undoubtedly the read- 
ing of the MS. as I (in Anglia, xii. p. 603 f.) 
make out. "Das wort," he says, "ist nicht 
mil sokher bestimmtheit wie L. tut als wreccum 
(wie auf alle fdlle herzustellen ist) zu lesen." 

It almost seems as if the fates had con- 
spired to deprive this unfortunate word of 
its right of citizenship in the MS. 

Junius himself read it correctly wreccum 
more than two hundred years ago ; but in 
this century it has been taken as wineccum 
by Thorpe and by Kluge (Ags. Lesebuch, 
p. 95, note), as wineccum by Bouterwek, 
and as wirecum by Sievers (Haupt's Zs., 
xv. p. 459). All the editors agree that 
the sense requires wreccum. 

The word occurs on page 169 of the 
Codex. At some distant time, probably 
before the MS. was bound as we now 
have it, this page was torn completely in 
two, by a crooked rent extending right 
across it, and the severed parts were after- 
wards stitched together very roughly with 
a twisted silk thread. It happened that 
the line of the rent had passed through the 
w (y) and the r (n) of the word under dis- 
cussion, taking off the curved portion of 
the former letter and the portion beneath 
the line of the latter. In the stitching 
these two bits were brought opposite each 
other, away from their right places, so as 
to give the appearance of an i, thus : J. 

All this I explained in Anglia,, xii. Seeing 
that my account of the matter, though sup- 
ported by Prof. Napier, was called in ques- 
tion, as aforesaid, I paid a visit to the Bodleian 
in March 1894, to look at the place in the 
Codex once more. Mr Nicholson, the head 
librarian (whose " wakeful custody " of the 
priceless manuscript is at once a terror and a 
delight to the appreciative student), most 
kindly examined it with me, and judged 
it best, in the interest of the MS. (to say 
nothing of the disputed reading), to remove 
the clumsy stitching, and have the page 
properly mended with transparent paper, 
after the well - known manner of the 

When the thread was taken out, and the 
parts of the page had been adjusted as well 

as the binding would allow, the counterfeit 
i fell at once to pieces ; the upper piece 
moved upwards to the left to complete 
what was wanting in the w, and the lower 
moved downwards to the right to finish 
off the r, thus settling the title of the 
word wreccum (as Mr Nicholson remarked) 
" beyond the possibility of a doubt." 

I trust that the learned Leipzig professor, 
when next he is at the Bodleian, will see for 
himself whether it was possible to be too 
certain as to this reading. J. L. 

REGAINED," ii. 309. 

WE' have here another case in which almost 
all editors agree as to what should be read, 
although no one, so far as I have seen, has 
pointed out how the error corrected crept 
into the text. 

The original edition (of 1671) reads : 

" The fugitive bond-woman, with her son, 
Outcast Nebaioth, yet found Ac relief," &c. 

and the late Professor Morley, in his 
edition for Cassell's National Library, re- 
tains the he, though it is impossible, with- 
out doing violence to language, to construe 

Todd, along with (as he says) all the 
editions since the folio of 1688 (the emen- 
dation was first made in the edition of 
1692), reads here. So do Masson, Jerram, 
Deighton, and others. This is what Milton 
no doubt dictated. But "here relief" con- 
tains a pitfall into which many an unwary 
scribe (resp. type compositor) has tumbled, 
and either Milton's amanuensis, or, more 
probably, Mr Starkey's printer, left out one 
of the re's. 

The case is analogous to the error in the 
Cod. Arg., mentioned by Mr Douse on 
p. 56* above, where one of the AN'S in 
taikniandAN AjfyaramA has been omitted. 

J. L. 


THE play of Hamlet opens thus : Act I. 
Scene i. Elsinore. A platform before the 
Castle. FRANCISCO at his post. Enter to him 

How are we to explain this question on 
the part of Bernardo? It is certainly out 


of order, for Francisco at once corrects him : 
"Nay, answer ME; stand and unfold yourself." 

We cannot suppose that Bernardo, who is 
only on his way to relieve guard, and is not 
the sentinel yet, would, in an ordinary way, 
so far forget discipline as to disturb the 
night with an unauthorised challenge. 

The fact is, he is thinking of the ghost 
(cf. 1. 9), and the words, "Who's there," 
burst from him, will he, nill he, when he 
sees Francisco, for in the uncertain light 
he is not sure, for the moment, whether 
the mailed figure of the sentinel be not 
the apparition which, with martial stalk, 
and armed from head to foot, has twice 
gone by his watch (1. 66 and Sc. ii. 228). 

Mr A. W. Ward says (cf. article on the 
DRAMA : Encydop. Brit., vol. vii.) that it is 
Shakspere's custom to touch in the opening 
of his plays the chord which is to vibrate all 
through. Thug, in Ecmeo and Juliet : "Down 
with the Capulets ! down with the Mon- 
tagues ! " But this is the 81st line of Scene i. 
(Komeo and Juliet). In Hamlet, Shakespere 
shadows forth the subject of his tragedy in 
the very first words of the play. J. L. 

[It may interest Dr Lawrence to know that the 
same explanation of these lines was given by the 
late Professor ten Brink in the English Seminar at 
Strassburg in the year 1889, when he made a detailed 
study of Hamlet with his students. ED.] 

LIKE as a conjunction. A " vulgar error " has 
been for some time about that it is bad 
grammar to use like as a conjunction as well 
as a preposition. There is at least one 
reviewer delightfully ignorant of the history 
of the English language who is very fond of 
airing his ignorance in the columns of the 
Atheiueam, and finding fault with those 
writers, especially women, who know more 
than he does, for using like as a conjunction. 
Even a very slight acquaintance with early 
English writers shows that they constantly 
used the words " lyke unto or to " as a pre- 
position, and " lyke as " as a conjunction ; 
and that by degrees the to and as dropt off, 
leaving like as both preposition and con- 
junction, the one just as good English as the 
other. Sidney Walker illustrated Shake- 
speare's use of the word as a conjunction in a 
separate essay, which all students of English 
ought to know, and in it quoted instances of 
the case from many authors, from Spenser 
downwards. But a few years ago some con- 
fident ignoramuses and a well-known set of 
mutual puffers took upon themselves to assert 
that like was only a preposition, and they 
have unluckily taken many innocent folk in 
by their foolish and groundless statement. 

Even had like been so, it might have been 
legitimately used as a conjunction, like before 
is : " before her," " they dined before they 
went home." I do hope that Modern Language 
teachers will do their best to keep for us the 
historic and legitimate use of like as a con- 
junction as well as a preposition. F. J. F. 

OMINOUS = happy, fortunate. I find this for 
the first time in my reading in A. M.'s 
1597-8 translation from the Dutch of Jacques 
Guillemeau's " Frenche Chirurgerye," printed 
at Dort. The word and its adverb occur 
several times. Take the last and first : 

"My Lorde of Favolle was cured of a 
shott which brake both the focilles of his 
Legg a little above the anckle, which allsoe 
was cured of the right worshipfulle Mr 
Portaile, and d'Amboyse, and of the 
most ominouse and dextrous hand of Mr 
Billarde, ordinarye Chyrurgiane to the King, 
and of Mr Biron," p. 54, col. 3. 

" This poore Kingedome of Fraunce now 
seemeth to respire (breathe again), and in 
shorte time exsperateth (hopes) to have an 
ominouse and happye end of her miseries and 
calamityes, through the prudence wherewith 
your Maiesticall valoure and vigilant valli- 
aunce is accompaniede and associated. From 
Paris, the 15th of September, 1594. Guille- 
meau," sign. *ij back, dedication 'To the 
King.' (See, too, ' ominouse and happye 
successe,' 42/2). 

This meaning, ' of good omen ' instead of 
'bad,' is not in Littre or Godefroy for omineux, 
or in Forcellini for ominosus. Perhaps some 
of the French scholars who read the Modern 
Quarterly can throw light upon it. I sup- 
pose it is due to Dutch, as Hexham, 1660, 
has under ' omen ' good luck as well as bad : 

An omen, Toekomende gcluck ofte ongeluck. 

Ominous, Dat gocdt gheluck ofte ongheluck 
bybrenght. F. J. F. 


SOME three years ago (April 1895) I printed 
in the English Historical Review l a short notice 
of Dante, which I discovered, in the midst of 
a quantity of other interpolated matter, in 
the 1494 Venice edition of the "Speculum 
Historiale " of Vincent de Beauvais ; and at 
the same time, having no suggestion of my 
own to offer, I expressed the hope that the 
source of this interesting fragment of bio- 
graphy might some day be identified. This 

1 Vol. x, No. 38. 


identification appears now to have been 
happily accomplished by Prof. Hermann 
Grauert, who in a recent number of the 
Hislorisches Jahrbuch, after a careful examina- 
tion of the possible sources of the passage, 
establishes the following conclusion : 

" Das Ergebnis unserer Untersuchung ist 
also kurz folgendes : Der von Toynbee der 
Venezianer Vincenziusausgabe von 1494 ent- 
nommene Artikel iiber Dante ist aus Hart- 
mann Schedels Weltchronik wortlich nach- 
gedruckt und geht mit jedem Satze auf 
Jakob Philipp von Bergamos Supplementum 
Chronicarum zuriick. Dieser hat die Divina 

Commedia und des Imolesen Benvemito 
grossen Kommentar beniitzt, lehnt sich aber 
vornehmlich an Boccaccios Genealogiae deorum 
libri XV. an, welches Werk er in seiner 
Chronik in dem Boccaccio-Artikel als ein 
schones ausdriicklich riihmt." 

A comparison of the passage printed in the 
appendix to the " Speculum Historiale " of 
1494, with the extracts from Philip of Ber- 
gamo and Boccaccio, to which Prof. Grauert 
refers, will, I think, prove beyond question 
that the latter has satisfactorily traced to its 
source the brief notice to which I originally 
drew attention. 

" Speculum" fragment. 
Dantes alugerius patria florentinus 
rates et poeta conspicuus ac theo- 
logorum precipue terapestate ista 
claruit. Vir in oives suos egregia 
nobilitate venerandus : qui licet 
ex longo exilio daranatus tenues 
illi fuissent substantie, semper 
tamen phisicis atque theologicis 
doctrinis irabutus vacavit studiis. 
unde cum florentia a factione nigra 
pulsus fuisset parisiense gymnasium 
accessit. et cum circa poeticam 
scientiam eruditissimus esset opus 
inclytum atque divinum lingua 
vernacula sub titulo comedie edidit. 
in quo omnium celestium terrestri- 
umque ac infernorum profunda 
contemplatus singula queque his- 
torice allegorice tropologice ac ana- 
gogice descripsit. Aliud quoque de 
monarchia mundi. Hie cum ex 
gallicis regressus fuisset friderico 
arragonensi regi et domino cani 
grandi scaligero adhesit. 

Philip of Bergamo. 
Dantes Aligerius patria Floren- 
tinus vates et poeta conspicuus ac 
theologorum certe precipuus tern- 
pestate istac claruit. Vir certe in 
cives suos egrcgia nobilitate vener- 
audus atque verendus, qui licet ex 
longo exilio damnatus tenues illi 
fuissent substancie semper tamen 
phisicis atque theologicis doctrinis 
imbutus vacavit studiis. Unde cum 
Florentia a factione nigra pulsus 
fuisset ad ejus ingenii magnitudinem 
declaraudam Parisium accessit, in 
qua gymnasium intrans adversus 
quoscunque circa quamcumque fac- 
ultatem volentes disputare respon- 
sionibus aut positiouibus suis re- 
spondere se obtulit disputaturum. 
Et cum hie circa poeticam sci- 
entiam eruditissimus esset, opus 
inelitum atque divinum lingua ver- 
nacula sub titulo Comedie edidit, 
in quo omnium celestium terrestri- 
umque ac infernorum profjnda 
speculabiliter contemplatus singula 
queque historice, alegorice, tropo- 
logice ac anagogice descripsit, ubi 
se certe catholicum et divinum 
theologum se esse osteudit. Aliud 
etiam eloqueutissimum opus omni 
sapientia plenum edidit, videlicet 
de Monarchia mundi titulo pre- 
notatum, in quo probare nititur 
(licet male), ita Monarchiam in 
imperio Romano esse, ut nullam a 
pontifice Romano habeat depeu- 
dentiam, sed a solo deo. nisi in per- 
tinentibus ad forum animarum. 1 
Hie cum ex Galliis regressus fuisset 
Federico Aragonensi regi et domino 
Canigrandi Scaligero Veronen- 
sium principi adhesit, cum quo 
fuit multa semper amicitia junctus 
quorum auxilio persepe et frustra 
conatus fuit in patriam redire. 

1 Philip of Bergamo, as Prof. Grauert 
points out, was indebted for his account of 
the Divina Commetlia to the commentary 
of Benvenuto da Tmoli, and for his account 
of the De Monarchia to that given in the 
Chronicon of the Florentine archbishop 

Boccaccio, " Geiieal. Deorum " 

(xv. 6). 

Dantem Aligeri Florentinum 
poetam eonspiciram tanquam pre- 
cipuum aliquaudo invoco virum. 
Fuit enim inter cives suos egregia 
nobilitate verendus et quantum- 
cumque tenues essent illi substantie 
et a cura familiari et postremo a 
longo exilio angeretur, semper 
tamen physieis atque theologicis 
doctriuis imbutus vacavit studiis 
et adhuc Julia fatetur Parisius : in 
eadem saepissime adversus quos- 
cumque circa quamcumque facul- 
tatem volentes responsionibns aut 
jjositiouibus suis objicere disputans 
intravit gymnasium. Fuit et hie 
circa poeticam eruditissimus nee 
quicquam illi lauream abstulit 
praeter exilium. . . . Qualis fuerit, 
inclytum ejus testatur opus,' quod 
sub titulo Comoediaerithmis Floren- 
tine idiomate mirabili artificio 
scripsit, in quo profecto se non 
mithicum sed catholicum atque 
divinum potius ostendit esse theo- 

(xiv. 11.) 

Dantes noster Federico Aragonensi 
Sicilidum regi et Cani de la Scala 
magnifico Veronensium domino 
grandi fuit amicitia junctus. 

The interesting statement, which I dis- 
cussed in my former article, that Dante 
attached himself to Frederick of Aragon, 
King of Sicily, it now appears, originated 

with Boccaccio. What historical foundation 
there may have been for this statement we 
have yet to learn. 




THE following notice, which we quote from a circular 
letter of the Secretary of the Societe de Linguistique 
de Paris, will interest students of Romance Philology : 
"La Socie'te' de Linguistique de Paris decernera en 
1901 un prix de mille francs (1000 fr. ) au meilleur 
ouvrage imprime ayant pour objet la grammaire, lo 
dictionnaire, les origines, 1'histoire des langues romanes 
en general et preTfirablement, du roumain en par- 
ticulier. L'auteur pourra appartenir &, n'importe 
quelle nationality ; il pourra etre ou non membre de 
la Socie'te' de Linguistique. Seront seuls admis a con- 
courir les ouvrages &rits en franmis, roumain, ou 
latin, publics posteYieurement au 31 de"cembre 1894. 
Les auteurs, en avisant par lettre le President de la 
Socie"tiS de leur intention de prendre part au concours, 
devront lui faire parvenir acant le 31 decembre 1900, 
deux exemplaires au moins de leur ouvrage. Les 
communications et envois relatifs au concours devront 
etre adresses franco k M. le President de la Society de 
Linguixtiyue, d la Sorbonne, Paris," 

* * * 

THE Crrcle Francais at New York has received from 
Mr J. H. Hyde a donation of 30,000 dollars to arrange 
lectures on French literature. The first course of 
lectures will be given by M. Rene" Doumic, the author 
of a Histoire de la Littimture franfaise, and of several 
collections of essays on modern French literature. 

* * * 

THE annual report of the Cambridge (U.S.A.) Dante 
Society for 1897 (which is somewhat belated) will con- 
tain, as a supplementary paper, a collation by Mr 
Paget Toynbee of the text of the De Vulgari 
Elotjuentia, as recently published by Professor Pio 
Rajna, with that printed in the Oxford Dante. The 
passages dealt with by Professor Rajna are several 
hundreds in number, and Dante students will be 
enabled by means of this collation to realise in some 
measure the extent of the 'services he has rendered 
to the text of this most interesting and important 


* * 

ON January 22, Professor C. A. Buchheim, M.A., 
Ph.D., of King's College, London, celebrated his 
seventieth birthday. On this occasion he was made an 
Honorary Member of the Modern Language Associa- 
tion, and he was presented with an illuminated address 

signed by a great number of University and School 
Teachers of German in the United Kingdom. The 
address was presented by Dr Breul and Mr Eve on the 
afternoon of the 22nd, at Dr Buchheim's residence. On 
December 7 the University of Oxford had conferred ou 
him the Degree of M.A. honoris eausA. 

WE draw the attention of our readers to the illustrated 
Revue encyclop&lique Larousse of January 15, which 
is mainly devoted to A. Daudet. It contains notes on 
A. D. intime by Paul and Victor Margueritte, A. D. 
romancier by Georges Pellissier, Le theatre d'A. D. by 
Gustavo Geffroy, La Jeunesse d'A. D. by Auguste 
Marin. A. D. d'apres le journal des Goncourt, Extraits 
de I'oeuvre de D., Opinions S'ar A. D. 
* * * 

DEATHS. M. LSon Gautier (25th Aug.), Professor of 
Palaeography at the Ecole des Chartes at Paris, especi- 
ally known by his great work Les Epopees frafnaises and 
his edition of the Chanson de Roland. Roma'n S&ndor 
(27th Sept.), Professor of Roumanian Language and 
Literature at the University of Budapest. M. 
Fre'de'ric Godefroy (30th Sept. ), author of a Histoire de 
la litterature francaise depuis le X VJ e siecle jusf/u'd nos 
jours, a Lexique compare de la langm de Corneille et de 
la langue du XVII s siecle, and, above all, of a large 
Dictionnaire de I'ancienne langue francaise. M. 
Sanderson (2nd Oct. ), inventor of the * ' MSthodes 
Sanderson," applied to English, German, Spanish 
and Italian. Don Pascual- de Gayangos (4th Oct.), 
writer on Spanish history and literature, editor of 
several volumes of Rivadeneyra's Bibliatfca de all/ores 
espanoles, and author of the Catalogue of the Manu- 
scripts in the Spanish Language in the British Museum. 
Dr Max Freiherr v. Liittwitz (4th Nov. ), Lecturer in 
French and German in the University of Sydney. Dr 
C. R. Uuger, Professor of Germanic and Romance 
Philology in the University of Christiania, editor of 
Karlamagnus-Scwa ok Kappa hans. M. Alphonse 
Daudet (16th Dec.), the novelist. Professor J. A. 
Biihler (24th Dec.), founder of the Societad Rhaeto- 
Romanscha, and author of various writings in Rhaeto- 
Romansch (e.g., of a Grammatica elementara dil lun- 
gatg Rhatoromonsch). Count Ferdinand de Gramont 
(December 24), a poet and author of a well-known book 
on Les Vers franmis et leur prosodie. 


Romania (publie par Paul Meyer et Gaston Paris). 

Tome xxvi. No. 102. Ph. Lauer : Louis IV. 
d'Outremer ft le fragment d'Isembart et dormant. A. 
Jeanroy : Etudes sur le cycle de Guillaume au court net. 
J. Ulrich : Deux traduclions en haut engadinois dv 
xvie silcle. Paul Meyer : Trailes en rent provenpmz sur 
/'iLiii-nlnffie et la yeomancie. Melanges. Paul Meyer et 
Gaston Paris : Fragment du ' Vallet a la cole mal taillee.' 
C. Salvieni : Tenser. A. Thomas : f'rav. mh=Lat. mj, 
m bj. Comptes Rendus. C. Kbrting : Neugruchisch 
vnd Romanisch (Ov. Densusianu). H. Schofield : 
Studies on the ' Libeaus Deicrmus ' (E. Philipot). R. 
Menendez Pidal : La leyenda de los Infantes de Lara 
(A. Morel-Fatio). C. Ricci : La Divina Corn-media 
illtistrata >iei luoylti e nelle persone (Paget Toynbee). A. 
Cesari: Amalrile di Cwitmentia (G. P.). Periodiques. 
ZeitKhriftfiir Romanische Pliitologie, xxi. i. (A.M-F., 
P.M., G.P.). Gwrnale Dantesco, Anni i.-iii. (Paget 
Toynbee). Bulletin de la Societi des Anciens Textes 
Francais, 1896. Bibliothi'iue de I'Ecole des Charles, Ivii. 
1896 (P. til.). Bulletin de la Commission Archlologiirue 
de Ifarbmne, annee 1897. l er Seroestre. (P. M.) 

Cbronique. Livres annonc& sommairement M. 
Scherillo : Pane Satan. M. Scherillo : Dante e Tito 
Lima. F. Beck : Die Metapher bei Dante, ihr System, 
ihre Quetlen. J. G. StUrzinger : 'Le Peltrinage de 
I'ame ' de Guillaume de Deguillevttle. G. Carducci : 
Caccie in rima dei secoli xiv xv. J. Ulrich: 'Job,' 
tin dram engiadinais del xvi. semi. F. Bellamy : La. 
Foret de BrlcMliant. A. Vautherin : Glossaire du patois 
de ChAlenois. A. Maas : A/lerlei prorenzalischer Volts- 
ylaube nach F. Mistral's ' Mireio. G. Rydberg : Zur 
'Geschichte desframSsischen*. G. de Guer : Le patois nor- 
mand. C. Friesland : Wtgweiser dwrch das dem Slvdium 
der franzonischen Sprache und Litttralur dientnde biblio- 
graphische Material (' Assur^ment quo ce livre ne vaut 
memo pas le prix, tres modique d'ailleurs, qu'il coutera 
aux (;tudiants trompes par le titre '). H. Gross : Gallia 
Judaica. J. J. Salverda De Grave : Bijdragen to de 
kewnia der uit het fransch merffenomen woorden in het 
nederlandsch. F. Foffano : Ricerche letterarie. M. 
Eunecerus Zur lateinischen und franzosischen Eulalia. 
F. Panger Bibliographie zu Wolfram von Eschenbach. 
F. Novati Se a Vicenza, rui primi del secolo decimo- 
quarto, siasi impartito un pwbblico insegnamento di pro- 


popolari Veronesi. G. Lango - Manganaro : Nota 
dantesca (Inf. x. 63). F. Tocco : Quistioni duMtesche. 

F. D'Ovidio : Tre discussioni dantesche. E. Monaci : 
Crestomazia italiana del primi secoli (fascicolo socondo). 

G. Weigand : Ztceiter Jalireslericht und Driller Jalires- 
beridtt des Instituts filr rum&nisrke Sprache. P. T. 
Mattiuoci : Nerio Moscoli da CittA di C'aitelto. C. 
Salvioni : Pastille italiane id -eocoAolarw latino-ronuuuo. 

Tome xxvi. No. 103. Gaston Paris : Le Roman de 
Richard Cceur de Lion. A. Piaget : Le litre Messire 
Geofroi de C/tami. A. Thomas : Klymoloyiea franchises 
et prwenqales. Paget Toynbee : Dante's set-en examples 
of munificence in Hie ' Convioio.' Comptes Rendus 
Ed. Bchwan : (jl ram-matik des Altfranzosischen, dritte 
Aujtaye, bearbeitet von Dr Behrens. (M. Roques). Fr. 
Hausen : Dissertations de philo/ogie espagnole (E. Pore- 
bowitz). H. Ehrismann : Le Sermon des plaits (G. P.). 
P. J. Mather : King Ppni/ins and the fair Sidone (G. P.). 
L. de Santi et Aug! Vidal : Deux litres de raison (1517- 
1550). (P. M. ). P6riodiques. Revue lies Lanyues 
Romanes, 4" si?rie, torn. ix. no. 5-no. 13, torn. x. no. 
1-no. 5. (P.M.). Rmie Ilispaniqw, iv annee, no. 11. 
A. M-F.). Chronique. Livres annonces sommaire- 
ment L. Marais et E. Ernault : Notes stir /'<',> 
expression ' un saintier d'aryent.' J.-M. Meunier : 
Etymologies (If Jletway et de Chdteait-Chinon. Com- 
munications faites au congres international des langues 
i-omanes. E. Isaza : Diccionario de la conjugation 
caslellana. PAGET TOYNBEE. 

(iloriiale Storlco delln Letterntnrn Itnliaua 

(diretto da F. Novati e K. Renier). Anno xv. Vol. 

Fascicoli 1-2. G. Rossi : 11 codice Esteiuse X* 34. D. 
Mantovani : Le opere inedite di Ippolito Nievo. P. 
Bellezza : Note Manzonianc. (1) Delia antipatia del 
Manzoni per il Tasso. (2) /( Byron ed il Manzoni. Cesare 
de Lollis : Pro Bordello de Godio, milite. Varieta. P. 
Marchot : Sur le * Contrasto ' de Cielo Dalcamo. S. de 
Chiara: Catena. Noterella dantesca (Par. viii. 62). E. 
Sicardi : Dell' ' angelica seno ' e di altri luoghi controversy 
nella canzone del Petrarca ' Cftiare, fresche e dolci acque.' 
C. Simiani : Due componimenti inediti di Nicolfi Franco. 
Rassegna Bibliogratica. G. B. Gerini : Gli scrittori 

Cgogici italiani del secolo decimoquinto ; W. H. 
>dward : Vittorino da Felt re and other human i*t 
educators (R. Renier). V. Cian : Italia e Spagna nel 
secolo xviii. Giov. Batt. Conti e alcttne relazioni fra 
I'ltalia e la Sfjagna nella seconda metd del xetfwento (A. 
Farinelli). V. Monti : Lettere inedite e sparse, ordinate 
ed illustrate da A. Bertoldi e G. Mazzatinti (G. 
Roberti). Bollettino Bibliograflco. Pio Rajna : Edi- 
zione critica del tratlato ' De Vulgari JSloyuentia ' (Fl. 
P.). V. Creseini : Di tma data important e nella storia 
della epopea franco-veneta (B. S. ). Le"on Doroz : Le sac 
de Rome (1527). Relation inedite de Jean Care, 
Orllanais (F. N.). C. Castellani : Pietro Bemlto UUio- 
tecario della Libreria di S. Marco in Venezia (1530-1543). 

amoroso, di Vittorio Alfieri. G. Picini : Vittm-io 
Al/eri a Firenze. M. Pelaez : Notizia degli 
xtini: it', (,'ialio Perticari ml ' Dittamondo.' E. B. 
Conigliani: Studi letterari. F. Zsehech : Orepmt 
l.i's/.-/i!i:l ' Wttwe Teresa' und seine Beziehuiig zu ugo 
Foscolos Roman ' Jacopo Ortw.' F. Ricifari : (W< w/<. 
</.//' tnie e della critica letteraria nella mente di G in.*/,/* 
Mazzini. A. Pinetti : Le liriche di Luigi Carter. G. 
Pitri 1 : Indomnelli, dulbi, seioglilini/tia del popnln 
'' Nuziali. S. de Chiara : /;/"- 

il Dialogo della Nobi: 
di Luigi Valmaggi. Parte I. II Q lot-no (Em. B.). G. 
Scott i : La vita e le opere di Aurelio Bert6la, con docii- 
menti inediti in appendice (Em. B.). B. Croce : Stiuli 
storici sulla rholuzione napoletana del 1799 (Em. B. ). 
V. Vivaldi : Varia (B.). Annunzi Analitici. P. T. 
Mattiucci : Nerio Moscoli da citta di Castello, antico 
nmaiore sconoscinto. T. Zanardelli : Dante et ses pre 


dt qua da Trento. P. Rosario : Cecco d'Ascoli e la sua 
citta natale. M. Santoni : Canto in oltam, rima della 
beata Batlista da, Varano de' siynori di Camerino, 
fondalrice del monastero della clarisse in patria. F. Lo 
Parco : L'elegia ' Ad Luciam ' di Aulo Parrasio e 
il ' Bruto minore ' di Giacomp Leopardi. F. B. di San 
Secondo : L'accademia lorinese dei Fulminati e il 
suo presidente nel 1670. V. Reforgiato : La Krica 

Pubblicazioni Nuziali 
ciche Telesiane. N. Tamassia : Un corredo di donna 
ceneziana del secolo xvi. C. Musatti : Canzone infdila di 
Aiiiniiio Lamberti. 0. Bacci : Ricordanze di /")/'"' 
.\/ni'"i-r.lli uomo d'arme del secolo xri. Pio Rajna : dm.- 
li-iixln dell' ac'jiia e del vino. I. B. Supine : La /</'"" 
il'-l ' ->uo secondo due popolanifioreutiiti del Trecento. M. 
Barbi : La ruff"i-t< < f "> J,i jioi-i in l'ullilin .sv>-o/if/ if 
volffa/nseomcnto di Andrea Lancia. M. Barbi: Vn 
anii-itii e una ImUitta d'amore, dal I'anzoniere di Danlr. 
F. Novati : Villcmellt alia meitvuia,. F. Flamini : /'"/- 
tale t stra.mLolti tli itvcti aulici toscani del Quattrocento. 
A. S. Barbi : Una ttttara di Rei->"ii-<l<> l><{,vii-.o<'< < il mo 
Volyarizzamento di Tacito. E. Carrara : Canti pofiolari 
di Ozieri. Comunicazioni ed Appunti. G. Boffito : 
Antica drammatica piemontese. Paget Toynbee: The 
coins denominated ' S<tntelene ' liy Dante. Pagot Toyn- 

of Dante'.i Li-lier to Can Grande. M. Sappa : 
UnaprobaJtilefontedfUa ' iiergine cuccia.' N. Tamassia : 
/ nomi de' bravi ne' ' Promessi Sposi.' Cronaca : 
Periodic!. Recenti Pubblicazioni. 

Vol. xxx. FatcicoloS. G. Salvo-Cozzo : Le " Rim? 
sparse" e il Trionfo dell' eterniid di Fr. Petrarca nei 
codici mt'viml Ar///i/3195e 3196. Varieta. E. Bertana : 
Intornoal soneitodel Parini ' Pet' // //"'/"' aerostatica.' 
Rassegna Bibliografica. M. Scherillo : AlcunicapUoli 
ddla bioijrafa di Dante (F. Colagrosso). A. Pircher : 
/fnrii: and Vicla ; F. Zaniboni : Viryilio e I'Eiuiili 
in-iini/n uu i-ri/i'-ii ili-l (.'liiijinff'itii (li. t'otronei). P. 
Gauthier : L'Aretin (E. Sicardi). G. de Gregorio : 
Glottologia, (C. de Lollis). Bollettino Bibliografico. A. 
Dobelli : Studi letterarii (A. Bu.). Collezione di opuscoli 
danteschi inediti o rari, diretta da G. L. Passerini. 
Disp. 29-30. C. Cavedoni : Raff runt i Irv ;ili autori 
biblici e saa-i e la D.C. Disp. 31-32. Filippo Villani : 
II comertio al primo canto dell' "Inferno." Disp. 33-34. 
G. Franciosi : /( Dante -caticano e I'urbinate descrini I 
stmliati per la prima i-olta. Dis]). 35-36. S. Scaetta : 
/, 'fuina' nella D.C. Disp. 37-39. H. Benivieni : 
Itiiilntjfi di Antonw Mantttt circa al s'ilo, forma et //(/>'/> 
i/elh ' Inferno ' di Dante. Disp. 40-41. / discorsi di 
Ridolfo Castravilla contra Dante e di Filippo Sassetti I'M 
ilifnt di Dante, Disp. 42-43. F. Balsano : La D.C. 
giiidicata da Vincenzo Grarina (R). E. Zanoni : La 
mente di Francesco G tticciardini nelle opere politiche e 
storiche (P. S. ). G. Lisio : Orazioni scelle del seen/" j ri. 
(O. Ba.). G. Baretti : La Fruda letltraria, illi/stiuta 
da A. Serena (Em. B.). A. Maurici : Storia del <'i >,'[ 
mui/gio (Em. B.). Pubblicazioni Nuziali. A. Luzio : 
Sptaolatv/re Folenyhiane. A. D'Ancona : l)wnn :ii 
sulla imiwrsitd di Pirn nel secolo xv. G. Lumbroso : 
Per la leggendu di Trajano. P. Bellezza : La piyriziadi 
A /> >,rndro Manzoni. I. della Giovanna : C<nnt r^^nm 
puo vivere piil di c.<v. anni. N. Ciampanini : L'elegia 
' De diecrsis amoribus' di L. Ariosto tradotta. G. Pitre : 
Canti popolari d' Italia su Napoleone I. Comunicazioni 
ed Appunti. R. Truffi : Le ' nuvole d'agosto ' (Purg. v. 
39). A. Butti : Briciole Leopardiane. P. Bellezza : 
Ancpm i nomi de' bravi ne' ' Promessi Sposi.' Cronaca : 
Periodiei. Recenti Pubblicazioni. PAGET TOYNBEE. 
Klvlsta .lolli' Rlbliotecbe e degll Arrbivl (diretta 

da Guido Biagi). Anno viii. Vol. viii. Nos. 1-5. 
L. Frati : Di Taddeo Crivelli e di un graduate da Ivi 
miniato giudicato erromamente perduto. E. Rostagno : 
Lettere inedite di Lodovico A. Muratori a Domenico 
M. Manni. C. Mazzi : L'inrentario qiuittrocentista della 
Biblioteca di S. Croce in Firenze. C. Frati : Di due 
versione Latine della Gerusalemme. F. P. Luiso : 
Ricerche cronologiche per un riordinamento del/' JKjitsto- 
lario di A. Tmversan. G. Bresciano: Bibliografia 
slatutaria delle corporazioni romane di arti e mestieri. 


E. Casanova : La librerla di M. Mattia Lupi in S. 

nelle edizioni moderne (C. F. ). Leo S. Olschki : /- 
cunaboli. Notizie. Supplemento : Corriere liiblio- 

IliiUetllno dclln Soclela Dantescu Itnlinua (diretto 

da M. Barbi). Nuova Serie. Vol. iv. 
Fi'tricoli 1-2. M. Scherillo : Alcitni capitoli delta bio- 
grafiadi Dante (M. Barbi). E. Lorenzi : La ruiti.ii iff '</"". 
da'Trento(. L. Pellegrini). F. Wulff : Dante, 1' //,,( IK 
Pietm(E.G. Parodi). A. J. Butler: Dante, his times and 
tcvrk : C. S. Boswell : The Vita Nuova and its author 
(Fl. Pellegrini). Varieta. A. Dobelli : Intorno ad una 
fonte dantesca. Fl. Pellegrini : Un .M.S'. dantesco nella 
Bibliotect ciirica di Rocereto. Annnnzi bibliografici : 
11 Trfiitino a Dante Alighieri, Giornale Dantesco (iv. 4-9), 
e publicazioni di E. Lodrini e G. Fenaroli (//<// nlfn 
data precisa delta nascita di Dante,), F. Colagrosso (La 
l'i-iil'':ioue di Brunetto Latini), F. Neri (G/i animal! 
nella D.C.), F. Cipolla (La lonza di Dante), 11. Bobba 
(La dottriita dell' Inielletto in Aristotile e ne tn'i /<"' 
illiatri interpret i), F. C. Pellegrini (E/ementi di lettera- 
tura per le scuole secondarie), G. Piceini (Canzoni d'amore 
e madrigali di Dante Alighieri, secondo it m, <'./'/,, 

rxi'mpliii-f i/i-//, i n/i:/'ime del MDXV1II. co/ixrrmto nrlln 

II. Bib/'mimi Ji'aziwuile di Firenze), L. Randi (Una 
Canzone, dantesca commentate da Terenzio Mamiani), B. 
Morsolin (Un cosatngrafo del Quattrocento imitatore di 
Dante), A. Chiappelli (Una reminiscenza dantesca nei 
Promessi fipuii), ecc. 

Fascicolo 3. F. Beck: Dantes Vita Nova, JfritiscJier 
Text (M. Barbi). Annunzi bibliografici : Pubblicazioni 
di N. Zm<?areHi (Santo Pietro, Inf. xviii. 28), G. Fran- 
ciosi (II Dante e I'Urbinate descritti e studiati 
per hi priiiui volta), B. Carneri (Secfts Ges&nge aus Dante s 
QWli&ur Komodie dttttsch u. eingeieitet mit einem Versuch 
liber die Anxendung der Alliteration lei Dante), A. 
Nicosia (Attonw ad un verso di Dante, Inf. i. 63), L. 
Arezio (Sulla teoria dantesca delta preitienza nel c. X dell' 
Inferno), S. De Chiara (Lo 'scotto' del pentimento), G. 
Salvador! (// problema. storico dello ' stil nuovo'), A. 
Giannini (Noterella dantesca, V. N. 7. son. ii.), C. 
Morel (Une illustration de VEnfer dt Dante.: LXXI. 
miniature* du X V e stecle. liefn'oditction en pkototypie et 
detcription par C.M.). 

Fascicolo 4. H. Oelsner : The influence of Dante on 
,i:i*/i,athouy/tt(G. Mazzoni). G. Salvemini : La </<'</ iii'< 
i-ii.fii/li-rexa nel comuae di Fireme (A. S. Barbi). An- 
nunzi bibliografici : Pubblicazioni di G. Biagi e G. L. 
Passerini (f'udice. di/tlomatico danteeco : I documents delta 
i-ita e delta famiglia di Dante Aiigkieri, riprodotti -infac- 
timile, descritti e il/ustrati con monumentt d'arte e figure 
da G. B. e da G. L. P., con gli anipici dtlla Societa 
Dantesca Ilaliana), E. Orioli ('Documenti bnliynesi titlla 
fazione dei Bianc/ti), I. Del Lungo (Florentia : nomini e 
cone del Quattrocento), M. D. Fardel (La personne de 
Dante dans la D.C.: etude psychologique), F. Cipolla 
I ijiiiitti-o noterelle dantesc/te ; Ugolino e la field di Dante). 

Fascicolo 5. N. Zingarelli : La personalita itorica di 
Folclietto di Afarsiglia nella D.C. (M. Scherillo). An- 
nunzi bibliografici : Oiornale Dantesco (v. 1-2), e pub- 
blicazioni di P. Meyer (La descente de Saint Paul en 
enfer, poeme francais compose en Angleterre : nella 
llomania, niv. 35o-75), F. Cipolla (Dante oss?i'<'"t"i'<}, 
F. Tocco (Quixtioni dantesche, Inf. iii. 59-60 ; xxviii. 55). 

Fascicoli 6-7. F. Villani : II cnmento al primo canto 
deir Inferno, annotate da G. Cugnoni (L. Rocca). K. 
Davidsohn : Gesckicttte von Floi'enz (A. Giorgetti). A. 
Dobelli : Sludii letterarii (G. A. Venturi). Annunzi 
bibliografici : Oiornale Dantesco (v. 3-4), e Pubblicazioni 
di G. Maruffi (Nola dantesca, Inf. yi. 81), L. Monti e M. 
Scherillo (Ctiiosa dantesca, Inf. vii. 1), C. Cristofolini 

Fascicolo 8. Corrado Ricci : La, D.C. di Dante 
Aiigkieri illustrata nei luoijhi e nelle persone a cura di 
C.R. con 30 tavole e 400 incisioni (P. L. Rambaldi). F. 
D'Ovidio : Tre disrussioni dantesche, Ce/estino V, La data 
delta composizione e divulgazione della Cominedia, La 
Vision* d'Alberieo (L. Rocca). Annunzi bibliografici : 
The Academy, 1895-97 (No. 1214). Paget Toynbee : 
Dante's statement as to the relations of Alexander the Great, 
mth the Jlomans, Mon. ii. 9. No. 1227. A. G. Ferrers 
Howell : Should Vario or Varro be read in Purg. xxii. 
98 ? No. 1236. Paget Toynbee : A doubtful reading in 
Dante's Letter to the Emperor Henry VII. No. 1247. 
H. Krebs: Dante's Matelda. No. 1259. Paget 
Toynbee : Dante's use of renders!, Inf. xxvii. 83, and 
rendulo, Purg. xx. 54. No. 1274. Paget Toynbee : 
Dante and the Book of Tobit, Par. iv. 48. No. 
1279. Paget Toynbee : Dante's reference to Sar- 
danapalus, Par. xv. 107-8. Paget Toynbee : Dante's 
reffniire to Mt. Aetna, Par. viii. 67-70), e pubblicazioni 
di G. Pascoli (Minerva oscura), G. Ghirardini (OH in- 
vidiosi nella, Stigui), V. Moscardi (Itasseijna 
rritica di pubblicazioni storiche celestine incite nel 1896), 
L. Zdekauer (La grave mora, Purg. iii. 129), G. Biadego 
(Giovanni Sauro e Niccolo Tommaseo), I. Sanesi e L. 
Biadene (Vulg. Eloij. ii. 10), C. Del Balzo (Poesie di 
ttiille auturi intorno a Dante Aliyhieri), ecc. 

Fascicolo 9. A. Fiammazzo : Nuovo spoglio del 
codice Lolliano di lielluno e rajfronti con altri del Cento 
(M. Barbi). Annunzi bibliografici: Pubblicazioni di 
T. Zanardelli (Histoire de la litterature italienne : Dante 
et ses precv.rseurs) [" Libro inutile e per i principianti 
dannoso "], C. Ricci (Dal libra dei sogni), M. Barbi 
(Un sonetto e una ballata d'amore dal camoniere di 
Dante, per cura di M.B.), C. Potter (Cantos from, the 
D.C. translated into English verse), R. Garnett (Dante, 
Petrarch, and Camoens, LXXIV. Sonnets translated by 
R. G.), C. Cristofolini (Delfica deita, Par. i. 32). 

Fascicolo 10. Atti e comunicazioni della Societa. 
Per la ricoatituzione di una Societa Dantesca in Ger- 
mania. Annunzi bibliografici : Cotlezione di opuscoli 
danteschi, Giornale Dantesco (v. 5-6), Biblioteca delle 
Scuole Italiane, e pubblicazioni di L. Felicetti (Dante 
poeta, cattolico), G. Acquaticci (Le gemme della D.C. 
dichiarate ed illustrate da G.A.), G. Roselli (Nel sesto 
cenlenario di S. Pietro Celeslino : discolpa di Dante), I. 

del romanzo mediecaie : nella Romania, xxvi. 34-7^), F. 
Pagnini (H Caitello dei Conli Qnidi oggi Palazzo Pretoria 
di Poppi : la sun storia, il KUO state antico e prexente), C. 
(Jiussani (fitwti Lucreziani). 


L. Sdekauer (La vita privata dei Senesi nel Dugento), 
M. Durand-Fardel (Dante et Beatrice dans la Vita 
Nuova), M. Morici (Per gli epistolari di due disceuoli e 
di un arnica di Guarino G-uarini: Sassolo da Praia, 
Leonardo Oiustinian, Ciriaco d'Ancona), P. Chistoni 
(Che Dante non ha potato scrivere il De Monarchia avanti 
-il Convivio). PAGET TOYNBEE. 

Ulornale Dautrsco (diretto da G. L. Passerini. Anno 
v. (ii. della Nvoca Serie). 

Quaderni I. -II. M. Rossi : // Caslmvilla smatcherato. 
R. Murari : Boezio e Dante. V. Russo : Per un miovo 
disegno del Purgatorio dantesco. E. Lamma : Ancora 
sul primo sonetto della Vita Nuova. L. M. Capelli : Le 
gerarchie angeliche e la distribuzione dei beati. R. Truffi : 
Chiasa dantesca (Inf. i. 8-9). Rivista critica e bibliogra- 
fica. L. F. Mott : The system of courtly love studied as an 
introduction to the Vita Nuova of Dante (R. Murari). 
E. Moore : Studies in Dante. First Series. Scripture 
and Classical authors in Dante (R. Murari). E. Orioli: 
Documenti sulla fatione dei liianchi (G. L. Passerini). 
Bullettino bibliografico (G. L. Passerini). Comunica- 
zioni e corrispondenze. F. Ronchetti: Sulla con- 
formazione del cerchio degli eretici. F. Ronchetti e V. 
Scaetta : Le nuvole d'agosto. L. Filomusi-Guelfi : Lo 
Stige dantesco e ipeccatori dell' Antilimbo. A. Magno- 
cavallo : Conference e letture dantesche a Milano. 
Notizie, ecc. 

Quaderno III. A. Torre : II commtnto del p. Pompeo 
Venturi alia Divina Commedia. P. E. Guarnerio : A 
m-oposito di Sordello. G. P. Cavaleanti : Un' epistola 
apocrifa di Dante. G. Agnelli : Tra il guinto e il sesto 
cerchio dell' Inferno dantesco. A. Scrocca : Chiosa 
danletca(Par. ji\-i..).Letteredidantisti(\. Fiammazzo) 


Rivista critica e bibliografica. Corrado Kioci : La 
Divina Commedia di Dante A lighten illnstrata nei luoghi 
e nelle persone (L. Frati). A. Scrocoa : II Sistema 
dantesco dei deli e dell', loro infiueme (F. Eonchetti). 
Comunicazioni e corrispondenze. A. Magnocavallo : 
Confermze dantesche a Ifilano, Notizie. 

Qitaderno IV. F. Torraca : // Giudice Outdo delle 
Colonne di Messina. A. Butti : Una sezione pagana nell' 
Inferno dantesco. G. Del Noce : Suit a proda della mile 
d'abuso, chiosa dantesca (Inf. iv. 7-12). Rivista critica e 
bibliografiea. S. Scaetta : La fama nella Divina Com- 
media (G. Melodia). S. Sighele : Delitti e delinyuenti 
danteschi (R. Murari). Communicazioni e corrispon- 
denze. F. Torraca : Ancora a projmsito di Sai-del/o. 

Quaderno V. A. Dobelli : II cullo del Boccaccio per 
Dante (i.). A. Fiammazzo : Di Una lezione secondaria^ 
della Divina Commedia. R. Murari : Per il verso ' Si 
che tardi ecc.' (Purg. vii. 96). Rivista critica e biblio- 

Murari). P. T. Mattiucci : Nerio Moscoli da Citta di 
Castello, antico rimatore sconosciuto (M. Rossi). Comuni- 
cazioni e corrispondenze. A. Magnocavallo : Conference 
dantesche a Milano. G. L. von Granberg : Duino o In 
scaglio di Dante. Notizie. 

Qitaderno VI. A. Dobelli : 11 mllo del Boccaccio per 
Dante (ii.). F. Torraca : // Giudice Gitido delle Colonne 
di Messina, appendice di documenti. A. Vanni : C/nosa 
dantesca (Par. iv. 33). Rivista critica e bibliografica. 
The fifteenth annual report of the Cambridge (U.S.A.) 
Dante Society (R. Murari). L. 0. Kuhns : Dante's 
treatment of nature in the Divina Commedia (R. Murari). 
Notizie, ecc. 

Quaderno VII. A. Dobelli : II culto del Boccaccio per 
Dante (iii.). R. Delia Torre : Chiosa dantesca (Purg. vii. 
96). 0. Salvadori : L'vnitd morale nei ire regni della 
Commedia. Rivista critica e bibliografica. N. Zinga- 
relli : Dialogo di Antonio Manetti circa al sitto, forma 
misure dello Inferno di Dante Alic/hieri (0. Bacci). M. 
Rossi : 1 discorsi di Ridolfo Castravilla contro Dante 
e di Filifpo Sassetti -in difesa di Dante ( A. Dobelli). 
M. Scherillo : A Icuni capitoh della biografa di Dante. 
(0. Bacci). PAOET TOTNBEK. 

Fortnightly Review. August 1867. E. Moore: 
Dante as a religious teacher (i. ). Dec. 1897. E. Moore : 
Dante as a religious teacher (ii. ). 

[For the following contents lists we are 
indebted to Mr H. Krebs, Librarian of the 
Taylorian Institution, Oxford.] 
Literal-laches Centralblatt. October-December 1897. 

No. 39 : Hb'lderlin's gesammelte Dichtungen, ed. 
Litzmann. Kurschner : Deutecher Literatur-Kalender 
1897; No. 40: Gaedertz : Emanuel Geibel. Shake- 
speare's dramatische Werke, ed. Brandl. No. 41 : 
Maetzner und Bieling: Altenglische Sprachproben. 
Tote listoire de France, ed. Bourdillon ; No. 42 : The 
works of Lord Byron, ed. Henley ; No. 44 : Beneze" : 
Das Traum-Motiv in der mittelhochdeutschen Dichtung; 
Orendel, Wilhelm von Orense und Robert der Teufel. 
Br&l : Essai de Se"mantique. Skeat : Chaucerian 
and other pieces ; No. 46 : Alt-Isliindische Volksbal- 
laden ubertragen von Willatzen ; No. 48 : Alfred Lord 
Tennyson, a memoir by his son ; No. 49 : Dahn : Ebroin, 
historischer Roman. Junghans : Lore Fay, Erzahlung 
. . . Volkmann : Iconografia Dantesca ; No. 50 : Grott- 
huss ; Probleme und Charakterkbpfe . . . (Nietzsche, 
Ibsen. Hauptmann, Sudermann . . . Tolstoi, Eche- 
garay, Maupassant). Bohlau : Rathsmadelgeschichten. 
Niese : Ais rb'mischer Zeit. Die brauneMarenz. 

No. 51-52 : SttppertGl.) : Franzosisches Real-Lexikon 
(1897; Bd.l). /ate(Fr.):NeuhochdeutscheGrammatik 
(2 Bde, 1895-96). Schnbin(0ssip): Boris Lensky, Roman 
(3 Bde, 1897. The pseudonymous authoress = Lola 
Kirschner, is compared with the Anglo-French novelist, 
Ouida). Zur Megede : Quitt, Roman (1898). (The 
author reminds one of E. Werner's novels). Oensichen : 
Zu den Sternen, Roman (1897 : The subject of this novel 

seems to be influenced by Dostoiovbky's Russian novel, 
Raskolnikov, but the author lacks poetical imagination). 
Rtittenaner (B.) : 2 Rassen. Roman (1898, a weak 

Arolilv fur das Sliiiliiim der \eneren Sprachen 
11. Lltteratnreii, edd. Brandl 11. Tobler. Bd. 
xcix., Heft 3-4 (Dec. 1897). 

i. Abhandlungen : Krilger (A. G.); Eine angebliche 
Isliindische Bearbeitung der Schwanrittersage. /'/' 
(K.): Goethe und Euripides. Stieftl (A. L.): Die 
Nachahmung Spanischer Komb'dien in England unter 
den ersten Stuarts. Grabau (C.) : The Bugbears, 
Kombdie aus der Zeit kurz von Shakspere ; iii. A nni- 
stein (Ph.) : Die socialen und politischen Strbmungen in 
England im zweiten Drittel unseres Jahrhunderts in 
Dichtung und Roman ; iii. fl/effii (G. ) : Die altfranzo- 
sische Liederhandschrift der Bodleiana in Oxford, 
Dome 308 (Schluss). Oelsner (H.): Anderungen von 
Lafontaine's Hand an seinen ' Amours de Psyche" et de 
Cupidon.' Meyer (Richard M.): Die Technik der 

ii. KleineMitteilungen: Kom-ath (W.) : Zu Beowulf. 
Solte (Joh.): Hiobs Weib. Ifult/iavsen (F.) : Ein 
neues Zeugnis fiir die englische Aussprache urn die 
Mitte des 17 Jahrhunderts. Holthaiuten. (F.), Altengl. 
Kleinigkeiten. Schleich (G.) : Uber die Quelle von 
Lydgate's Gedicht : " The Chorle and the Bird." 

iii. Beitrteilttni/en und kurze An:eii/en: Die Mondsee- 
Wiener Liederhandschrift, edd. Mayer und Rietsch 
(Weinhold). Goethe's Faust in English by R. McLintock 
(R. M. Meyer). I'oppenberq : Zacharias Werner (Max 
C. P. Schmidt). Murko (M.) : Deutsche Einflusseauf 
die Anfange der Slavischen Romantik (H. Jantzen). 
Lieliermann (F.), Uber die Leges Edwardi Confessoris 
(R. Hiibner). Hafler(H.): Was sagt Shake-speare ? Die 
Selbstbekenntnisse des Dichters in seinen Sonetten . . 
(R. Fischer). Ausgewahlte Gedichte von R. Brown- 
ing, iibersetzt von E. Ruete (Iranian. Schmidt). . . 
Uraetttt (S. R.): Cleg Kelly, Arab of the City (Phil. 
Aronstein). Anthony Hope: The Chronicles of Count 
Antonio Comedies of Courtship (Aronstein). Degen 
(W): Der Patois von Cremine (H. Uriel). Pillet (A.) 
Die neuprovenzalischen Sprichwbrter der jungeren Chel- 
tenhamer Liederhandschrift (A. Tobler). B. L. Mttralt: 
Lettres sur les Anglais et les Franjais (1725), ed. 0. von 
Greyerz (A. Tobler). Lettres francaises, ed. Th. 
Engwer (E. Pariselle). Ehrhart -and I'lanck : Syntax 
der franzbs. Sprache (G. Carel). .... Glode (0.) : 
Die fronzds. Interpunktionslehre (G. Carel). &MMOI 
(Ed.) : Grammatik des Altfranziisischen, ed. Behrens 
(Risop). -Ridella (F. ), Una sventura postuma di G. Leo- 
pardi (B. Schnabel). Martin (K.). Ubungen fiir die 
italienische Konversationsstunde nach Hblzel's Bilder- 
tafeln (0. Hecker). 

Modern Language Biotcs, ed. Marshall Elliott, 
Baltimore. Vol. XII. : November and December 

Nm. : Fruit : Keats' Ode to a Nightingale. Fortier : 
A study in the classic French drama : Corneille. 
Hempl : The Etymology of Overwhelm. Molenaer : A 
MS. of the Gouvernement des Rois. fievieics: Tyler: 
The literary history of the American Revolution. 
Rambeau - Passy : Chrestomathie franchise. Kuno 
Meyer : The Voyage of Bran . . to the land of the 
living. Palgrave : Landscape in Poetry. Jusseraud : 
Jacques 1" d'Ecosse, fut il poete ? Klinghardt : Ar- 
tikulations-und Hb'riibungen. Lidforss : Los Cantares 
de myoCid. 

Correspondence : Milwitzky : The Gaston Paris 
Medaille. Hulme : Yeoman. Swiggett : Baldr. In- 
graham : Gray and Grey. Browne : Valentino or 
Vilentyne. Potter: Dulcinea and the Dictionaries. 
Brief Mention : Dobson, A handbook of EngL Litera- 
ture. . 

Dec. : Schilling : The 44th Convention of German 
Philologists . . Dresden, Sepr. 29 to Oct. 2, 1897. 
Geddes : American - French Dialect Companion. 
Antrim: The Genitive in Hartmann's Iwein. Howard: 
Declension of Nouns in the Faustbuch. J! 
Rolling : Lord Byron's Werke. Wenckebach : 
Deutsche Spachlehre , . ^ Kuhns : The treatment of 


nature in Dante's Divina Commedia. Streitberg : 
Gotisches Elementarbuch. Mat/.ke : First Spanish 
Readings, Carres jionde nee : Papyrius, Cursor : Swash- 
buckling. Brief Mention : Nyrop : Den Oldfranske 
Heldedigtning. 15th Annual Convention of the Mod. 
Lang. Association of America. 

Revne des lni\ Momles. Octobre-Decembre 1897. 

1 Oct. : Marguen'tte (P. et V.): Le Desastre, iii. 
SitUif-Pi't'dftomvie : Qu'e-t-ce que la poesie ? Ouida : 
Tonia. Lemaitre : Revue dramatique. 

15 Oct. : Marffueritte (P. et V.): Le De"sastre, iv. 
f)niiiiiic(R.) : Revue litteraire : Les Lettresde Merimue. 
Bel/aiyite : Revue musicale : Quelques Chansons. 

Wyzeim (T. de) : Revues etrangeres ; Un roman 
Chretien (The Christian, a story par Hall Caine, 
Londres 1897). 

l er Jforembre: Margueritte : Le De"sastre, v. . . . 
Reynier : Poesies : L'Arbre de la route. Lemaitre : 
Revue dramatique. . . . 

15" yovembre : Caro : Pas a pas, i. . . . Mar- 
giteritte : Le Desastre, derniere partie. Douiuic : Revue 
litteraire : Les De>acines, de Barres. 

l r Decembi-e : Cfro : Pas a pas, ii. Sawain : Poesie. 

T?.>:te : L'lnfluence allemande dans le romantisme 
francais. Vulbert: La Vie d'Alfred Lord Tennyson. 
Lemattre : Revue dramatique. Wyzeira : Revuej etran- 
geres ; Le Roman Italien en 1897. 

15" Decembre : Cherbnliez : Jacquine Vane se, i. Art 
Jioe : La Cloche qui parlait aux soldats, conte de not], 
Caro : Pas k pas, iii. Doumic : Revue litteraire ; Une 
apotheose du naturalisme (h propos du livre de Meunier : 
Le Bilan litteraire du xix siecle). 

I!. MII Critique <rili*lir< el lie I iin ralm ,-. 

October- December 1897. 

No. 41 (Oct. llth) : Pascal, Pensfies, ed. Faugere, 2 
edition, 1897 ; Livet : Lexique de la langue de Molierd 
(now complete in 3 vols.). No. 42 : Voyages de Montes- 
quieu, ed. Albert dc Montesquieu, 2 vols., 1894-96. 
No. 44 : Brakelmann : Les plus anciens Chansonniers 
francais, 1896 ; Mahrenholtz : Fenelon, 1896 ; Legras : 
Henri Heine, poete ; Bettelbeim : Anzengruber, Bio- 
graphie, Berlin, 1897. No.- 45 : Hallays : Beaumar- 
chais, Par. 1897 ; Besson : Knebel, un ami de la France 
& la cour de Weimar, 1897 (Knebel, ce " dernier temoin 
de la ( eriode elassique de la litterature allemande ") ; 
Monod : Portraits et Souvenirs : ( Michelet Green et 
1'histoire du peuple Anglais . . . Victor Hugo James 
Darmesteter E. de Pressense" Al. Vinet Richard 
Wagner et Bayreuth en 1876 et en 1896 Le Mystere 
de la Passion k Ober-Ammergau). No. 47 : Dumaine : 
Cervantes Hartmann : Les langues vivantes en France 
(Title of the book reviewed : Reise-Eindriicke und Be- 
obachtungen eines Neu-philologen in der Schweizund in 
Frankreich). No. 49 : Dowden : Histoire de la littera- 
ture francaise, London (Review of the English work : 
" Pas une appreciation originate au point de vxie anglais, 
et nous ne trouvons pas dans ce livre le memo genre 
d'interet que les lecteurs anglais peuvent trouver dans 
1' Histoire de la litterature anglaise de Taine. " C'est 
trop un manuel.). Poemes de Lermontov, traduits par 
Duperret, Par. 1897 (" L'oeuvre de Bodenstedt, premier 
traducteur allemand du grand poete Russe est bien 
superieure a celle de M. Duperret "). No. 50 : Kettner : 
Les Nibelungen : ("Die b'sterreichische Nibelungen- 
dichtung, Untersuchungen liber den Verfasser, Berlin 
1897 ") Masi : Scelta di Commedie di Goldoni, 2 vols., 
Firenze, 1897. 

No 51 : Totk (B): Szajrul szajra ( = De bouche en 
bouche, Budapest, 1896: recueilde dictons des Magyars 
ou Hongrois, selon les modeles de " L' A'</// /'/ iln Autres 
recueilli," par Ed. Fournier ; des " Gejt&r/elte tt'orte," 
von G. Biichmann, do* *' Classical and foreign, Quota- 
tions," by King, et de 1'ouvrage : " Chi i'a delta," di 

No. 52: Souriau (M.): La preface de Cromwell (de 
V. Hugo concernant sa doctrine dramatique; "une 
tude de grande valeur sur 1'histoire du genie d'Hugo. "). 
Durarul Fardel (Max): La Vita Nuova di Dante, 
traduction accompagne'e de commentaires, 1898 (Ouv- 
rage qui a mis a profit les travaux de MM. Del Lungo, 

Barbi, Scherillo, etc.). Reforgiato (V.): Le contradi- 

zioni di Leopardi (Catane, 1898.). 

Urn i -rhr RuiidKchaii, ell. Rodeiiberg ft .Inlirgaiig. 

October- December 1897. 

October: \V-ildenbrtich: Die Waidfrau, Erzahlung. 
Widmann : Erinnerungen an Johannes Brahms, i. 
Kraus : Gregorovius. Sajrtvrig : Gildemeister's Essays. 
Literarische Nolizeii -' RUckert's Werke, ed. Ellinger, 
2 BJe. Anselm Feuerbach : Bin Vermachtnis, 4 te 
Auflage, Wien 1 897. 

November : Kbner-Kxclteiiback : Maslan's Fran, Erzah- 
lung. Afa.c Miiller : Sprache und Geist, iii. Widitiann : 
Job. Brahms, ii. Srhuiie : Goethe's Konigslieutenant. 
Sup/tun, : Grossherzogin Sophie von Sachsen un<l das 
"Goethe-und Schiller- Archiv." Hiiffer : Gregorovius. 
Hansjakob : 1m Paradies, Tagebuchbliitter aus dem 
baHischen Schwarzwald, 1897. 

December : Sietjfried : Um der Heimat willen, Novelle. 
... Hiiffer: Wann ist Heinrich Heine geboren? 
(1797, nicht 1799). Scklenther : Madame Sans-G^ne in 
Berlin. Steig: Friedrich Wasmann (Maler). Biese : 
Volkelt's Aesthetik des Tragischen. 

Literarische Nntizen : Kantstudien, ed. Vtiiliinger. 
Weber's Dreizehnlinden, e *. Rickelt. 
/.viix-liriii fiir VerKlrlrheuile lltteraliirse- 
srlilrhte, eil. Keh. Band xi., Heft 4, 1897. 

- 1 bh<t.iidl unyen : Bolte : Der Teufel in der Kirche. 
Valentin : Zur Formenlehi e der franziisischen Dichtung. 
Jantzen : Das Streitgedicht bei Hans Sachs. . . . 
Sulgcr-Gtbina : Die franziisischen Vorgiinger zu Heinse's 
" Kirschen.' Landau : Altes mit neuem Namen. 

JSeXfirechuiigeii : Fnschbier vnd (tembrzycti : 100 
Ostpreussische Volkslieder. . . . Sc/iiii.lmch : Hart- 
mann von Aue. Zimmemiiaiiii : F. W. Zacharia. 
/IHr/ier : Arbeit und Rhythmus. 

Kur.f Aiizeii/fii : \rlirirtff.: Alex. Wesselofsky. 
Kevue ilex Laiijcncs ICmiiaiirs. Juillet-Ao&t 1897. 

Anglade : Contribution a 1'etude du languedocien 
moderne : le patois de L&ignan, dialecte Narbonnais. 

Riou pouetsicon. vi" Chant : Lou Pouy delle Fg. Bib- 
liographie : Jeanroy : Guarnerio. P. G. di Luzerna. 
Teulie: Laeuve: Folklore poitevin. Teulie : Chassary: 
En terra galesa. Teulie : Suchier : Provenzalische 
Diatetik. Teulie : Mazel : Premier aphorisme d'Hip- 
pocrate. Teulie : Bonnet : Manuscrits de la Societe 
archeologii|ue de Montpellier. C'hronique. 

Sept. -Oct. 1897. C. Appel: Po&ics provencales in- 
edites. L. Lambert : Contes populaires de Languedoc 
(suite). P. Cluissary : Saume d'Amour, texte et tra- 
duction. Jac Goliorii, Paris : De rebus gestis Fran- 
corum liber xiii. Lodoicus xii. (ed. Pelissier), suite. 
. . . Bibliographic : Montaigne, Essais, ed. Jeanroy. 
Kevue d'HIatoire Lllleralre de la France. 

4 Annee, No. 4 - 15. Octobre 1897 : Sommaire : i. 
Potez : La Poesie de Desbordes - Valmore. Urbain : 
L'abbe Ledieu, historien de Bossuet. ii. Melanges : 
Un goinfre : Girard de Saint - Amant (Brun). Une 
lettre relative a Bayle. Ximenez, Voltaire et Rousseau 
(E. Ritter). . . Le conte de 1'enfant gate devenu cri- 
minel et la "Chronique birdeloise " de Gaufreteau 
(Delboulle); iii. Comptes rendus : H. Becker: Un 
humaniste au xvi sieele, Loys Le Roy de Coutances . . 
Schirmacher : TheophiledeVian (1591-1626). Michaut: 
Les Pensees de Pascal. Beat de Muralt : Lettres sur 
les Anglais et les Franfais (1725.) ; IV : Periodiques ; 
V: Livres Nouveaux ; VI: Chronique; VII: Ques- 

Paul mill limn in-'., KellriiKe znr Geitchlchte der 
WeiitHChen >IM :n in- M ml i n i. r;ii in . ed. glevera. 
Band xxii., Heft 3, Ottolur 1897. 

Helten : Zur Sprache des Leidener Williram. Bah- 
der : Wortgoschichtlicho Beitriige. Uklewbeck : Ety- 
mologisches ; Zur Lautgeschichte. Meyer : Klassen- 
suffixe. Ehriamann : An. gabba, Ags. gabbian. Streit- 
berg : Zum Todesjahr Wulfilas. Joxtes : Der Arrianis- 
mus des Wulfila. Zupitza : Gotisch alow. Ltmlc ; Zur 
Herkunft des deutschen Reimverses, . 


Zfltacbrin fiir Drntsclie PkJIologle. Ilulle, 1897. 

Band 30, Heft 1: Boer : Zur Grettissaga. Bern- 
hardl : Eine neue gefundene Parrivalhandschrift. 
Kawffmann : Der Arianismus dos Wulfila. Miscellen : 
Meier : Unsere volkstiimlichen Lieder. Diintzer : 
Merck aus Darmstadt.. . . Holder : Luther's Sehrift 
an den christlichen Adel deutseher Nation . . . Sc/iat: : 
Die Mundart von Imst. . . . 

Heft 2 : Kau/nianii : Zur Quellenkritik der gotischen 
Bibeliibersetzung. Gallic : Zur altsachischen Gram- 
in.-itik. Slrauch: Alemannische Predigthruchstiioke. 
Beck : Schb'nbachs Studien . . . der altdeutschen 
Predict. Jfettutr : Lessings Hamburger Dramaturgic. 
Miscellen : Ein Brief Gleims an Klopstock. fJielze : 
Homunculus in Goethe's Faust. ... Jeitleles : 
Jammerschade. Neumann: Hebbel's Drama Agnes 
Bernauer. Kohler und Meier : Volkslieder von der 
Mosel und Saar. \\'nkadinovit : : Prior in Deutschland. 
Xaue Hilfsmittel zum Studium des Altnordischen 
(Laxdoela, ed. Kahlund ; Holthausen's Lehrbuch ; 
Kahle'a Elementarbuch). Eyrbyggja Saga ed. Gering. 
Kauffmann : Deutsche Grammatik . . . Annolied, 
ed. Rodiger. Jantzen : Geschichte dea deutschen 
Streitgedichtes. Ketlner : Lessing's Minna von Barn- 
helm. . . . 

Nuova AiitoloKln. Anno 32. 

1 Ottobre, 1897. Final! : Le prime quattro Edizioni 
della Divina Commodia. ... Rocetta: L'Idolo 
(romanzo, vii.). - Lollits: Agosto Platen. . . . Bollet- 
tino biblioyrafico : Piazza : Grammatica Italiana, 2 vols., 
Livorno,1897. (Lapartepratieaecopiosissima. ) Marco: 
II latino studiato coll' italiano, 1896. Simonetti: Le 
grammatiche italiana e latina in correlazione, parte i., 

16 OUoli'e. Villar'i : Due Scritti Inglesi sul Machia- 
velli (Morley-Greenwood). Rovetta : L'Idolo, viii. . . . 
Lot/is: Platen in Italia. f'aelli : Leopardi all' Indiue. 
Bollettliio biblioijr. : Salomone-Mariiio : Le Storie 
popolari in poesia siciliana . . . dal seco'.o xv. ai di 

1 Novembre. Graf: Don Abbondio [dei " Promesti 
Sposi"di Manzoni], Rovetta : L'Idolo, fine. . . . Rani- 
sardi : Le due voci, versi. Lullis : Gli ultimi anni del 
Platen. Cena: Pomeriggi Canavesani, ver-i. C/iiarini: 
Intornp alle " Novelle di Canterbury " di Chaucer. 
Bollettino Inbliogr. : Amicis : Le tre capital! ; .S'erao : 
Storia di una monaca. Conii/llani : Le origini del 
melodramtn a. 

16 Novewbre : C'ardttcci : Alberto Mario Scrittore . . . 
(1848-61. Capuana : II barone di fontane asciutte, 
novella. . . . I'anzacchi: La caccia di Nembrod, versi 
Nino: Michele Lessona. Chiarini : Intorno alle 
Novelle di Canterbury di Chaucer, ii. Mantorani : 
Sei Canti popo'ari della Greeia moderna tradotti da 
Nievo. Bollettino biblioyr. Uo~:i : L'Osservatore 
Veneto, ed. Spagni. Manzoni : Prose minori, lettero 
inedite . . . e sentenze, con note di Bertoldi, Fir. 1897. 
Goldoni : Scelta di tommedie, ed. Masi, Fir. 1897, 
vol 2. Petrarca : Rime sparse e Trionfodell' eternita, 
ed. Cozzo, Torino, 1897. Beimieiii : Dialogo di Manetti 
circa al sito . . . dello Inferno di Dante, ed. Zingarelli, 
1897. Dobelli : Studi letterari (Pension sulla "Vita 
Nuova" ; Dialcune fonti manzoniane, Figure dantesche 
nel Decamerone ; Della Gerusalemme liberata ; Doni, 
Chiosatore di Dante). Rossi : Andrea da Vigliarana o 
le sue rime, 1897. Bianckini : II pensiero fllosofico di 
Torquato Tasso. . . . Bassermann : Dante's Spuren in 

1 Dicembre. Carducci : Alb. Marco, ii. Grandi : 
Rasentando il peccato, novella. ... Graf: Versi. 
Ckecclu : Giacomo Puccini [compositore]. Pascal i : 
Andre"e, versi. Valetta : Rassegna mus-icale. 

Bolletino bibltoc/r. Gorra : Lingua e letteratura 
spagnuola dalle origini, 1898 [Un manuale esposto con 
rigoroso metodo critico, noi raccomandiamo il volume a 
tutti . . .]. 

16 Lticembre Nigra : La Romanza di Tristano e 
Isotta, versi. Nicolelt i-A Itimari : La Carovane della 
morte, racconto d'Afriea. Villari : La Societa Dante- 
Alighieri. Segrl : Sheridan, a proposito di miovi 

studii. Mariano : Rosmini e la sua condanna. Bon- 
fadini : Federico Confalonieri. Boutet : Ermete Zacconi 
(attore). Annun:io : La parabola delle vergini fatue e 
delle vergini prudenti. Bersezio : Bottero e Teja. 

Bollettino liblioyraf.Jin-ere: Opere complete, ed. 
Rondani, 4 vols., 1897 (Drammi, Bozzetti, Versi e 
Scritti vari). i'ian : Sulle orme del Veltro, studio 
Dantesco, 1H97. tiouadani : Caino (poema). 

Kcvur II iv|i:in l<i nc. ><! 1 .111 lch.--li-l IMIM-. 4 Annie : 
Murs-J uillet, 1897. 

No. 10 : Fabra : Etude de phonologie Catalane. 
1'eseux-Richard : Sur le Dicciunario de Galicismos de 
Baralt. Ens : Phantasio-Cratuminos sive Homo vit- 
reus, ed. Kitzmaurice-Kelly. Joas de Deus. Kayserl- 
ing : yuelques proverbes Judi':o-espagnols. Foulchfi- 
Delbosc: L'Kspagne dans " Les Orientales" de Victor 

No. 11 : Foulche'-De bosc : Yogar, yogxier, yoguir. 

Peseux - Richard : Les Nonadas de M. - Alfredo 
Calderon. . . . Poesies ine"dites de Gongora, ed. 
Rennert.Eustache de la Fosse : Voyage a la Cote 
occidentale d'Afrique en Portugal et en Espagne (1479- 

(In-. '11111. HaaiMlblad voor Phllolo^le eu .. ., hi. - 
.1. 11 i-. October- Uecember 1897. 

No. 8 : v. Berkum : De middelnederlandsch bewerk- 
ing van dar Parthenopeus - roman. . . . School -en 
leerboeken : Rosetti : A last confession and other 
poems, ed. Bense. Library of contemporary authors, 
by Grondhoud and Roorda. No. 9 : Klinghardt : 
Artikulations- und Horiibungen. Streitberg: Gotisches 
Elementarbuch. Kahle : Altislandisches Elementar- 
buch. Ten Brink : Gesch. der Nederl. letterkunde, 
Afl. 10-22. 

No. 10 : Koschwitz : Anleitung zum Studium der 
fninziisischen Philologie. 
Arkiv for Xorillsk Filologi. /.',-'. 1897. 

Vol. 14, Parts 1 and 2 : Hellquist : Om nordiska verb 
pa suffixalt-k-r-1-s och t samt af dem bildade nomina. 

Olrik : Tvedelingen af Sakses kilder. Holthausen : 
Zu dem altschwedischen Ratten-und Mausezauber. 
Grienberger : Beitrage zur Runenlehre. Jonsson : 
Gering's Glossar zu den Liedern der Edda : Karsten : 
Om nordisk nominalbildning. Heusler: Nekrolog auf 
Ju'ius Hoffory. 

Archlv lur siavlKdie Pbilologie, ed. Jaglc: Band 
xix., Heft 3-4, 1897. 

Oblak : Kleine grammatische Beitrage. Lore/if; : Die 
polnischen Nasalvokale. Jtadonic : Der Grosi-vojode 
von Bosnien Sandalj Hranic- KosaSa. Matic : Zor- 
anic's Planine und Sannazaro's Arcadia, ein Beitrag zur 
Geschichte der alteren kroat. Litteratur. Seeptitt : Zur 
Nestorfrage. Fr'a-dr. Mailer: ..Zur Geschichte der 
altslav. Schriften. Milcetic : Uber den kroatischen 
und bohmischen Lucidarius. 

Ki-ittscher Anteiger : lieitetar : Serbo - kroatische 
Accentuation. Jireeet : Krumbacher's Geschichte der 
byzantinisehen Literatur ; Monumenta Ragusina ; . . . 
Kraus : Murko's Deutsche EinHiisse in Biihmen. 
Afitrto: VISek's u. Mchal's liteiaturgesch-Studien 
Uber Puchmajer ; Jakubec, Biographie A. Marek's. 
Kroatische Volkslieder, ed. Matica hroatska [the 
' ' Croatian Society "1. 

UNOER was one of the most untiring and accurate of 
text-editors. Single-handed, and with quiet persistency, 
he copied and printed a long series of important ver- 
nacular MSS. Marin Sb'gur, Postola Sb'gur, Heilagra- 
manna So'gur, Karla-magnus Saga, several of the King's 
Sagas, etc. With his friend, Dr Vigfusson (who copied 
this MS.), he published the huge Flatugar bok. All 
this work he carried out without intermittence of his 
professorial work. His kindly and singularly modest 
character endeared him to a large number of friends, 
both in his own country and outside it. It is chiefly 
owing to him that the bulk of later O.N. MSS. are 
accessible, and that a fairly complete view can now 
be obtained of the influence of foreign culture on 
O.N. medieval literature. 

Modern Language Teaching 

IT has been decided to devote a section of the Modern Quarterly to what is of special 
interest to the teachers of modern languages ; and it may be well to define at the outset 
what this section is intended to include. 

We shall welcome in the first place any contribution towards the employment of 
better methods. We are aware of the wide diversity of opinions as to the ideal way of 
teaching a living language ; and also of the numerous obstacles to the realisation of these 
ideals which existing circumstances present to the earnest teacher. Nothing is more 
valuable than the record of personal experiment and experience ; and we hope to receive 
such records from many sides. Where success has resulted, others may be encouraged 
to adopt similar principles ; where earnest efforts have led to partial or complete failure, 
others will be spared a similar disappointment. Much has been done of late years on 
the Continent and in America, and much may be learnt from the methods employed there 
and the criticisms they have called forth. We shall be interested to see how far English 
teachers think it well to adopt foreign methods, and we shall give our warm sympathy 
and support to all that is best in them. 

Then there are numerous points of secondary importance, but which deserve careful 
attention for instance, the present lack of uniformity in grammatical terminology, or the 
advisability of using a phonetic transcript in the case of beginners. In discussing these and 
similar topics, we would urge the importance of making the study of English the starting 
point, and the disadvantage which arises from confining the remarks to one language 

While recognising the paramount importance of improving the teaching of English, 
French and German, and also the status of the teacher, in our secondary schools, we shall 
record as fully as possible the progress of advanced study at our Universities and University 
Colleges, on which we rely for numerous and well-equipped recruits to the profession. 
But before they can be called well equipped, they must have received a certain training; 
we welcome such efforts as are being made by the older Universities and by the College of 
Preceptors, and shall follow them with keen interest. 

As the examination system is widespread in England, and the character of the papers 
set is of great influence on the teaching, we shall regularly insert criticisms of the more 
important papers in modern languages. 

The classified list of books will be continued on the same lines as hitherto ; it need 
hardly be pointed out that it becomes more helpful as it becomes more complete. Every 
teacher can help towards achieving this desirable end by contributing brief criticisms of 
books he has used in his classes. 

Certain misunderstandings make it necessary to repeat in conclusion that contributions 
from every side are welcome, so they be thoughtful and helpful ; and that no article 
will be rejected merely because it is at variance with the editor's views. The Modern 
Language Association as a whole does not give its sanction to any one method ; and it 
may be confidently asserted that at the present day the conditions of secondary education 
in England are so complex, that no one method could be recommended for general 

We have thrown open the arena to all ; let the competitors throng in, and each gain 
strength in the friendly strife. 



THE annual meeting of this society was held 
at the College of Preceptors on the after- 
noon of Thursday, December 23, 1897. The 
chair was taken by the Rev. J. E. C. Welldon, 
President for the year. 

The Hon. Secretary's report was presented 
and taken as read. 

Dr H. Frank Heath, Editor of the 
Modern Language Quarterly, the organ of 
the Association, made a statement as to 
the position of that journal. He said that 
the experience of the past year had justi- 
fied the decision of last year to raise 
the subscription to 10s. 6d., and had con- 
firmed the opinion that he expressed at 
the last meeting, that one guinea was the 
minimum subscription upon which a worthy 
publication could be conducted. After a 
great deal of work the first number was 
published last summer. The second num- 
ber appeared in November. The labour 
which those two numbers had necessitated 
was really quite extraordinary. It would 
have been impossible to produce them had 
it not been for the unselfish co-operation of 
his colleagues. Scholars throughout the 
country had come to the aid of the journal 
in a most unselfish way, and gratuitously 
written articles and collected materials. The 
work had been done for love, and not a 
penny had been paid to any contributor. 
He hoped that those persons who had helped 
him thus would accept his thanks for their 
generous action. The cost of No. 2 was a 
little over 31. It would be seen that the 
production of four numbers a year at such a 
cost would leave a very small margin of the 
income for application to the general pur- 
poses of the society. But this difficulty had 
been solved by an arrangement which he had 
entered into with Messrs Dent & Co. That 
firm were about to extend their business by 
becoming educational publishers, and they 
had agreed to take over the financial respon- 
sibility for the publication of the magazine, 
and to increase its size. They would also 
pay for two articles in each number by men 
of undoubted repute in their subjects. The 
Association, on its part, was to take a copy 
of the magazine for every member on the 
books at Is. 6d. a copy, the published price 
being 2s. 6d., and the Editor was to work 
for two years without payment. Certain 
changes would be made, and the magazine 
would be literary rather than purelyphilologi- 
cal and pedagogic. The present name would 
not cover the new condition of things, and 

the title would therefore be changed to The 
Modern Quarterly of Language and Literature. 
The new name might be open to some 
criticism, but it had been regarded as a 
convenient one, and its adoption did not 
involve any question of principle. The 
journal would be prepared to take a definite 
line on the subject of the teaching of modern 
languages, without dallying with the con- 
demnation of methods unsuited to the pre- 
sent day. 

The President then delivered the following 
address : 

Ladies and Gentlemen, It falls to me to 
say a few words upon the subject of the 
teaching of modern languages. I shall make 
them as few as possible, because it is not in 
my power, as the Hon. Secretary knows, to 
remain very long at the meeting, and I must 
plead guilty to a certain sense of incom- 
petence. I do not profess to be a great 
modern linguist, and perhaps in the adminis- 
tration of a public school it-is not so import- 
ant that the headmaster should know about 
modern languages as that he should know- 
about the modern language masters. (Laugh- 
ter.) But it happens that I have spent some 
time in trying to acquire modern languages. 
I doubt whether there is any person in this 
room who has lived in so many foreign homes 
as I have not always without some suffer- 
ing ; and perhaps I am the only person in 
this room who has satisfied the test which it 
has for some time been my habit to apply to 
persons who profess themselves to be authori- 
ties upon modern languages. If a person 
professes a knowledge of Italian, I always ask 
him if he has read the " Divina Commedia " 
through ; if he professes a knowledge of 
German, I ask him if he has read the second 
part of " Faust " through ; and if he professes 
a knowledge of English, I ask him if he has 
read the " Faerie Queen " through. I have 
fulfilled all those three conditions, and I am 
alive to tell you the tale. But my principal 
object in rising is not to give you a history 
of my own qualifications, which are poor at 
the best, for speaking on modern languages, 
but to express to you in the most forcible 
words I can command the profound interest 
which I feel, and h^ave long felt, and shall 
feel as long as I am a schoolmaster, in the 
encouragement and advance of modern lan- 
guage teaching. To me it is not so much a 
conclusion as an axiom that modern lan- 
guages possess great and important and ever- 
growing influence in the education of the 


young. I am one of those who have upon 
the whole been unable to realise the import- 
ant distinction which is made between the 
classical and the modern languages as educa- 
tional instruments. I perfectly understand 
the distinction between language and other 
subjects. I believe that language is the most 
powerful and most effective educational in- 
strument, mainly because it is in its nature 
human. It is the product of man's own 
intellectuality, and it possesses that charac- 
teristic which is found in human affairs 
that one is not dealing with exact and 
absolute truth, but is dealing with proba- 
bility. It always seems to me that such 
a study as that of mathematics, which pos- 
sesses in itself the highest value, is yet not a 
study which can claim the highest place in 
education, just because the certainty which 
is attainable in mathematics is not in its 
nature the degree of assurance to which one 
may hope to attain in human affairs. And, 
as the object of education is to fit young 
people for the conduct of life, I think that 
that subject upon which they are required 
to exercise those very qualities which will 
be evoked in life is the subject that is best 
qualified to fit them for the work of useful- 
ness in life. Therefore I put language at the 
head of educational subjects ; but whether 
the language is an ancient or a modern one 
does not seem to me so -important a matter. 
It is perfectly true that the ancient languages, 
partly by prescriptive right, enjoy more ad- 
vantages. I do not doubt that the amount 
of thought which has been spent upon the 
ancient languages has brought them, in their 
utility as educational subjects, to a point of 
perfection which the modern languages have 
not yet reached. And I do not doubt that 
there is some advantage in the fact that one 
enters upon the study of an ancient language 
without the temptation to regard it merely 
as utilitarian. One enters upon that study 
in a more dispassionate and perhaps a more 
scientific spirit. But, if that sort of advan- 
tage belongs to the ancient languages, I 
cannot doubt that there is advantage of 
another kind belonging to the modern lan- 
guages. The utility which modern languages 
possess is a gain which it is absurd to deny. 
The idea that the educators of to-day are to 
teach whatever is useless seems to me a para- 
dox which amounts to an absurdity. That 
the Universities and the schools are to be 
the homes of useless knowledge is a proposi- 
tion which I cannot for a moment entertain. 
I do not say that knowledge is to be dis- 
regarded if it is not at once practically 
useful ; but, after all, what is the function 

of the schools and the colleges if it is not to 
prepare the young for the battle of life \ 
Therefore, if it be true that a certain study 
possesses a practical utility, that is not in 
my eyes an argument against it. It is rather 
a strong argument in its favour. I say, then, 
that the utility of modern languages as com- 
pared with the ancient languages is a point 
which it is unwise to disregard. There is 
another point. I do not know if it has suffi- 
ciently occurred to persons engaged in edu- 
cation that young persons feel a real difficulty 
in transporting themselves, as it were, into 
the climate of ancient life and thought. The 
speculations of antiquity, however valuable 
in themselves, are yet in many instances so 
different from any problem with which the 
modern world is called to deal, that young 
people are often deterred from pursuing 
studies which may become congenial and wel- 
come to them because they do not feel at home 
in the matters with which ancient literature 
deals. If those same young people are en- 
couraged to study modern languages, they find 
thoughts and speculations which come home 
to them as natural treated in the books of 
modern literature, and therefore modern 
literature possesses for certain minds among 
the young an interest which no work of 
classical literature possesses. These are con- 
siderations which lead me to attach the very 
highest value to modern language teaching ; 
and, although the headmasters of public 
schools are, I suppose, among the greatest 
obstructives to educational reform, and al- 
though in my judgment they are singularly 
unwilling to face the very important prob- 
lems of the day, yet it is possible that a 
headmaster should exercise his influence not 
only in encouraging the study of modern 
languages, but in what is fully as important 
in elevating the position of the modern 
language masters. I think I may say with- 
out presumption that I have seen under my 
own eyes modern languages coming to take 
a very different position in a school from 
that which they occupied fifteen years ago. 
I have seen devoted scholars coming to work 
among boys, fighting an uphill fight a 
fight that was rendered difficult not only 
by the action of the boys, but to some 
extent by the action of the masters. But 
I have seen that fight won or greatly won. 
And I think that the masters of modern 
languages, when they feel that they can 
rely upon the absolute and sympathetic sup- 
port of those who are responsible for the 
conduct of the school, feel themselves capable 
of doing a very great and valuable work in 
the school. You must remember that every 


subject in public schools and of them I am 
best qualified to speak depends for its im- 
portance upon the length of time it has been 
studied. That is a point which is not always 
sufficiently regarded. It is supposed that a 
master coming quite fresh to the work, if he 
is a good master in himself, is sure of success. 
But it takes a long time in an old public 
school to establish a definite tradition ; and 
it is evident that the subjects which have 
been studied longest the classical subjects 
especially are held in the highest esteem. 
Mathematics come next. The study of 
mathematics runs back to the beginning of 
the century in some of the schools. The 
more recent subjects, such as modern lan- 
guages and natural science, are winning 
their way. They are winning their way 
more or less rapidly, according to the en- 
couragement which is given to them. But 
I think that no modern language master 
ought to be disappointed at finding that 
boys or girls do not at present attach to 
his subject quite the serious importance 
which they attach to subjects which were 
educational subjects in the times of their 
fathers' grandfathers. It would be really 
absurd of me to offer you a disquisition 
upon the importance of teaching modern 
languages, for upon that you are much 
better authorities than I can be. I have 
tried to teach French and German at various 
times, and the one result of my teaching 
has been to convince me that the statement 
which I made to you, that there is no in- 
herent difference between ancient and 
modern languages, is a true one. I should 
like to submit to you three thoughts, drawn 
from my own practical experience. One 
question which must occur to every person 
engaged in the teaching of modern languages 
is, whether those languages are better taught 
by Englishmen or by foreigners. I desire to 
face that question with complete impartiality. 
There has been a growing disposition among 
young Englishmen to live upon the Continent 
with a view to acquire French or German or 
some other modern language. It is true that, 
to some extent, those languages have been 
acquired. I will say, in passing, that I be- 
lieve that the command which an English- 
man possesses of a modern language is 
frequently overrated. According to my 
experience, there is nobody who speaks a 
modern language properly. I mean that 
one's own language is the only language of 
which one is a complete master. I do not 
think that there are more than two or three 
living Englishmen who can speak a modern 
language exactly in the way in which a 

native would speak it, and I am practically 
convinced that there are no foreigners who 
can speak English in such a way as to escape 
detection. I draw from that circumstance 
the conclusion that it is desirable, and in- 
deed necessary, to entrust the highest part 
of the teaching of a modern language to a 
native of the country in which the language 
is being spoken. That is my opinion. The 
native teacher acts as a court of appeal, and 
without such court of appeal the teaching 
upon the delicate linguistic questions which 
must arise will not be quite as exact and 
effective as it might be. But, although a 
foreigner is needed as a court of appeal, I 
am very clear that, in the lower departments 
of teaching, where the maintenance of dis- 
cipline is a more vital matter than the 
exactitude of knowledge, there is great 
room for the ability and industry of Eng- 
lish men and English women. I wish that 
the foreign ladies and gentlemen who come 
to teach modern languages could get a little 
more into sympathy with young English 
boys and girls. It is an immense difficulty 
to acquire a practical sympathy with young 
persons of a nation other than your own. 
I do observe, and I think that you must 
have observed, that, where discipline is fully 
enforced by a Frenchman or a German, it is 
enforced at a cost which is unnecessary, a 
cost of friction or a cost of punishment. I 
do not know if I have the honour of ad- 
dressing any natives of the great countries 
whose languages are principally held in 
view ; but, if I have, they will not perhaps 
ihink it rude of me to suggest to them that 
they should cultivate a sense of humour, a 
sense of humorous sympathy, with the young 
people they are called upon to instruct. It 
very often happens that a humorous or even 
sarcastic remark is more efficacious as a means 
of maintaining order than a punishment 
which is set, and then doubled, and then 
trebled. There is another matter which I 
should like to bring before you, and I men- 
tion it rather for your consideration than for 
your acceptance. It is this : How far is it 
possible or desirable to teach a modern lan- 
guage conversationally 1 Of course, you will 
understand that my knowledge is principally 
derived from one of the great public schools 
of England ; but I have been led to ask my- 
self whether the conversational teaching of 
a modern language is best carried on in 
an English secondary public school. I say 
" best carried on," because there is no doubt 
that, if a sufficient amount of time is given 
to the conversational side of modern lin- 
guistic teaching, it is possible to arrive at 


a result. But I have found that, upon the 
whole, a boy gains more conversational 
knowledge by living abroad for six months 
than he gains by taking colloquial lessons 
during the whole period of his life at a 
public school. I do not know whether 
you will agree with me, but I have gene- 
rally advised that the boys should be sent 
abroad for a certain time, rather than that 
they should attempt to acquire at school a 
colloquial knowledge of a modern language. 
We read of school debating societies which 
conduct their business in French. What 
is the nature of such debates? Sometimes 
they take the form of a monologue carried 
on by the French master. That is a very 
valuable exercise, but it is not a debate. 
Where it is not so carried on, the boys, 
during a great part of the debate, are 
listening, not to the good French of the 
master, but to the very indifferent French 
of other boys. It has appeared to me, 
therefore, that these so-called debates, in 
which a modern language is employed, do 
not, as a rule, conduce to a very advan- 
tageous result : but I should be glad to 
learn from masters and mistresses, too, 
whose experience is greater than my own, 
that a practice which has not commended 
itself greatly to my judgment is found to 
be a useful one. 

I have now come to -the end of my time, 
though not the end of the subjects upon 
which it would be possible for me to ad- 
dress you : but it cannot be unknown to 
you that a very interesting experiment has 
been made in more quarters than one, that 
of trying to institute correspondence be- 
tween English boys and girls on one side, 
and boys and girls in France or Germany 
on the other. I am not able to say how 
far that experiment has proceeded. I have 
been permitted to take some little part in 
it, and I know the difficulty of it. I am 
pretty sure that such correspondence will 
not produce the best results unless it be 
conducted under the careful supervision of 
a master. Without such supervision, the 
correspondence is apt to degenerate into 
frivolity. But I wish to give it as my 
opinion that, where the correspondence is 
properly conducted, it is full of interest 
and full of profit ; and I regret very much 
that the conservatism of English boys, and 
perhaps of English masters, has produced 
a disposition in some schools to treat the 
correspondence as if it were a thing not 
worth thinking of at all. I believe that 
it would be possible to lay before the 
meeting some statistics other than those 

which I possess as regards the benefit of 
this correspondence ; but I do wish to 
emphasise my opinion that it is an in- 
teresting experiment, that it is worth try- 
ing, and that it may be continued and 
developed with satisfactory results. This 
society aims at improving the position of 
modern languages in all respects. I do 
not doubt that, in so far as we improve 
the status of modern language teachers 
and the methods of modern language 
teaching, we are doing great service to 
the cause. I hope that the time is not 
far distant when the Universities of this 
land will afford to modern languages some- 
thing like the same welcome and the same 
encouragement that they afford at present 
to the ancient classical languages. After 
all, the schools which I may claim in 
some slight measure to represent are, in 
a sense, the handmaids of the Universities, 
and I believe I can assure you I do not 
dare to say in the name of all public-school 
masters, because all public - school masters 
never agree upon anything, but of a con- 
siderable number of the most thoughtful 
of public-school masters that, whenever 
the Universities shall open their gates 
freely and fully to students of modern 
languages, and put them on an equality 
with the students of the ancient languages, 
we, whose occupation is to teach the 
young, will be ready and even eager for 
the change. That is all that I think I 
ought to say to you, and I have to con- 
clude my address by thanking you for the 
patience with which you have listened to 
one who is a very inadequate representative 
of modern languages. 

Mr Michael Sadler said that there had 
been laid upon him the pleasing duty of 
moving a hearty vote of thanks to Mr 
Welldon for his address, and for the valu- 
able services which he bad rendered dur- 
ing the year of his presidency. The Asso- 
ciation would thank him even still more 
for pitching so high the claims of modern 
languages as one of the intellectual dis- 
ciplines of the noblest forms of education. 
One sometimes heard the work of persons 
who were engaged in the encouraging 
and improving the teaching of modern 
languages spoken of as though it had 
primarily a commercial significance. But 
oaly a few persons were called upon to 
practise what Sir William Harcourt had 
called "the arts of solicitation" in a foreign 
language, and the educational value of the 
work of the Association eclipsed entirely 
its commercial value. In connection with 


the educational influence of the work, one 
could not help thinking that the Associa- 
tion was organising a force which would 
bring about a radical change in the cur- 
ricula of the higher educational subjects. 
But there was a still deeper reason for the 
work of the Association. It was impos- 
sible to belong to German-speaking Europe 
without feeling that they were face to face 
with a tremendous intellectual movement, 
which was primarily concerned with funda- 
mental ethical questions, and which had both 
good and bad sides. England had something 
to contribute to that change, and it would 
be good, not only for England, but for the 
whole civilised world, if there could be a 
freer interchange and inter-play of thought 
and practice between England and other 
nations. They knew that English opinion 
was guided to a great extent by the head- 
masters of the great public schools, and they 
thanked Mr Welldon for giving to the Asso- 
ciation the eminent sanction of so great a 

The Rev. Dr Macgowan seconded the 
motion with the greatest pleasure. Mr 
Welldon had been one of the pioneers 
amongst headmasters in the movement for 
placing modern languages on the same foot- 
ing as the ancient ones. The time had gone 
by when French and German were held to 
be on the same platform as dancing. Mr 
Welldon had shown, by coming forward, 
that the headmasters of England, as a body, 
could no longer be accused of absolute in- 
difference to the cosmopolitan sympathy 
which the study of modern languages 
always produces. If modern languages 
were taught in the way in which Mr 
Welldon had suggested, they would be in 
no way inferior as educational instruments 
to either Latin or Greek. He should put 
them as immeasurably superior to mathe- 
matics. Mathematics claimed too much in 
the education of the young, and one great 
thing to be said against that subject was 
that it was utterly lacking in sympathy. 
Goethe had asked, who, for instance, would 
require in the matter of courtship that the 
lady should give a mathematical proof of her 
affection. The Universities ought to give a 
warmer welcome to boys who went up there 
at eighteen or nineteen to take up modern 
languages. No provision whatever was made 
for foreign languages upon entrance. At 
Cambridge, Caius and King's gave one or 
two scholarships, but none of the other 
colleges gave anything upon entrance. He 
hoped that the time would soon come when 
the Universities would take a broader view 

of their mission. As to the "court of 
appeal" which Mr Welldon had referred to, 
he (Dr Macgowan) would suggest that no 
foreigner should be put on for translation, 
and that no Englishman should be put on 
for composition. With regard to conversa- 
tion, he agreed with Mr Welldon as to the 
desirability of sending boys abroad to learn 
it. He was sorry that he could not agree 
with him with regard to the question of 
correspondence. That was a matter which 
would require an adequate supervision, which 
would be almost impossible. 

The vote of thanks was carried with great 
heartiness, and briefly acknowledged by Mr 

A General Committee of ten members was 
then appointed for the coming year. The 
number nominated not being in excess of 
the number required, the list was accepted 
en bloc. The following are the names of the 
members of the Committee : Mrs Henry 
Sidgwick, Mr Henry Bradley, Mr G. F. 
Bridge, Mr H. W. Eve, Professor T. Gre- 
gory Foster, Dr W. Stuart Macgowan, Mr 
C. H. Parry, Professor Schiiddekopf, Pro- 
fessor G. C. M. Smith, Mr A. E. Twenty- 

An interval of fifteen minutes was then 
allowed, and the company took tea in 
another apartment. On business being re- 
sumed, the President having had to with- 
draw, the chair was taken by Mr F. Storr, 
Chairman of Committee. 

Monsieur Paul Passy, of Paris, gave a 
discourse on "The Use of Phonetics in 
Modern Language Teaching." He said 
that, in order that a pupil should learn a 
foreign language properly, it was necessary 
that he should learn to pronounce it properly. 
It was generally admitted that pronunciation 
had to be learned. It therefore had to be 
taught, and it could not be picked up in a 
haphazard way, simply by the pupils listen- 
ing to their teacher when they chose to 
listen. Good pronunciation ought to be 
enforced from the beginning, and it was 
the duty of a teacher to enforce it. Could 
phonetics in any way help the teacher in his 
task t The general tendency of a beginner 
in studying a foreign language was to re- 
place unfamiliar sounds and sound combina- 
tions with such sounds or sound combinations 
as were familiar to him. For instance, 
French boys had a difficulty in pronounc- 
ing the English sound represented by (h, 
and their tendency was to replace it by 
some sound to which they were accustomed 
in their own language. But he had taught 
English to many French boys, and he had 


never found one who had not been able to 
acquire the sound of th in a very satisfactory 
way. On the other hand, an English pupil 
had a difficulty at first with the French 
sound of the letter u, and ninety-nine times 
' out of a hundred the pupil would pronounce 
it yoo, thus giving it its English sound. The 
sound of the English th might be taught to a 
Frenchman, and the sound of the French u 
might be taught to an Englishman, by an 
application of a phonetic method of repre- 
senting sounds, and thus the task of the 
master in facilitating the acquisition of 
foreign sounds by his pupil might be 
made lighter. A knowledge of phonetics 
would guide the master to the easiest way 
of teaching any sound combination which 
was unfamiliar to his pupils. For this reason 
it seemed desirable that the master should 
have a knowledge of phonetics in order that 
he might make use of a phonetic method 
in teaching pupils a foreign language. He 
did not by any means advocate the intro- 
duction of phonetics as such. Such teaching 
would be perfectly absurd, and it might be 
put on a level with the teaching of grammar 
to children. The teacher needed grammar 
and needed phonetics, and the pupils also 
needed both, but they did not require to 
have them both taught to them. The master 
who understood both grammar and phonetics 
could select with judgment and discretion 
from his own knowledge those things which 
were necessary to meet the requirements of 
his pupils. The selection would vary con- 
siderably, according to the aptitude, age, 
and knowledge of the pupils. The only 
general conclusion to which one could come 
on this subject was, that the master himself 
must have a thorough elementary knowledge 
of phonetics as well as of grammar, and of 
the other parts of the language which he 
was teaching. But imparting the ability to 
pronounce any foreign sound combination 
was not by any means the same thing as 
imparting a correct pronunciation. A man 
might know how to pronounce every sound 
in the English language, and yet blunder 
considerably when he had to apply his 
knowledge. He might know, for instance, 
that there were two sounds represented by 
th, but how was he to know that one sound 
was to be used in the word thin and another 
in the word then ? Unless he knew the two 
words themselves individually, he had no 
clue as to which of the two sounds of th 
ought to be used in either case, both sounds 
being represented by the same alphabetical 
signs. Again, how was he to know how to 
pronounce the combination ough, in such 


words as tlwugh, through, cough, plough 1 In 
pointing out these instances in .which various 
pronunciations were associated with the same 
spelling, he was not intending to ridicule the 
English language. There were discrepancies 
just as great in the pronunciation of French. 
In cases of this sort the usual spelling of a 
word did not afford a clue to the pronuncia- 
tion, except as to part of the word, and in 
the part of the word where there was a 
difficulty the spelling was no guide. Some 
teachers asserted that the language should 
be taught only by the ear, and that no 
writing should be put before the pupil. 
Of course such a method was possible, inas- 
much as children learned to pronounce their 
own mother-tongue before they learned to 
read writing; but the time at the disposal 
of a teacher for teaching a foreign language 
was very limited, and, therefore, was it not 
a pity to omit to bring in the memory of 
the eye to help and sustain the memory of 
the ear ? Some children had a very good 
memory of the ear, and others had not, and 
the latter were at some disadvantage in 
learning a foreign language. It was the 
business of the teacher to make up in some 
way for the natural deficiencies of the pupil, 
and he thought that it would be a great pity 
to discard altogether the aid which written 
symbols could afford. If the spelling of a 
language was in all respects a correct repre- 
sentation of the pronunciation, the difficulty 
of distinguishing the pronunciation in such 
words as thin and tJien, and the other ex- 
amples which he had given, would not arise. 
The pupils would learn the language by ear, 
and they would also have before them an 
exact written or printed representation of 
the sounds which they had learned, and 
thus they would have the memory of the 
eye helping the memory of the ear. But, 
unfortunately, no language of the civilised 
world was written exactly as it was pro- 
nounced. But could not teachers do what 
was not done in the official spelling ? Could 
not they use such symbols as would repre- 
sent exactly the pronunciation of a language ? 
Could not they use a spelling which would 
represent the true sound in all instances ? 
To do this would mean a discarding of the 
usual spelling and the use of phonetic sym- 
bols for the writing of, say, French, English, 
or German, in the most appropriate way, as 
if the language had never been written be- 
fore, and had no existing spelling. The 
only real difficulty in the matter was that 
an alphabet must be learned, but this diffi- 
culty was hardly worth speaking of. In 
learning a foreign language a pupil always 


had to learn the different values of the 
letters of the alphabet, and the additional 
difficulty of learning the few new letters 
which a phonetic method would involve 
would be inconsiderable. There was one 
powerful objection to the use of phonetic 
symbols, and that was that the phonetic 
writing looked strange and ugly. That was 
perfectly true, but it would not be neces- 
sary for the pupil to adhere to the phonetic 
spelling after he had learned the correct 
pronunciation. The phonetic symbols would 
be like the scaffolding of a house. When a 
house was built the scaffolding was pulled 
down. So when once the foreign language 
was properly learned the phonetic scaffolding 
could be removed ; but it would be found 
that, in the meantime, it had helped con- 
siderably to the result. The use of phonetic 
symbols allowed a more truthful insight into 
the nature of a foreign language than was 
possible with the usual or common spelling. 
In many cases the ordinary spelling of a lan- 
guage obscured the real facts of language. 
The use of phonetic symbols tended to a 
more accurate acquisition of a language, not 
only as far as pronunciation went, but also 
so far as general correctness in speaking and 
reading were concerned. Most English chil- 
dren in learning French were taught, as one 
of the first things to be learnt, that the 
French plural was formed by adding s to 
the singular. Thus the singular table be- 
came tables in the plural. The natural con- 
clusion of the English child was that the 
plural in French was very similar to the 
English, that the ending marked off the 
plural from the singular, and that, therefore, 
all that he needed to learn was the endings 
of the two words. If, however, he read 
from a phonetic representation of the words, 
he would find the singular and the plural 
written alike, and he would be thus led to 
see that what distinguished the singular 
from the plural was the article which pre- 
ceded it. The child would then take partic- 
ular care to be correct about the article ; and, 
later on, when he was called upon to write 
orthographically in the usual French spelling, 
he would remember that the article of the 
singular had to be carefully distinguished 
from the article of the plural . Thus phonetic 
spelling called attention to the real facts of 
language, or, in other words, phonetic spell- 
ing taught the truth; and the truth and 
nothing else was the thing which ought to 
be taught. 

The Chairman said that when the Com- 
mittee first invited M. Passy to address the 
Association he was asked to speak in French 

if he preferred to do so, for it was taken for 
granted that every one in the room would 
be able to comprehend an address in that 
language. But they would all be grateful 
that the address had been given in English, 
for M. Passy had thereby shown, not only ' 
by precept but still more by example, the 
advantages of phonetic teaching. 

Dr Henry Sweet, in opening a discus- 
sion, said that he wished to deal with the 
subject from a new and practical point of 
view. If an average, common-sense, candid 
Englishman was asked what were his objec- 
tions to phonetics, he would say, in the first 
place, that he knew nothing about it. Then, 
perhaps, he would see the word "house" 
written liaus. This had a German look, and, 
taking it in connexion with the frequent 
visits of the German Emperor to these 
shores, he would see in it evidence of a 
deep-laid plot to turn English into German. 
An objection of this sort had appeared in 
print. The man's next objection would be 
that phonetic methods were an irritating 
and perfectly superfluous innovation. But 
the exact opposite was true, and the un- 
phonetic method was the innovation. The 
grammarians at Alexandria and Rome taught 
Greek mainly on a phonetic basis. The 
Greek accents were invented by the Alex- 
andrian grammarians to enable their pupils 
to learn the pronunciation. Even English 
spelling was mainly phonetic four centuries 
ago, and it was to a great extent phonetic 
at the present time. There was a phonetic 
feature even about the spelling of the word 
" stone," the use of the final e being a clumsy 
device for showing that the o was long. 
The idea of teaching modern languages 
without phonetics was not only absurd, 
but absolutely inconceivable. All that the 
phonetic reformer did was to improve or 
extend the phonetic representation of words. 
Pupils might be taught to pronounce pro- 
perly by being shown how to use their 
organs of speech in producing the required 
sound, and thus they could be led to pro- 
nounce words which they invariably mis- 
pronounced when they were guided only by 
their ear. They could also be taught how 
to evolve an unfamiliar sound from a familiar 
one. The organic sensations which accom- 
panied the production of a particular sound 
might be used in connexion with the help 
afforded by the eye and by the ear, and thus 
the organic, the acoustic, and the visual 
faculties might be made to work together 
harmoniously. It certainly seemed strange 
that, thirty years after the appearance of 
Bell's "Visible Speech," and more than 


thirty years after the publication of Ellis's 
work on pronunciation, it was necessary to 
stand np and advise an audience to reimport 
methods which were to a great extent of 
English growth. The period of discussion 
in phonetic methods had continued long 
enough, and the time for action had arrived. 
What was wanted in England was a phonetic 
association bound together by a definite pro- 
gramme similar to that of the association to 
which Mr Passy was secretary and director. 
Another pressing need was the periodical 
holding of international phonetic confer- 
ences. But the most pressing need was 
practical teaching. During last term he 
successfully started at Oxford a class in 
practical phonetics. The class would re- 
sume on January 24. Particulars regard- 
ing it would be found in the Journal of 

Mr Kirkman thought that everybody 
would agree that there was a necessity 
that the modern language teachers should 
know something of phonetics, and especially 
that they should be able to teach boys how 
to fashion their mouths and their tongues 
in order to produce any particular sound. 
But the whole question seemed to be 
whether it was necessary to introduce 
phonetic symbols into the class-rooms. On 
that point probably many teachers would 
differ from M. Passy and Dr Sweet. His 
own experience at Merchant Taylors' and 
other schools was that, if they taught a 
sound first of all through the ear, and made 
certain that the boys could reproduce it, it 
did not matter in the slightest what the 
written symbol was. He had found that, if 
he taught the pupils how to fashion their 
organs of speech, they could generally pro- 
nounce correctly from the ordinary symbols. 
A boy could only pronounce as the teacher 
pronounced, and, if the teacher insisted 
on accurate pronunciation, the boys would 
pronounce properly without the aid of 

Professor Lloyd did not think that Mr 
Kirkman had much invalidated the case 
which had been made out for phonetics by 
M. Passy and Dr Sweet, for he had said 
that the symbols used in teaching a foreign 
language did not matter. If so, why not 
use phonetic symbols ? They were as good 
as any other, and slightly better. He was 
puzzled to know how Mr Kirkman made 
the ordinary symbols work in teaching pro- 
nunciation when the same letter represented 
sometimes one sound and sometimes another. 
For instance, the letter g had one sound in 
gun. and a different sound in gin. The new 

symbols in the phonetic alphabet employed 
by M. Passy, and used in Le Maitre Phone'tigue, 
were very few and exceedingly simple. He 
should be astonished to find that anyone had 
any difficulty in reading the transcriptions in 
Le Maitre Phone'tique. The alphabet there used 
would be found a most convenient one, and 
one suitable for teaching phonetics in Eng- 
land. M. Passy had given to the subject 
of phonetics a greater breadth than it had 
previously had. It was claimed for the 
phonetic method that it would be a saving 
of time in the learning of a language. What- 
ever time it might occupy in being learnt 
would be more than compensated for in the 
long run. It ought to be recognised that 
phonetics was a part of grammar. The 
English boy had a belief that the sounds 
which he had learned in his own language 
were the only sounds which any human 
being ought to attempt to produce. Later 
on, the boy came to think that French boys 
were born to produce French sounds, and 
English boys were born to produce English 
sounds, and that it was going against the 
course of Nature and Providence for French 
people to attempt English sounds, and for 
English people to attempt French ones. 
The rudiments of phonetics should be taught 
as soon as a boy began to pronounce any 
language at all. A boy should be taught 
how the organs of speech acted in producing 
any particular sound. Boys who had such 
knowledge would be those who would learn 
the most easily how to pronounce foreign 
words. It was very desirable to have models 
showing how the vocal organs moved in the 
production of particular sounds. Diagrams 
of the organs were already provided, but it 
was very difficult to demonstrate the struc- 
ture and action of the organs from a flat 
diagram. The study of phonetics was most 
fascinating, and he believed the time would 
come when it would be regarded aa an 
integral part of English teaching. 

Mr J. J. Findlay said that he had under- 
stood that there was to be a resolution in 
favour of the introduction of phonetic sym- 
bols into English schools, and he had there- 
fore sent to the Secretary an amendment in 
the following words : " That the study of 
phonetic symbols should be encouraged in 
the University ; it should not be introduced 
into our secondary schools except in connec- 
tion with shorthand." He had found, how- 
ever, that no such resolution was to be 
moved. They were greatly indebted to 
M. Passy and others for insisting on the 
scientific study of sound, but he was con- 
vinced that the introduction of phonetic 


spelling into English schools would be quite 
fatal to the progress of modern language 
teaching in this country. It was very 
questionable whether written signs were a 
great aid in the teaching of pronunciation. 
When a pupil was pronouncing a language, 
whether in the elementary or in the advanced 
stage, he had no time to reflect on the action 
of his mouth or tongue. Reflection on such 
a point would be a positive hindrance to a 
pupil. The majority of people acquired a 
foreign language purely by imitation and 
nothing else. If pupils had an opportunity 
of hearing the sounds of a foreign language, 
they would reproduce what they heard. If 
pupils became accustomed to a phonetic re- 
presentation of foreign words, they would 
imitate the sounds in their ordinary writing, 
and their spelling would be spoiled. 

M. Passy said that nobody valued imita- 
tion more than he did, and the method which 
he advocated had been called the method of 
imitation, in opposition to the method of 
construction. But he would point out that, 
if imitation alone was to be employed, every 
method of learning, except that of listening 
to the master, must be wiped out. He 
would ask those masters who thought that 
the phonetic method of teaching would spoil 
a boy's ordinary spelling whether they had 
tried it. It was a curious fact that it had 
always been found that those masters who, 
at meetings, had deprecated the phonetic 
method had done so from the point of view 
of theorists, and had had no practical know- 
ledge of the subject. He had always found 
that boys taught on the phonetic system 
had learnt to read and write the ordinary 
symbols more quickly than boys taught in 
the usual way. Such was the verdict of 

A speaker at the back of the hall, who 
said that he was not a member of the 
Association, and whose name was under- 
stood to be Mr Hugh, referring to the 
question of teaching by imitation, said that 
his experience in connexion with the subject 
of voice -production had taught him that 
much greater success was obtained by teach- 
ing the action of the vocal organs than by 
enforcing mere imitation. 

Mr Howard Swan said that he thought 
it was a mistake to suppose that it would be 
necessary to introduce new signs into the 
English alphabet in order to represent the 
words phonetically. There were at the pre- 
sent time various rules of pronunciation 
which were generally well understood. If 
a nonsense word which meant nothing was 
written, every English person would be able 

to pronounce it, and all English people would 
pronounce it alike, Although English spell- 
ing was not phonetic to a foreigner, it was, 
to a large extent, phonetic to an English- 
man. The point was that it was not entirely 
phonetic. But, if we would only examine 
the English language, and ascertain what 
were the normal signs for the various sounds, 
we should be able to extract from the signs 
now employed the material for a regular 

Mr Fabian Ware moved : "That, if 
phonetics are to be employed with success 
in the elementary teaching of modern 
languages in English schools, it is, in the 
first place, imperative that an authorised 
phonetic alphabet be drawn up, adapted 
to the requirements of English pupils." 
He said that this resolution did not in 
any way commit the Association to an ap- 
proval of the use of phonetics in English 
schools. He believed that the majority of 
the members were opposed to the use of 
phonetics. ("No.") He still thought so. 
There were some so strongly conservative 
that they were opposed to all alterations. 
He had used phonetics in his work, and he 
was satisfied with the results of the experi- 
ment. The first object in using phonetics in the 
teaching of languages was to draw attention 
to the differences between the pronunciation 
of foreign languages and the pronunciation 
of English. One great advantage of the 
introduction of a foreign language in a 
phonetic dress to an English pupil was that 
it removed the possibility of the pupil attri- 
buting to the letters of a foreign language his 
conception of their normal value in English. 
A guiding principle in the application of 
phonetics to the teaching of a foreign 
language to an English pupil must be that 
the symbols of the phonetic alphabet should 
be absolutely different from the letters of 
the ordinary English spelling, except so far 
as those letters represented the same sound 
in both languages. The alphabet advocated 
by M. Passy demanded that a boy should 
differentiate between identical visual impres- 
sions. What was wanted was a phonetic 
alphabet adapted to the needs of English 
pupils, and strictly adhering to the prin- 
ciple he had laid down. A better teaching 
of foreign languages was an urgent national 
want, and the need could not be met 
without collective action. The resolution 
amounted to an instruction to the Com- 
mittee to appoint a Sub-Committee. 

Professor C. G. Moore Smith seconded the 

Mr Atkinson opposed the resolution, and 


strongly urged that any system of phonetic 
symbols which might be adopted should be 
an international system. It was to be re- 
membered that Dr Victor had himself 
adopted M. Passy's system. The practical 
advantages of adopting an international 
system would be many. In the first place, 
it would facilitate the obtaining of specially 
cast types. Then there was already a fairly 
large mass of transcripts in the phonetic 
style. But one of the most cogent reasons 
was that the transcript of reading matter in 
any language into the phonetic symbols 
ought to be performed by persons to whom 
the language was their mother tongue. In 
this way the exact pronunciation would be 
represented. An international system would 
make possible the interchange of transcripts. 
The difficulty of learning the new signs was 
not so great as some persons supposed. 

Professor "Walter Rippmann recommended 
that a Committee be appointed to consider 
the question and agree upon a phonetic 
alphabet for adoption by the Association, 

Mr Siepmann proposed as an amendment : 
" That, while this meeting is not ready to 
advocate the adoption of a phonetic alphabet 
in our schools, it is of opinion that phonetics 
should be studied by the masters, in order 
that they may be able to teach effectively, 
at the very beginning, a good pronunciation, 
and that masters who try to use a phonetic 
alphabet should use the alphabet of the 
"Association Phone'tique Internationale." He 
said that Mr Ware had advocated the in- 
vention of a new system, but he (Mr 
Siepmann) held, on the contrary, that 
they should adopt the alphabet which had 
been invented not by one person, but by 
many, during a great number of years. 

The .Chairman said that he could not 
accept Mr Siepmann's proposal as an 
amendment. It really amounted to a 
direct negative. 

Mr Siepmann, continuing, said that the 
system of the Association Phon6tique Inter- 
nationale had many advantages which he 
had not now time to explain. He thought 
that it would be best to start boys with a 
phonetic alphabet which was different from 
the English alphabet. It would not be 
difficult to teach boys the values of the few 
additional signs in the alphabetic system 
of the Association. He had never learnt 
that alphabet, but after practice for an hour 
or two he was able to read Le Mailre 
PJumetique easily, and he had read that 
publication for the last ten or twelve years. 
The values of the Association's signs were 
easily taught, and it was an advantage that 

those signs applied equally to different 
languages. He should be glad if masters 
would try this phonetic method, and report 
their experiences next year. 

The Secretary said that the Committee 
of the Modern Language Association had 
power to appoint a Sub-Committee of its 
own members to consider the whole ques- 
tion, and, if necessary, make proposals for 
such an alphabet as was desired. Persons 
not members of the Association could be 
added to the Committee. 

A show of hands was taken upon the 
question as to whether the resolution should 
be put to the vote, and it was decided that 
no vote be taken. 

The Chairman thanked M. Passy very 
heartily for having come over and addressed 
the meeting on the subject. 

The proceedings then closed. 

We have received the following letter 
from Mr Ware, in support of his views put 
forward at the meeting reported above. We 
understand that Prof. Sweet, Prof. Ripp- 
mann, Mr F. B. Kirkman, Mr F. Ware, and 
Mr H. W. Atkinson have been proposed as 
members of a sub-committee to report on 
this question : 

SIR, It is of the utmost importance that, for the 
more advanced students of languages, we should adopt 
an international phonetic alphabet. The alphabet of 
the Association Phone'tique Internationale has every 
necessary quality to recommend its general acceptance. 
Consequently, Prof. Vietor's action in withdrawing his 
own alphabet in favour of this one is most welcome. 
The difference between these two alphabets was at the 
same time so slight that the " International Alphabet," 
as we may now call it, is admirably adapted to the re- 
quirements of German beginners. I tried it, however, 
for some time with my younger pupils, and found it 
did not work well, and was consequently obliged to 
modify it, as I stated in an article in the Journal of 
JUducation. Blind imitation of Germany is folly. In 
the choice of an alphabet for English beginners, we 
must consider the mind and predisposition of the Eng- 
lish child alone. Will you allow me to explain my 
objections to this International Alphabet, for the 
elementary teaching of modern languages in our Eng- 
lish schools, more clearly than I was able to do at the 
recent meeting of the Modern Language Association ? 

For the sake of simplicity I confine my remarks to 
French. The following are the only reasons for em- 
ploying phonetics which bear on the present question. 
In the French language the same letters are often used 
to represent different sounds, and the same sounds are 
often represented by different letters. The difficulty 
which thus presents itself to a beginner might be re- 
moved by the use of a reformed French spelling, in 
which the various letters are only used in their normal 
values. But for the English pupil beginning French 
an additional difficulty occurs, in that he is already 
acquainted with the values of these same letters in the 
English language. To remove both these difficulties 
we must, therefore, employ phonetic symbols to repre- 
sent the French sounds, which symbols must differ 
from any letters which represent utterly distinct 
sounds in English ; but, at the same time, fresh diffi- 
culties are occasioned by the creation of new symbols 
which are unnecessary. The International Alphabet 


only partially satisfies these conditions. The symbols 
which I have found form an insurmountable objection 
to its employment in teaching English children are : 
u, y, e, i, /, representing respectively the sounds in the 
French words tottt, tu, th, *i, chat. To deal only with 
the first, the French word tmd presents a difficulty to 
the English child in that he associates ou with the 
sound in the English word pout. We, therefore, trans- 
cribe it tit ; but he already associates n with the sounds 
in the English words put or but, so that the difficulty is 
not removed. We ask him, a child of nine or ten, to 
differentiate the similar visual impressions of u in French 
and English, which would be exactly the case if we 
tised a reformed spelling and wrote the word ton. But 
we also create an additional difficulty, for when we 
begin to teach him the ordinary French spelling we 
have to undo what we have done, and show him that 
u represents quite a different sound, and that he has 
to distinguish between the pronunciation of tout and tn. 
Anyone arguing on the same lines will perceive the 
shortcomings of the other symbols mentioned. If we 
use phonetic symbols, let us at any rate adopt those 
from which we can derive the maximum benefit. If 
the International Alphabet is adopted in the elementary 
teaching of modern languages, phonetics will be con- 
demned for this purpose by all practical teachers, and 
by every psychologist who has studied the workings of 
the child's mind. Their use will thus be doomed at its 
start, or at any rate postponed until we offer a more 
satisfactory alphabet. By all means let professors and 

students adopt the International Alphabet ; but prac- 
tical teachers in our schools can alone decide which is 
the most suitable system of symbols for children. It is 
some consolation to me that when discussing, since the 
recent meeting, this matter with three of the foremost 
teachers in Germany, who employ phonetics in their 
work, they immediately saw the necessity of our having 
a special phonetic alphabet for English schools, though 
otherwise strongly advocating the International Alpha- 
bet. Surely we are capable of settling this matter for 
ourselves : we are inclined to overlook the fact that 
England is regarded on the Continent as the home of 
phonetics, and that we have in our midst one phone- 
tician who is regarded by every foreign authority as 
one of the greatest phoneticians of the time. I believe 
it is of the first importance that the alphabet we draw 
up for the use of English children should be as closely 
associated as possible with the International Alphabet. 
Were the latter modified as I have suggested, the diffi- 
culty as to transcriptions and type referred to by Mr 
Atkinson could be easily overcome. Let us for once 
act collectively in providing the best conditions at the 
start ; the only alternative is a struggle between various 
individuals under the patronage of rival publishers, 
which may be a form of that individualism on which 
we pride ourselves in England, but which will incur a 
waste of time that is urgently needed for many more 
important reforms in our methods of modern language 
teaching. I am, Sir, yours obediently, 




IN October 1897 Mr Lipscomb, the Hon. 
Secretary of the Modern Language Associa- 
tion, instructed by the Committee, sent a 
circular to the tutor of each College at Ox- 
ford and Cambridge, asking whether in the 
Scholarship Examinations a paper was set in 
French and German. The Committee were 
aware that at several Colleges such a paper 
was set as an alternative to Latin Verse, and 
they believed that if a paper in French or 
German unseen translation formed an integral 
part of all Scholarship Examinations, a great 
impetus would be given to the teaching of 
modern languages in public schools. They 
further asked for an expression of personal 
opinion as to whether such a change was 
desirable, and if so, whether there was a fair 
prospect of seeing it generally adopted. 

The following replies were received ; what 
was comparatively unimportant has been 


BALLIOL (Mr J. S. Strachan-Davidsori) 

" In the examination for Classical Scholar- 
ships, French or German may be offered as an 
alternative to verses. 

"In the examination for Natural Science 
Scholarships 'a paper of general questions 
will be set, which will give the candidates an 
opportunity of showing their knowledge of 
Latin, Greek, French, or German,' 

" In the examination for Modern History 
Scholarships there are 'two language papers, 
giving candidates an opportunity of showing 
their knowledge of Latin, Greek, French, and 

" I think that such a recognition of modern 
languages as is given by our practice is dis- 
tinctly a good thing, but that to make modern 
languages a necessary part of the Classical 
Scholarship Examination would not be desir- 

BRASBNOSE (Mr C. B. Heberden) 

" It has been our practice for many years 
to set a paper of Translations from French 
and German in our Combined Scholarship 
Examination, and latterly not as an alternative 
for verse composition but as a separate paper. 
I cannot give any pledge that this practice 
will be continued, but, so far as I know, there 
is no intention at present of dropping it. 
Excellence in the paper would undoubtedly 
have weight, but we do not find that it is 
often well done." 

CHRIST CHUBCH (Mr T. B. Strong) 

" A paper is set in French and German 
(Unseen Translation) of a voluntary sort in 
our Scholarship Examination. I understand 
that they are additional papers and in no sense 
a substitute for verses. (I do not in any way 


commit the other Colleges who examine with 
us : it is thought difficult here to dispense 
with verses in the classical course.) 

" I feel very strongly that modern languages 
may be made a serious study independent of 
the ancient languages. But I cannot say that 
this end has been attained as yet. As far as 
I can judge from specimens from, modern sides 
who come to the University, 1 think a number 
of boys go over to that side with a view to 
avoid the irksome drudgery of toiling at a 
language. In this way they escape, all serious 
study. I think from my experience, that few 
of them would be able to use those schools 
which admit modern languages, and yet know 
nothing of the classics. TJie attainment of a 
degree is therefore a matter of considerable 
difficulty. This would be avoided if modern 
languages were studied with the same, severity 
and fulness as the classical ones." 

CORPUS CHRISTI (Mr A. Sidgwick) 

"The Examination for Classical Scholarships 
includes papers in Greek and Latin Verse 
Composition, and also a paper in French and 
German Unseen Translations. But Candi- 
dates will be able to compensate for deficiency 
in, or for the omission of, all or any of these 
papers by the excellence of their other work." 
(Extract from Regulations.) 

"/ certainly think the encouragement thus 
given to modern languages desirable, though 
I cannot pretend that it amounts to very much, 
either in influence on schools or candidates, or 
in determining election. Still, ceteris paribus, 
/ should prefer a man who knew French or 
German to one who did not take the paper, 
and so would otJier examiners." 

EXETER (Mr L. R. Famell) 

"For the last few years we have been in 
the habit of setting passages of Unseen 
Translations from French and German. All 
candidates have the chance of doing these, 
and those who do not offer verses usually take 
these papers. Any candidate who did very 
well in them would be much assisted by them 
in the competition. And these papers may 
therefore be said to be an integral part of the 

"We find, nevertheless, that it is exceedingly 
rare for a candidate to show any proficiency 
worth estimating in these papers. I do not 
see that the Colleges could do more than our 
five combined Colleges already do (Christ 
Church, Exeter, University, Oriel, Brasenose), 
unless we made proficiency in French and 
German a compulsory condition in awarding 
Scholarships. But I do not think such a 
measure could be proposed." 

HERTFORD (Mr G. S. Ward) 

" It has not hitherto been our practice to 
set French or German in our Scholarship 
Examinations, etc. I will take an early 
opportunity of consulting my colleagues as to 
the desirability of introducing these subjects 
in future." 

JESUS (Mr W. Hawkes Hughes) 

" We give Modern Languages as an alterna- 
tive to Verses, but we think that in the pre- 
sent condition of things we cannot go farther. 
A knowledge of modern languages is often 
acquired by residence abroad, and does not 
imply mental power, and in selecting classical 
candidates who are expected to read for 
Honours in an examination in which no 
modern language papers are set, any pro- 
fession of giving weight to modern language 
papers would be unreal." 

KEBLE (Mr W. Lock) 

" We set translations from French and 
German in our History Scholarships, but not 
in our Classical Scholarships. We used to 
set History questions there as an alternative 
to Latin Verse, and I should be glad to see 
such translations take their place, but owing 
to the exigencies of a combination with other 
Colleges, even this has fallen through at pre- 

LINCOLN (Mr W. Warde Fowler) 

"In this College we have for some years 
set a paper in modern languages in our ex- 
aminations for Modern History Scholarships ; 
in examining for Classical Scholarships we 
have never yet done so, even as a substitute 
for Latin verse. 

"As I have been concerned in scholarship 
examinations for nearly thirty years, I may 
venture to express an opinion on this question. 

" If the Universities could assist the public 
schools (in such a way as you propose) towards 
the thorough and systematic teaching of modem 
languages and literatures, so that they may 
become the material of the highest education, 
I would very gladly do my part here in for- 
warding so excellent an object. I believe that 
French and Italian, scientifically taught, 
might even take the place of Greek or Latin, 
so far as the education to be derived from 
them is conceited. But I must remark (1) 
that in my opinion the same is not the case 
with German, and (2) that I should be unwitt- 
ing to do anything which would endanger the 
study of Greek, which even now only survives 
because the old Universities insist on maintain- 
ing it. If French or Italian were substituted 
for Greek in the ptiblic schools, nothing, per- 


haps, loould "be lost by the boys learning them, 
but something very valuable might be lost to 
the nation. If German were substituted the 
loss would be positive and serious for all 
concerned. If, on the other hand, French or 
Italian, properly studied, were added to Greek 
and Latin, Natural Science, which in my 
opinion is much more important than any 
other subject but language, would probably 
have to be shelved. 

' ' Szit probably the aim of your Association is 
not to substitute modern languages for Greek 
and Latin, but to make, them a more useful 
adjunct by improving the teaching and giving 
more time to the learner to perfect himself in 
reading and writing the more useful modern 
languages. In this case the ideal would be a 
lower one, but the object still a good one. I 
am often astonished at the ignorance even of 
French shown by able pupils of mine here. 
It is true that they rapidly acquire both French 
and German as soon as they really have need 
of them; but it would certainly be some ad- 
vantage to them to have acquired some useful 
knowledge of those languages when they come 
here. If by setting papers in scholarship ex- 
aminations anything can be done to forward 
this end, I should be ready to urge it at my 
own college; but I would suggest that such 
papers in the entrance examinations of colleges 
would be equally valuable, if not more so. 
For in the examinations for scholarships the 
real weight must always be given either to 
classics, mathematics, or science; and adjuncts, 
though they may occasionally be of use in dis- 
tinguishing between two candidates who are 
close together, will as a matter of fact never 
really be decisive of results. But in entrance 
examinations, where the same high standard of 
classics, etc., is not expected or usually found, 
such a subject as modern languages might have 
real and just weight." 

MAGDALEN (Mr T. Herbert Warren) 

The Regulations are the same as for Corpus 
Christ! (see above). 


NEW (Mr W. A. Spooner) 

The Regulations are the same as for Corpus 
Christi (see above). 

"Any candidate who did well in either 
language or both would distinctly improve 
his chance of being elected to a Scholarship 
or Exhibition." 

ORIEL (Mr F. H. Hall) 

"For many years past we have regularly 
set Unseen Translations in French and 
German in our Scholarship Examination, 

" The principle on which this was first done 
was that of encouraging all the main subjects 
visually taught in schools and in pursuance 
of this idea we used formerly to set a paper 
in Mathematics also, which we have now dis- 

" I am afraid the idea (of making the ex- 
amination representative of all the main sub- 
jects of a school curriculum) is an impractic- 
able one, though I still think that it is theor- 
etically sound. For one thing, the principal 
schools do not help us, but encourage their best 
men to specialise by dropping practically all 
those subjects in which they are not likely to 
win distinction. This is especially true of 
Mathematics. " 


QUEEN'S (Mr T. H. Grove) 

" At our Examinations for Scholarships 
one is awarded for the union of Classics 
and History generally ; and to the candi- 
dates for this Scholarship a paper is offered 
in French and German. 

" I consider it unfair to set two subjects as 
alternatives. It unjustly handicaps a candi- 
date who is good at both subjects. It would 
be specially unfair to make so easy a subject 
as French and German an alternative to so 
hard a subject as Greek or Latin verse. A 
boy would frequently refuse to run the risk of 
so difficult a thing as verses. I should re- 
gard alternatives as an indirect way of choking 
off boys from verses. 

" The root of the matter is this: let every 
attempt be made to persuade Oxford and 
Cambridge to allow undergraduates to sub- 
stitute French or Gei~man for either Latin 
or Greek. Then boys on the Modern side can 
come, offering one Ancient and one Modern 
Language. Until this is done, I regard all 
other proposals as mere palliation." 


The examination is carried on in conjunc- 
tion with Brasenose, Christ Church, Exeter, 
and Oriel. 

WORCESTER (Mr T. W. Jackson) 

" It has not been our custom, for a long 
time, to set a paper in French or German 
at our Scholarship Examinations. We hold 
a combined examination with two other 
Colleges Merton and Pembroke and I am 
not at all in a position to say whether we 
are likely to set such a paper. It is a 
familiar and an important question, but one 
which we have not discussed lately." 



CLABB (Mr W. L. Mollison) 

" No paper in French or German is set in 
our Open Scholarship Examination. 

" It is, I think, doubtful wliether, without 
imposing undue strain on candidates, ad- 
ditional papers in French or German could 
be made compulsory, irhen the high standard 
expected in Special Subjects in tlie Open 
ScJwlarship Examination is taken into ac- 
count. On this, however, the opinion of 
schoolmasters is probably more valuable than 
that of College tutors. If such papers were 
introduced in the examination, tliey would 
not, I fear, materially affect the award of 
Scholarships, as examiners would have a 
strong bias in favour of candidates who dis- 
played ability in their special subject, in spite 
of comparative failure in extraneous subjects. 

" If, however, the introduction of papers in 
French or German were possible without over- 
burdening the candidates, I think the change 
might be desirable. I am unable to express 
an opinion as to the prospect of its being 
generally adopted." 

CORPUS CHRISTI (Mr H. E. Fanshawe) 

" At present we set no papers on Modern 
Languages in our examinations for Entrance 

DOWNING (Mr J. O. Saunders) 

" There is no such paper set in our exa- 
minations at this College." 

GONVILLE AND CAHis (Mr E. S. Roberts) 

[In 1897 Gonville and Cains and King's 
offered Scholarships for History and Modern 
Languages. Candidates for the former were 
examined in History (several papers), and 
one of the following subjects : (a) Higher 
Classics, (b) Higher Mathematics, (c) French 
and German Translation and Composition. 
Candidates for Scholarships in Modern 
Languages had to take papers in Latin 
Translation, French and German Transla- 
tion and Composition (including Original 
Composition), French and German Grammar 
and Composition : no candidate was of 
sufficient merit to obtain a Scholarship.] 

" / am of opinion that it would not be de- 
sirable to make a paper on French or German 
Unseen Translation an integral part of all 
ScJwlarship Examinations, at least at present. 

" I cordially sympathise with tlie desire of 
the Committee to give additional interest to 
the teaching of Modern Languages in public 
schools. I think, however, that the propositions 
of a recent report of the General Board of 
Studies will, if adopted, liave a very import- 

ant influence upon the teaching of Modern 
Languages in the desired direction ; and, 
until ice Imow whether those propositions are 
likely to find favour with the Senate, other 
action ivould, in my opinion, be premature. 

" French and German of an elementary 
kind, and as an alternative to Mechanics, 
are at present set in the test paper for 
Entrance Scholarships. For tlie Modern 
Languages Entrance Scholarships we still 
fail to get adequate competition or good 

KING'S (Mr A. H. Cooke) 

For regulations see GONVILLE AND CAIUS. 

QUEENS' (Mr A. Wright) 

" We do not set papers in Modern Languages 
to our candidates for Entrance Scholarships. 

" We should be most unwilling to allow 
French or German to be a substitute for 
Latin or Greek Verses. As long as verses 
form an important part of the Classical 
Tripos, while French and German are not 
directly recognised in it, so long we feel 
bound, in the interest of our students, to ad- 
here to our present range of subjects. Modern 
Languages have been much encouraged by the 
permission to take them instead of Mechanics 
in the Previous Examination ; but the Modern 
Languages Tripos has not yet attracted many 
students. We have elected, and are prepared 
to elect, to Foundation Scholarships those 
students who show themselves likely to obtain 
a first class in that Tripos ; but at present we 
do not see our way to encourage in any other 
way the study of modern languages, important 
though we deem it to be." 

SELWYN (Mr T. H. Orpen) 

" No paper in French or German is set in 
the Open Scholarship Examination at Selwyn 
College, either as a substitute for Latin Verse 
or otherwise. 

" While I am personally in the fullest 
sympathy with what I understand to be the 
object of your Association namely, the more 
systematic instruction in Modern Languages 
in public schools / think that your question 
addressed to me and other College tutors in- 
volves a misconception of the objects and aim 
of our Scholarships. Their object, as I under- 
stand it, is not directly at least to guide the 
choice of the school curriculum, but to test the 
ability of candidates to distinguish themselves 
in the University Honour Examinations. Now, 
the only way in which the University at pre- 
sent recognises the advanced study of Modem 
Languages is by the ' Modern and Medieval 
Languages Tripos.' It is possible that some 
Colleges may encourage the study of Modern 


Languages at schools by offering a Scholar- 
ship in that subject i.e., with a view to the 
successful candidate distinguishing himself in 
the above Tripos just as scholarships are 
ofered in some Colleges for History or Semitic 
Languages, etc. Bid at our College, scholar- 
ships are only offered with a view to the 
Classical and Mathematical Triposes. The 
suggestion which you make would tlierefore, 
in my opinion, only be intelligible if the 
Classical Tripos regulations admitted a paper 
in German or French as a substitute for Latin 
Verse. The change suggested whether desir- 
able or not, on which point I offer no opinion 
must begin with the University Regulations 
for the Tripos. Then the College Scholarship 
Regulations would doubtless follow suit. 

" It is true tJiat the University also recog- 
nises the value of an elementary knowledge of 
French or German, by allowing them as a 
substitute for Mechanics in Part Hi. of the 
Previous ; and this, I think, might well act 
as an incentive to the schools to teach Modern 
Languages to boys who do not sJww special 
aptitude for Mathematics ; but it has no effect 
on the College Sclwlarship Examination*, 
which are adapted, as I have said, to an 
entirely different aim." 

SIDNEY SUSSEX (Mr G. M. Edwards) 

" It is unlikely, I think, that French and 
German will be introduced into our Entrance 
Scholarship Examination at present." 


[Scholarships are offered for proficiency in 
Classics, or in Mathematics, or in Natural 

" Whether French and German are likely 
to be generally adopted as subjects for ex- 
amination for Entrance Scholarships I have 
no idea, nor am I competent to give an 
opinion as to the desirability of their being 
so adopted." 

Taking Oxford first, we find that most of 
the above sixteen Colleges give a certain place 

to French and German in their Scholarship 
Examinations. In two Balliol and Jesus 
they are an alternative to Latin Verses; in 
eight Brasenose, Christ Church, Corpus 
Christi, Exeter, Magdalen, New, Oriel, and 
University a paper in French and German 
is set, but not as an alternative to Latin 
Verses : if a candidate does it well, his 
chances are enhanced. At two Keble and 
Lincoln a similar paper is set at the ex- 
aminations for History, not at those for 
Classical Scholarships; at Queen's, in the 
case of a Scholarship awarded for proficiency 
in Classics and History combined ; and Hert- 
ford, Merton and Worcester do not recognise 
Modern Languages at all. 

Cambridge, the home of the Medieval and 
Modern Languages Tripos, presents a different 
picture. Gonville and Caius l and King's 
alone supply the silver lining to the black 
cloud. It is to be regretted that the number 
of replies is small, and that few have written 
at length ; but it is unlikely that anyone 
sympathising with our endeavours failed to 
answer the circular. It is painful to point to 
the contrast between the Cambridge apathy 
and the interest shown by Oxford. 

The " personal opinions " raise many points 
of interest, and some of the suggestions may 
in time be accepted. We are forcibly re- 
minded of the evils which result from the 
early specialising. It is recognised that a 
knowledge of French and German is 
eminently desirable ; but candidates have 
hardly ever received a good grounding. 
Even those who go up to Cambridge for 
Scholarships in Modern Languages are, 
with but few exceptions, quite inadequately 
equipped. If we desire to see an improve- 
ment in the teaching of French and German, 
we must not expect the Universities to lead 
the way. The reform must start from below. 

1 From 1886-1897, 178 passed the Medieval and 
Modern Languages Tripos 95 women (Newnham, 
64 ; Girton, 31) and 83 men (Gonville and Caius, 
21 ; Trinity, 15 ; Christ's, 12 ; King's, 8). 


THAT it ought to be one of the main objects 
of the Victoria University to promote the 
study of modern languages had been fully 
recognised from its foundation in 1880. 
The district served by the University with 
its three Colleges located at Manchester, 
Liverpool, and Leeds is one of vast com- 
mercial and industrial interests, which cannot 

but be considerably assisted by a satisfactory 
acquaintance with the principal European 
languages on the part of those in whose 
hands the trade and commerce of Lancashire 
and Yorkshire lie. But owing to the very 
unsatisfactory condition of modern language 
teaching in the great majority of the second- 
ary schools in the district, it has been, and 


still is, impossible for both boys and girls to 
obtain a competent knowledge of French and 
German at school, and it was realised that 
the only remedy for this defect was to pro- 
vide a sufficient number of properly qualified 
modern language masters and mistresses. 
That the course of study in French and 
German prescribed for the ordinary B.A. 
degree is not a sufficient preparation for a 
modern language teacher has always been 
felt and admitted. A few years ago an 
attempt was made to raise the standard of 
modern language teaching in the University 
by instituting an M.A. course in languages, 
open to all Bachelors of Arts, which requires 
that any two out of five languages (viz., 
Greek, Latin, French, German, Italian) 
shall be selected by the candidate. This 
course, however, is open to severe criticism : 
it omits English, 1 and thus prevents can- 
didates from offering the very desirable 
combination of German and English, 2 and 
there is no oral examination attached to it, 
an omission which seriously detracts from 
the practical value of the degree. Attempts 
made at various periods in the history of the 
University to solve the question of Honours 
teaching in modern languages were wrecked 
by considerations of a financial character. 
These have fortunately been removed during 
the last three years. Owing to munificent 
gifts at Manchester and Liverpool, and the 
recent increase of the Government grant to 
University Colleges, it has been possible to 
change five of the six University Lecture- 
ships in French and German into Professor- 
ships. In October 1895, the General Board 
of Studies, on the motion of Dr. Ward, late 
Principal of Owens College, requested the 
Departmental Board of Modern Languages 
and Literature to draw up a scheme for an 
Honours School (in Modern Languages and 
Literatures) ; the latter duly framed pro- 
posals which were passed by the University 
Court and came into force at the beginning 
of the Session 1896-97. 

As regards English Language and Litera- 
ture, attempts at Honours teaching had 
been made at a much earlier date. An 

1 There is a separate M.A. course in English in 
connection with the Honours School of English Lan- 
guage and Literature. 

2 It is much to be regretted that the new regula- 
tions relating to the M.A. degree of the University 
of London do not allow candidates to offer French or 
German with English, as could be done under 
the old regulations. From a scientific point of view 
the combination of English with German is greatly to 
be preferred to that of French with German. As 
the latter is based on considerations chiefly of a 
practical nature, the Germans very aptly call it eine 


Honours School in English language had 
been in existence almost from the founda- 
tion of the University, and an examination 
was actually held in 1885, when two can- 
didates passed in the first class. Owing, 
however, to its exclusively philological 
character, this scheme did not prove popular, 
and failed to attract students. A few years 
ago it was therefore merged in an Honours 
School of English Language and Literature, 
which requires a satisfactory general know- 
ledge of English Language as well as English 
Literature from all candidates, and allows 
them to specialise either in English Language 
(including Gothic, Icelandic or Old Saxon, 
and Old French) or in English Literature. 1 
This scheme, which is somewhat similar to 
the scheme for Branch II I. (English) of the 
new M.A. Regulations of the University of 
London, seems to work well, and attracts a 
promising number of students. 

I will very briefly describe the main 
features of the new Honours School of 
Modern Languages and Literatures.' 2 As 
regards subjects of examination, candidates 
must present themselves for examination in 
two of the following three languages : French, 
German, English. Six papers are set in 
each language, and in addition there is an 
oral examination in French and German. 
The requirements in the latter two lan- 
guages include composition, an essay to be 
written in the foreign language, translation 
of unseen passages (with questions on litera- 
ture suggested by these passages), trans- 
lation from set books in Old and Modern 
French or Old, Middle and New High Ger- 
man, a period or periods of literature (after 
1500), and historical grammar. In English, 
the subjects of examination comprise unseen 
passages of English, prescribed English 
books, Gothic, Old French, a period of 
literature, essays and questions on literary 
history, and historical grammar. As regards 

1 A specially satisfactory feature in this School 
which, so far as I can remember, is unique in the 
requirements of all English universities, apart from 
those for the degree of doctor is that candidates 
have to send in a dissertation on some subject 
selected by them and approved by the General 
Hoard of Studies. The great educational value of 
such a test which resembles somewhat the schrift- 
liche Arbeit required for the Staatsexamen in Germany 
is evident: it enables the candidate to show that 
he can think for himself, that he has mastered the 
method of his subject, that he is able to avail him- 
self of the literature on the subject selected and 
to use it critically in a word, such a disserta- 
tion is an excellent initiation into the methods of 
original research and a safeguard against the evils 
of cramming. 

- For further particulars, readers are referred to 
the Victoria University Calendar. 


attendance, candidates must have attended- 
after having passed the Preliminary Exam- 
ination one of the ordinary degree classes 
in French or German (intermediate or final) 
for two years, courses in French or German 
Literature for three years, and advanced 
courses in Old French and Romance Gram- 
mar, or in Gothic, Old and Middle High 
German, and historical grammar, for three 
years. Similar courses of instruction are 
prescribed for the English section. In addi- 
tion the University insists as it does in 
the case of all Honours Schools in the domain 
of Arts on candidates attending, for two 
years, courses of instruction in English or 
Modern History, Latin and English Litera- 
ture (unless the latter falls within the scope 
of the candidate's special work). 

It will be gathered from this brief outline 
that the Victoria University insists on two 
languages being selected for examination. 
It would, of course, be very desirable and 
was distinctly admitted to be so by those 
responsible for the drawing up of the scheme 
to allow candidates to present themselves 
for examination in French or German only, 
as they are able to do in English Language 
and Literature. But owing to various cir- 
cumstances it was felt to be impracticable to 
start with so ambitious a scheme. Should 
the new School prosper, and a demand arise 
for more specialised teaching, sections deal- 
ing with Romance and Germanic philology 
on a more detailed basis will be added, and 
candidates may then present themselves for 
examination in the two Romance or two 
Germanic sections, instead of choosing two 
languages as at present. The Victoria Uni- 
versity Honours School will then closely 
resemble the Medieval and Modern Lan- 
guages Tripos at Cambridge, and, mutatis 
mutandis, Branch IV. of the new M.A. 
scheme of the University of London. 

A specially satisfactory feature in the 
Victoria University scheme is that it 
insists on an oral examination, instead of 
adding a merely optional test in pronun- 
ciation and writing from dictation, as is 
the case with the Cambridge Tripos. Bear- 
ing in mind that the School as constituted 
at present is meant to serve for the train- 
ing of modern language masters in secondary 
schools, it is the intention to attach great 
importance to this oral test, and to make 
it a living reality by carefully preparing 
students for this part of their work. In 
Leeds, for example, the Literature lec- 
tures, both in French and German, have 
always been, and will continue to be, de- 
livered in French and German, and classes 

similar to the Seminarubungen at the German 
universities aiming at the acquisition of a 
practical command of these languages will 
be instituted. It is the first time that an 
oral test in modern languages has been 
introduced into the examinations of the 
Victoria University, and it is to be hoped 
that it may be possible at no distant date 
to introduce it into the examinations for 
ordinary degrees, as has just been done in 
the case of the University of London. 

The omission of general papers dealing 
with the outlines of French, German, and 
English literature, though, in my opinion, a 
wise step, is sure not to meet with general 
approval. It may be urged that a know- 
ledge of the more important facts of literary 
history is indispensable to every student of 
modern languages. So it is, no doubt, and 
the omission of a general paper in literary 
history in the Victoria University scheme 
must not be understood to imply that the 
University attaches little or no importance 
to the acquisition of such knowledge. On 
the other hand, the inclusion of general 
papers in literature such as are prescribed 
by the new London regulations for the 
Interm. B.A. Hon., B.A. Pass and Hon., and 
M.A. courses presents grave dangers of an 
educational character. It is certain to 
induce candidates to cram dates, titles, and 
other facts, and to appropriate literary 
judgments and opinions without reading the 
works on which they are passed. The study 
of literature on such lines was felt to be 
most undesirable, and the Victoria Univer- 
sity decided to follow the precedent set by 
the L T niversity of Cambridge, and to avoid 
such dangers by excluding general literature 
papers from the syllabus. Questions on 
literature of a general character will, how- 
ever, be asked in the Unprepared Translation 
paper, and may, at the discretion of the 
examiner, be included in the oral examina- 
tion. The study of prescribed authors and 
periods is, of course, amply provided for ; 
not only is one of the six papers in each 
language devoted to prepared literary sub- 
jects, but the regulations distinctly state that 
the subject for the essay is to fall within the 
range of the prescribed books or periods. 

I think that the Victoria University is 
entitled to the congratulations of the Modern 
Language world on having framed a scheme 
of study and examination for students of 
Modern Languages and Literatures, which, 
imperfect though it is, and necessarily must 
be at present, from the point of view of the 
specialist, is on the whole admirably adapted 
for the training of Modern Language teachers 


in secondary schools. It is to be hoped that 
the University may before long be able to 
offer travelling scholarships or fellowships to 
candidates of special promise, so that their tri- 
ennimn academicum may be followed by one or 
two years' residence in France and Germany. 
When this has been done, and the present 
syllabus has been enlarged by the addition 
of sections in Romance and Germanic phil- 
ology, the Victoria University may indeed 
claim to have provided a scheme for the aca- 
demic training and examination of students 
of Modern Languages, which is second to 
that of no other university in the United 
Kingdom. The most serious obstacle to the 
successful working of the scheme lies in the 

fact that the schools from which the Colleges 
at Manchester, Liverpool, and Leeds gene- 
rally draw their students, do not, as a rule, 
train their pupils up to that standard of 
efficiency in French and German which is 
an essential preliminary to the course of 
study provided by the new Honours School. 
It is, however, to be hoped that the latter 
may help to stimulate head masters and 
head mistresses to raise the efficiency of 
Modern Language teaching by entrusting 
the work to none but duly qualified teachers, 
by increasing the time allotted to, and im- 
proving the methods employed in, the teach- 
ing of French and German. 



IT may interest wider circles to learn how 
the study of the Romance languages has 
been organised in the new University of 
Wales. I have already (in No. I. of the 
Modern Language Quarterly) tried to describe 
the German scheme of the University, to 
which that of French bears a certain 
analogy, whilst the study of the other 
Romance languages has been organised 

I shall begin by describing the position of 
French in the entrance examination of the 
University, and the nature of the examina- 
tion in that language. French is an alterna- 
tive subject with German and Welsh, but 
none of these languages are obligatory. 1 
They form a group (a) co-ordinate with the 
following subjects : (b) Greek, (c) Dynamics, 
(d) Chemistry or Botany Two of these sub- 
jects must be taken, not more than one being 
chosen from any group. Thus a student, for 
purposes of examination, may propose to 
combine French and Greek, French and 
Dynamics, French and Chemistry or Botany, 
but he may riot combine, e. g., French and 
German or French and Welsh. 

The examination in French comprises a 
three hours' paper, and an oral examination 
besides the written examination, which con- 
sists of the following parts : 

Translation into English of unprepared 

Questions in French grammar. 

Easy translation from English into French. 

In June 1896, passages of Buffon and 

1 Obligatory subjects are English Language and 
the History of England and Wales, Latin, and 

G. Sand were set for translation, which will 
give an idea of the standard required. The 
grammatical questions are meant to include 
easy Syntax besides Accidence. The oral 
examination consists of Reading and Dicta- 
tion. 2 The pieces given as Dictation, in 
1896, were taken from the prose of A. de 

The University course in French is 
divided into three parts Intermediate, 
Ordinary, and Special Course, each extend- 
ing over one session of one year, according 
to general regulations. The aims of each 
course are shown by the Examinations 
set at the end of it. 

The Intermediate Examination consists 
of the following : 

1. Translation into English of unprepared 
passages of French prose and verse of 
ordinary difficulty, with grammatical ques- 
tions arising out of such passages. 

2. () Translation into French of English 
sentences illustrative of the principles of 
French syntax. 

(b) Translation into French of easy pas- 
sages of continuous English prose. 

3. Outlines of the History of French 
literature. The scheme shows that a con- 
siderably wider knowledge of the language 
is expected from the candidate than in the 
Matriculation Examination. Special stress 
is laid on a knowledge of French syntax and 
correct use of the grammar in composition, 

2 In connection with this, it may be mentioned 
that the Central Welsh Board has decided that every 
class in all the Intermediate Schools of Wales in 
which French is taken shall be examined annually 
iu reading aloud and in dictation. 


whilst the outlines of French history of 
literature are calculated to deepen the 
interest of the Student in his subject. 

For the ordinary Examination are re- 
quired : 

1. The study of prescribed works of an 
author or group of authors representative 
of some important period of French litera- 
ture not earlier than the seventeenth cen- 
tury. This part of the examination includes 
" questions on Literature, Grammar, and 
Prosody relevant thereto." 

The University Colleges of Wales pre- 
scribed the following special subjects for 
1896-97 : 

Aberystwyth. Lanson, Histoire de la 
litttratwe franfaise, Epoque romantique ; 
Hugo, La legende des siecles, vols. i. and ii. ; 
De Musset, On ne badine pas avec I'amour 
and Fantasia ; Michelet, La Renaissance. 

Bangor. The life and works of Moliere. 

Cardiff. Hugo, Les Voix Inttrieures, Les 
Rayons et les Ombres, les Orientates, Hernani ; 
Guizot, Histoire de la civilisation en Europe. 

The tendency, in this part of the ex- 
amination, is to limit the work to a reason- 
able amount, but at the same time to expect 
from the candidate accuracy and complete- 
ness in the interpretation of his text. The 
questions on grammar include also questions 
on historical explanations of modern French 

2. Translation into English of passages 
from unprescribed French books. 

3. Translation into French of passages (a) 
from a prescribed portion of an English 
prose work ; (b) from unseen English prose. 

Throughout the examinations of the 
Welsh University it is, I may say, a guiding 
principle to make the examination bear on the 
work done during the Session : 3 (a) refers to 
a special case of this kind. The work 
prescribed for session 1896-7 was : Macaulay, 
History of England (Longmans' Popular 
Edition), vol. i. pp. 1-32, though I ought to 
mention that this amount, corresponding to 

almost the double number of pages in other 
editions, will be reduced in the future so as 
to allow the student to do unprescribed 
work as well. Perhaps the choice of an 
author not more difficult than Macaulay 
might be criticised by some, especially as 
the same author is set for the Ordinary 
Course, but, on the other hand, a higher 
standard may be expected in composition, 
whilst the task, if taken seriously, is not 
altogether an easy one for the candidates. 

The Special Course is analogous to the 
Ordinary ; the set books and the prescribed 
literary epoch (or the prescribed authors) 
vary, and the standard required in the 
examination in translation and composition 
is higher. 

The Honours Course, which may be taken 
concurrently with the Special Course, and 
cannot be taken without it, is of a philo- 
logical nature, and comprehends 

1. A prescribed course of reading in 
medieval French. 

2. A prescribed course of reading in French 
literature of the sixteenth century. 

The present Honours work for 1897-98 is 

1. La Chanson de Roland. Extraits ed. G. 
Paris, together with about 1000 verses of 
the Chevalier au lion, ed. Foerster. 

2. Part of Darmesteter et Hatzfeld, Le 
scizieme si&cle (Premiere Section, i.-iii.) 

For the M.A. Examination it is proposed 
to expect the candidate to write a thesis 
showing special knowledge of some branch 
of literature or philology. The details of 
this examination will be arranged shortly. 

The other Romance languages come in in 
a scheme for comparative grammar, which 
has not yet been organised. It is proposed 
to combine Latin and Italian, Latin and 
Spanish, Latin and Proven9al, as well as 
Latin and French. 

For the degree of Doctor in Artibus, of 
course, research work will have to be a 
necessary condition in any subject. 



Es ist cine alte Geschichte, 

THERE are few points of language so dis- 
tinctly felt by those who are born to the 
vernacular, and yet so difficult to convey 
to the foreigner, as the use of the past tenses 
in French, and more especially the difference 
between the so called Past Definite and Im- 
perfect. The French sail unhesitatingly 
through a sea of past tenses, selecting in- 


dock bleibt sie immer neu. 

stinctively that one which exactly conveys 
the required shade of meaning, and are 
understood accordingly. But no sooner are 
they themselves called upon to explain the 
why and wherefore of their selection, than 
their explanations begin to differ. Q>u>l 
grammatici, tot sententiaq. No two grammars 
assign the same causes for the use of the 


same tense, and while the fact remains one, 
the philosophies of it are almost innumer- 
able. The Past Definite is stated to be the 
" historical " tense, or the " narrative " tense, 
as though no other tenses were used in narra- 
tion, or in history, or even in a " story," or 
it is defined as denoting a completed action, 
which would make 

Je ceignis la tiare d marchAi la premiere 
mean " I stopped walking," Je fermai les yeux 
a double tour et je dormis mean " I woke up," 
and J&its pleura, "Jesus ceased to weep." 
On the other hand the Imperfect is very 
generally stated to express " duration," 
" length of time." But where is the duration 
in Un oficier d'Mat-major arrivAil au galop. II 
parkin au ginlral de France, repartAn (Revue 
des Deux Mondes for Oct. 1st, 1897, p. 
509) ? or in A I'aube, disAil Restaud, on va 
reprendre le mouvement (ibid., p. 515) ? And 
is there not duration in Pendant cinquante 
jours la peste stvit ? or Louis XIV. re'gna plus 
de soixante ans I or Le Moyen-Age dura pres 
de dix siecles ? 

Such quotations might be multiplied in- 
definitely. We are therefore justified in 
being dissatisfied with these definitions and 
in seeking for some other that shall more 
truly represent the exact force of these tenses 
not only in some cases but wherever they 

First of all it should be borne in mind 
that the uses of the past tenses in French 
have undergone and are still undergoing a 
gradual process of change. A glance at any 
historical grammar will show that the Past 
Definite, for instance, used to be found where 
we should undoubtedly have the Imperfect 
in modern French : 

Fairs OUT les oilz e mult for le visage. 
Gent OUT le cars e les costez out larges, 

(Ch. de Roland, 304,) 

and similarly in the compound tense . . . 
un and dont il Z'OUT esposede (dont il 
/'BUT tpousee. See Brunot, Precis de Gram- 
maire Historique, pp. 468-9, &c.). In the 
Preface to their Didionnaire Phone'tique, 
Michaelis and Passy make the statement 
that the Past Definite est Men mort dans la 
langue parUe du Nord, mais Men vivant dans 
la langue tcrite. Again, within the present 
writer's memory the Imperfect has come 
into very general use where the Past 
Definite would certainly have been used by 
the writers of even hall a century ago. 

Thus the former uses of these tenses, and 
consequently their names, cannot be relied 
upon as a trusty guide to their present use 
and force. Of course it is interesting to 
look back in order to see the starting point 

and the ground travelled over, but we must 
be prepared to reach other conclusions than 
a mere examination of the past would 
enable us to draw. 

To take the Past Definite first. We 
submit that the present force of the Perfect 
Definite is to introduce a new action, to mark 
the passage from one state to another, con- 
sequently to show the beginning of each new 
act or state. And this inceptive force of 
the Past Definite is never absent from the 
use of the tense. 

Let us take the most commonplace 
instance. II entra, jeta un coup d'osil dans la 
chanibre, puis ressmiit. The force of these 
tenses is, "He was outside and passed 
from that position to a new one inside the 
room." He performed that action, of which 
there was no part in progress before this 
moment : he began at the point of time 
reached in our narrative. Then " he cast 
his eyes about the room," another new 
action now introduced ; then he initiated 
yet another new action, that of retiring. 
This is what is meant, but misleadingly 
expressed, by those who define the Past 
Definite as the " narrative " or " historical " 
tense, a view admirably set forth in the 
very ingenious, if unequal, Grammaire de 
la Langue Franfaise d'apres de Nouoeaux 
Principes by Rabbinowicz (Paris, 1889). 

But the very instances given above are 
those which grammarians use when they 
assert that the Past Definite expresses a 
completed action. They argue thus : He 
entered the room, i.e., completed the act of 
entering ; completed the act of glancing round 
it, then accomplished his exit. And there 
is no denying that with the verbs used in 
this particular sentence, the latter meaning 
is present. But why 1 Not because the 
Past Definite is used ; far from it, as we 
shall see ; but because the actions expressed 
by these verbs are so momentary that their 
beginning is not to be distinguished from 
their end, that their conclusion is so near 
their inception that for the purposes of the 
"narrative they are simultaneous and in- 
distinguishable. Many actions are so brief 
that their inception is inseparable from their 
completion, that to do them is to have them 
"done." But let a slight change be made 
in the choice of verbs. Let us substitute II 
tint la porte ouverte et regarda dans la chambre. 
The tenses are the same, but how different 
the meaning ! Now we have : " He took 
hold of the door and put it into an open 
position which he maintained," we know not 
till when. " He lifted his eyes to the room 
and held them looking in the same direction," 


we know not how long. We are only told 
that he put first the door and then his eyes 
into a certain position, and not when he 
ceased to hold either the door or his eyes 
in that position. It would be manifestly 
absurd to interpret these tenses as meaning 
" He completed the action of holding the 
door open," i.e., he shut the door, or as " he 
stopped looking into the room." Take 
another commonplace instance, II s'assit et lut. 
Both Past Definites. But do they both 
express completed actions : " He completed 
the act of taking his seat and completed the 
act of reading"? Is it not obvious that 
they mean, " He completed the act of 
sitting down and began the act of reading" ? 
And if the same tense can thus be used 
where the end of the action is and is not 
connoted, is not the conclusion irresistible 
that the tense itself cannot imply such a 
connotation at all ? As a matter of fact the 
difference between these two verbs lies in 
their meaning and not in the tense. "To 
sit down" is such a brief action that its 
end is practically simultaneous with its 
beginning, while the action of "reading" 
may be extended over a long period of 
time. If I say " He sat down," the inference 
is that he now began to seat himself and 
of course had done the act almost simul- 
taneously with its beginning. While if I 
say "He began to read," it cannot be in- 
ferred when he stopped. And let it not be 
said that the verb " to read " here means 
"to fall to reading," "to begin reading," 
" to take a book," and that it is this action 
of "taking a book" or of "beginning to 
read" that is here completed. Such an 
explanation as that concedes the whole 
position, as it implies that the verb " to 
read " becomes equivalent to " to begin to 
read " for the sole reason that it is used in 
the Past Definite. That is all that is 

If further proof were required, it could be 
stated that whenever I wish to convey the 
meaning that I began the action expressed by 
the verb I can do so by the use of the 
Perfect Definite without any other help : 
Son sourire semblait d'un ange, elle chanta. 
(Alf. de Musset) Bonaparte cut vingt cms le 
15 ao&t 1789. But if I wish to convey the 
meaning that the action is completed at any 
particular time, I have to fall back upon the 
help of some such expression as cesser de . . . 
Elle cessa de chanter. Compare, On lui accorda 
ce qu'il voulait : il fut heureux. But, On le lui 
prit : il cessa d'etre heureux. 

Thus the Past Definite should be defined 
as the tense that witnesses the beginning of an 

action in the past. But attention should be 
drawn to a further use of this tense, in no 
way contradictory, but rather supplementary 
to the first. Whenever an action is stated as 
lasting continuously from its inception to its con- 
clusion, however long the intervening period, 
the Past Definite is still used. I can say 
Louis Napoleon en 1808, fut president 
en 1848, et rAgna en 1852, but I can also say 
regna de 1852 a 1870. The statement of 
the conclusion of the act does not prevent 
the use of the Past Definite, provided the 
beginning of the action be seen also. The 
limits of the duration of the action must be 
present in this use of the Past Definite, 
although the presence of either the inception- 
limit, or the conclusion-limit, or both, may 
be implied instead of being expressed. I 
can ring the changes on the sentence given 
above as follows : NapoUon III. regna de 1852 
a 1870. NapoUon III. regna jusqu' a 1870. 
A partir de 1852 NapoUon regna sur 
la France. NapoUon III. fut un empereur 
mediocre. In each of these sentences the 
Past Definite is used because the action lasts 
continuously from the beginning of the period 
explicitly stated, or implicitly understood. 

In order that such a statement of an 
action be possible, it follows that we must 
be able to view both its ends, i.e., the action 
must be distinctly one that has been com- 
pleted, concluded, in the past, or we could 
not view it in its entirety. Thus there 
accrues to this use of the Past Definite an 
incidental concluding force (closely parallel to 
the force of the Latin Perfect tense), of 
which skilful writers have made good use. 
If I say NapoUon III. fut un empereur mAdiocre, 
it necessarily follows that he has ceased to 
reign. Compare such Latin expressions as 
Troia fuit, Dixi, &c. Hence Racine can 
write : II fut des Juifs, il fut une insolente race, 
meaning " there once was, but is no more." 
Even a French peasant is often heard to say, 
Un temps fut ou je courais comme un autre, 
implying that he is too old to do so now. 
' ' There was a time [of which you under- 
stand the limits] when, &c." But the con- 
cluding force of the Past Definite here is 
again due to the implied limits, at the 
beginning as well as at the end, of the 
period referred to : and here again, although 
we have something more thrown in, we have 
the inceptive force of the Past Definite present 
as we have had it in all the other instances. 

Hence we are justified in drawing the 
general conclusion that the Past Definite 
always witnesses the beginning of an action and 
may conduct that action to its end. 

About the Imperfect not so much need be 


said. It is agreed on all sides that the 
Imperfect is the tense of repetition in the 
past, and in this use it is directly opposed 
to the continuous Past Definite which has 
just been discussed. The only point to 
which attention need be drawn in this 
context is that the Imperfect repeats the 
verb as qualified by its adjuncts. Thus we 
must say // echcuA. deux fois, not, in 
spite of the repetition ; because the Imperfect 
would repeat the deuy fois, and the failures 
would be no longer two in number, but a 
multiple of two. // tchmmit tmijours deux 
fois could describe the artifice of a circus 
performer to enhance the difficulty of his 

With regard to the use of the Imperfect 
of an action stated as in progress and not 
beginning, little again need be said, except 
to point out that in this use the Imperfect 
is the exact opposite of the Past Definite in 
general. If, at the point of time reached, 
an action is introduced as beginning, the 
Past Definite will be used. If the action is 
merely stated as in progress, having begun 
some time before, it matters not when, then 
the Imperfect is used. Le soleil brilla, " The 
sun came out " ; Le soleil btillait, " The sun 
was shining." NapoUon e'lait un empereur 
mediocre, " Napoleon, who was then on the 
throne, was governing worse than in- 
differently," or, again, without any special 
reference to the beginning of his reign, " was, 
at any time of his reign you may choose to 
select, but a poor emperor." 

This fundamental difference between the 
Imperfect and the Past Definite explains at 
once the following distinctions : Paul avail 
vingl ans a Paqties ; Pierre eut vingt cms d 
Puijues. Which is the younger ? Pierre, 
since he reached that age then, and not 
before ; while Paul was, but did not reach, 
that age on Easter-day. L? leiidemain le mur 
eut dix pieds de haul. The wall is building, 
since it begins to be, reaches the height of, 
ten feet that day, A sic heures je sonnai (or 
sonnaiii) a sa porte. I am earlier if I use the 
Imperfect, since I am no longer beginning 
to ring the bell at that time. 

The most interesting point in connection 
with the Imperfect tense is its gradual sub- 
stitution in many cases for the Past Definite, 
a process which has been alluded to above. 
If there is such a difference between the two 
tenses as we have endeavoured to point out, 
how can they glide into one another 1 How 
can such sentences be written as we quoted 
in our opening paragraph from the llevue 
firs Dm.f Mowdrs, where the Past Definite 

would be quite as possible as the Imperfect ? 
Does this convertibility militate against our 
statement of their respective meanings 1 
The answer is that far from disproving, this 
very fact confirms, our position. It has 
become of late years a favourite artifice 
with many writers, Alphonse Daudet being 
a prime leader of the band, to present their 
narrative as far as possible as a series of 
consecutive pictures. They prefer to show 
us their characters in the act of doing, rather 
than setting about the deed. The transitions 
from one act to the other are skipped. We 
see their men and women engaged in one 
action, then suddenly we find them engaged 
in another, the writer preferring this 
kaleidoscopic presentation of each successive 
scene to the process of gathering the actors 
together and setting them to their task 
before our eyes. In the sentence referred 
to above we have three distinct pictures, 
without transitions, as though new slides had 
been one after the other suddenly pushed 
into the lantern, without any of the dissolv- 
ing effects by which the first might have 
gradually changed into the second, and the 
second into the third. "At that moment 
a staff-officer was riding up " ; the next, " he 
was engaged in conversation with the French 
general " ; the next, " he was already riding 
off again." There is no doubt that much 
dramatic effect is gained by thia process. 
The more or less tedious entrances and exits 
of the characters are by it hidden from 
view. The stage scenery is not shifted 
before our eyes, but the curtain drops 
swiftly and is instantly raised again upon a 
new scene. Hence the popularity of this 
device as a trick of style. But be it well 
understood that its very effectiveness depends 
precisely upon this force of the Imperfect, 
that it skips the introduction or beginning of 
the action, and therein is more " picturesque " 
than the Past Definite. How far this 
picturesque effect will be able to withstand 
the weakening effect of constant use, how 
long the Imperfect will continue to have this 
force in spite of its use where the Past 
Definite would be quite possible and in a 
measure sufficient, time alone will show. 
Already there seem to be signs that minor 
writers are beginning to employ it mechani- 
cally, and it seems more than likely that in 
the near future one of the subtlest points of 
the French languages will be as much of a 
dead letter, even in France, as the fine 
distinction between " will " and " shall " has 
already become in Scotland, Ireland, and the 
United States. I. H. B. SPIERS. 



OCTOBER 15th to DECEMBER 81st 1897. 

The second number of the Modern Quarterly will contain a list of publications and criticisms from Jan. 1st to Mar Ji 31at 189S. 

Reference is made to the following journals : I cad. (The Academy), Archiv ( Archiv f iir das Studium der Neuerun Spruchen 
und Litteratnren), Athen. (The Athenajum), The uookman, Educ. (Education), Educ. Rev. (The [English] Educational Review), 
Educ. Rev. Atner. (The [American] Educational Review), Educ. Times (The Educational Times), The Glasgow Herald, The Guardian, 
Journ. Educ. (The Journal of Education), L.g.r.P. (Litteratnrblatt f iir germanische und romnnische Philologie), Lit. (Literature), 
Lit. Col. (Litterarisches Centralblatt), ilaltre Phonetitjue (Le M. F.), Neogl. (Neoglottia), NeupMl. Cl/l. (Neuphilologisches Central- 
blatt), Neu. Spr. (Neuere Sprachcn), Rev. Intern. Ens. (Revue Internationale de i'Enseigiiement), The Schoolmaster, The Scotsman, 
The Speaker, Sped. (The Spectator), The Times, Uiiiv. Con: (The University Correspondent), ZJ.d.A. iZeitscbrift fiir deulsches 
Altertum), ZJ.d. U. (Zeitschrift fiir den deutschen L'nterricht). 

Guide I. (No. 1-184, June 1896) and Guide II. (No. 1-157, December 189(1) : Nos. 1 and 2 of the Modern Language Teachers' 
Guide, edited by WALTEK RIPPMANJJ, copies of which (price 4d., by post 4-J I.) can be obtained on application to the Editor of the 

Modern Language Quarterly, No. 1-243 : Items in the Classified List ia the Modern Language Quarterly, No. 1 (July 1897). 
Modern Language Quarterly, No. 244-423 : Items in the Classided List in the Modern Language Quartei'ly, No. 2 (Nov. 18^7). 

For criticisms we are indebted to Mr Paget Toynbee (signed T.), to Mr E. L. Milner-Barry (signed E.L.M.B.), and to Mr E. C. 
Quiggin (signed E.C.Q.) for all else Mr Walter Rippmann is responsible. 



Robert Kuril*. Select Poems. Arranged in Chrono- 
logical Order, with Introduction, Notes and a 
Glossary, by A. J. GEORGE, M.A. Isbister. 1897. 
Or. 8vo, pp. 406 ; 3s. 6d. 1 

Journ. Educ., Dec. '97, p. 745 (" the adult general student 

will find the book very much what he needs "). Cp. U L. 

'97, No. 248. 

C'arlyle. On Heroes. Edited, with Notes, by Mrs 
ANNIE R. MARBLE. Macmillan & Co. 1897. 
12mo, pp. 454 ; 4s. 6d. 2 

Earlc's Mlcrocosmography. Edited, with Introduc- 
tion and Notes, by A. S. WEST, M.A. Cambridge 
University Press. 1897. Extra fcap. 8vo, pp 
xl+160; 3s. 3 

Johnson. Lives of Prior and t'oiigreve. With 
Introduction and Notes, by F. RTLAND, M.A. 
Geo. Bell & Sons. 1897. Cr. 8vo, pp. xxxiv + 80 
2s. 4 

Keats. The Odes. With Full-page Plates, Notes and 
Analyses, and a Memoir. By A. C. DOWNER, M.A. 
Oxford, Clarendon Press. 1897. Cr. 8vo, pp. 103 ; 
3s. 6d. net. 

John Keats. Lebeu and Werke. Von MARIE 

GOTHEIN. Halle, Niemeyer. 1897. Vol. I. Leben. 

8vo, pp. xvi+277, and Vol. II. Werke. 8vo, 

pp. iv + 295 ; 10 m. 6 

A short raview will appear in the next List. 

Macanlay. Lays of Ancient Borne. Edited, with 
Introduction and Notes, by W. T. WEBB, M.A. 
Macmillan & Co. 1897. Globe 8vo, pp xxiv+ 
108 ; Is. 9d. i 

Two Essays on William Pitt, Earl of Chatham. 

Edited, with Introduction and Notes, by A. D. 
INNES, M.A. Cambridge University Press. 189/' 
Extra fcap. 8vo, pp. ; 2s. 6d. 8 

Milton. Paradise Lost. Book II. Edited by F 
GORSE, M.A. Blackie & Son. 1897. Fcap 8vo 
pp. 88 ; Is. 

Journ. Educ., Dec. '97, p. 748 (" Mr G. has accomplished his 
modest aim satisfactorily "). 
For Books I. and III. by the same Editor, cp. Guide I. 9, 10. 

- Samson Agonlstes. Edited by H. R. PERCIVAL. 
Macmillan & Co. 1897. Globe 8vo, pp. xlviii + 
208 ; 2s. iQ 

Educ. Rev., Oct. '97, p. 233 (" should prove of great service to 
older .students "). 

Scott, The Talisman. Edited by M. MELVEN, M.A. 

A. & C. Black. 1897. Sm. cr. 8vo, pp. xx + 220 ; 

Is. net. 11 

Journ. Educ., Dec. '97 ( u a serviceable introduction - . . juflta 
sufficient number of simple notes of the right kind"). 

Shakespeare. First Part of King Henry IV. Edited 
by W. ALDIS WRIGHT, M.A. Oxford, Clarendon 
Press. 1897. Extra fcap. 8vo, pp. xxiv + 178 ; 
2s. 1-2 

King Lear. Edited by A. W. VERITY, M.A. 

Cambridge University Press. 1897. 12mo, pp. 

300 ; Is. 6d. 13 

fiootman, Nov. '97, 'p. 55 (" Mr V. is an ideal editor for 

- The Merchant of Venice. Edited by H. L. 
WITHERS, Principal of Isleworth Training College. 
Blackie & Son. 1897. 12mo, pp. xxxiv+142 ; 
Is. 6d. 14 

We are very favourably impressed by the arrangement of this 
book, which we warmly recommend to the notice of teachers. 
Appendix B (Prosody) contains a good deal that is open to ques- 
tion ; there seems to be as yet no consensus as to Shakespeare's 
blank verse. 

A Midsummer Mghl's Dream. Edited by 

L. W. LYDE, M.A. A. & C. Black. 1897. Cr. 8vo, 

pp. 146 ; Is. net. 15 

Boatman, Oct. '97, p. 27 (v. fav.) ; Educ. Ret., Oct. '97, p. 233 

("exceedingly good"). Cp. If. L. Q., No. 272. 

Sheridan. The Rivals. Edited by G. A. AITKEN. 

Dent & Co. 1897. 16mo, pp. 180 ; cl., Is. net ; roan, 

Is. 6d. net. 16 

Scotsman, 9 Sept. '97 (" As pretty a copy of ( The Rivals ' as 

has ivcr come from the press"). 

Sheridan. The School for Scandal. Edited by 
G. A. AITKEN. Dent & Co. 1897. 16mo, pp. xviii 
+166; cl., Is. net; roan, Is. 6d. net. 17 

A Selection from the Poems of Wordsworth. By 

Prof. DOWDEN. Edw. Arnold. 1897. 12mo, pp. 
522 ; 5s. 6d. 18 

Wordsworth, Selections from. Edited by W. T. 

WEBB. Macmillan & Co. 1897. Cr. 8vo, pp. 

267 ; 2s. 6d. 19 

Educ. Rev., Oct. '97, p. 233 (favourable) ; Educ. Times Oct. '97, 
p. 429 (v. fav.). Cp. if. L. Q., No. 280. 

Wordsworth. Poems In Two Volume-. Reprinted 

from the original edition of 1807. Edited by TH. 

HUTCHINSON, M.A. Nutt. 1897. Two vols., pp. 

xxxix + 226 and viii + 233 ; 7s. 6d. 20 

Athen. ,W Nov. '97 ("an invaluable aid to the student. . . . 

The notes are iu the best sense of the word scholarly ") ; Lit. , 

11 Dec. '97 (v. fav.). 


English lyrics. Chaticrr to Poc. By W. E. 

HENLEY. Methuen. 1897. Cr. 8vo, pp. xiv+ 
412; 6s. 21 

Lit., 18 Dec. '97 (" His ' finds ' arc many and notable, for the 
most part significant indeed, real acquisitions to the treasury, 
and not to be cited as the desperate perversities of the curio- 
monger") ; a favourable review by E. K. Chambers in Bookman. 
Dec. '97, p. 100. 

Tlio Golden Treasury. Selected from the Best Songs 
and Lyrical Poems in the English Language, and 
arranged with Notes by FRANCIS T. PALCIRAVE. 
Second Series. Macmillan. 1897. Pott Svo, pp. 
xii + 276; 2s. 6d. net. 22 

Atheii , 23 Oct. '97 ("the collection while containing, both 
in the text and in the notes, much that is charming and 
interesting is nevertheless incomplete, ill-balanced, and want- 
ing in critical authority ") ; Lit., 18 Dec. '97 ("the new 'Golden 
Treasury ' will never rank with the old. It wants the note of 
finality and catholicity of judgment, which made the other 
unique among anthologies. ... We gladly admit that it remains, 
in spite of all, a delightful possession ") ; Bookman, Nov. '97, p. 
47 (a favourable review by A. if.). 

Tlie Flower of the Mind. A choice among the Best 

Poems. By Mrs ALICE MEYNELL. Grant Richards. 

1897. Cr. Svo, pp. 352 ; 6s. 23 

Boatman, Dec. '97, p. 100 (a favourable review by E. K. 

Chambers); Lit., 18 Dec. '97 (" Mrs M.'s handsome volume is an 

extremely interesting contribution to modern anthologies "). 

\iiieteenlh Century Poetry. By A. C. M'DONNELL, 
M.A. A. & C. Black. 1897. Cr. Svo, pp. 128 ; 
Is. net. 24 

Athen., 13 Nov. '97 (fairly favourable); Lit., 4 Dec. '97 
(" admirably constructed for the assistance of weary Board 
School teachers"); Journ. Educ., Nov. '97, p. 658 ("the intro- 
ductions and appreciations are terse and spirited, but full of 
disputable matter ") ; Educ., 30 Oct. '97 (favourable). 

Four Poets. Selections from the Works of Words- 
worth, Coleridge, Shelley and Keats. Edited, 
with an Introduction, by OSWALD CRAW-KURD. 
Chapman & Hall. 1897. Small cr. 8vo pp. viii 
+480 ; 3s. 6d. net. 25 

Nineteenth Century Prose. By J. H. FOWLER, 

M.A. A. & C. Black. 1897. Cr. 8vo, pp. 136; 

Is. net. 26 

At/ten., 13 Nov. '97 (favourable) ; Journ. Educ Nov '97 n 

658 (fav.); Kduf., 30 Oct. '97 ("excellent"). 

English Masques. With an Introduction by H. A. 
EVANS, M.A. (The Warwick Library.) Blackie 
& Son. 1897. Cr. Svo, pp. lxiii. + 245 ; 3s. 6d. 27 
Acad., 27 Nov. '97 ("Mr Evans prefixes an excellent Intro- 
duction and has performed his task well "). 

Stories from the Arabian Nights. Selected and 
Edited by M. CLARKE. American Book Company 
1897. Cr. Svo, pp. 271 ;. 28 

Jotirn. Educ., Dec. '97, p. 748 (no notes. . . . "The intro- 
duction briefly gives all the information really essential"). 
The King's Story-Book: being Historical Stories 
collected out of English .Romantic Literature, in 
Illustration of the .Reigns of English Monarchs 
from the Conquest to William IV. Edited, with 
an Introduction, by G. L. GOMMK. Illustrated by 
HARRISON MILLER. Constable & Co. 1897. Cr 
Svo, pp. 527 ; 6s. 29 

Elocution and the Dramatic Art. By DAVID J. 
SMITHSON. Xew Edition, revised by C R. TAYIOR 
Geo. Bell & Sons. 1897. Cr. Svo, pp. xv+586 ' 
3s. 6d. 30 

Journ. Educ., Dec. '97, p. 748 ("the introduction . 
strikes us as commonplace and not very helpful. The physio- 
logical part needs much fuller treatment, and the exercises 
recommended should be far more definite. The selection of 
prose and poetry . . . Is decidedly more satisfactory "). 

A Short History of modern English Literature. 

By EDMUND GOSSE. Heinemann. 1897. Cr Svo 

pp. 416 ; 6s. s i 

Alhen., 27 Nov. '97 ("his conception of a literary hislorian's 

duties is helpful and Judicious") ; Lit., 27 Nov. '97 ("a work 

which will not only serve its purpose in the class-room but is 

eminently worthy of a place of honour in the library "). 

Outlines of English Literature. By J. LOUIE 

ROBERTSON, M.A. Blackwood & Sons. 1897. 

Cr. 8vo, pp. 166 ; Is. 6d. 32 

Atlien., 13 Nov. '97 ("these outlines ... are written in an 

easy and pleasant style, bat they lack the sense of proportion, 

and are defective in other ways") ; Educ. Ren., Oct '97, p. 232 

("a useful little manual"); Educ. Times, Oct. '97, p. 429 (fav.). 

Reviews and Essays In English Literature. By 

Rev. D. C. TOVEY. Geo. Bell & Sons. 1897. 

Cr. Svo, pp. xii+187; 5s net. 33 

The Age of Tennyson (1830-1870). By Prof. HUGH 

WALKER. Geo. Bell & Sons. 1897. Sm. cr. Svo, 

pp. x+303; 3s. 6d. 34 

Alhen., 27 Nov. '97 (v. favourable) ; cp. a review by //. F. H 
if. L. Q. '97, No. 298 ; Lit., 20 Nov. '97 (fairly favourable) ; Educ., 
4 Dec. '97 (" delightful reading ") ; Educ. Times, Nov. "97, p. 
462 (v. far.). Bookman, Nov. '97, p. 51 (favourable) ; Lit. CM., 
4 Dec. '97 (by ft. W[lter]). 

Victorian Literature. Sixty Years of Books and 
Bookmen. By CLEMENT K. SHOOTER. Bowden. 

1897. Cr. 8vo, pp 232 ; 2s. 6d. 35 
A then., 27 Nov. '97 (favourable); Bookman, Dec. '97, p. 103 

(" If we sometimes disagree with his frank and fearless judg- 
ments ... we must own that in the main they are able, com- 
monsensiblc, and show a fine sense of rank and proportion "). 

Alfred Lord Tennyson : A Memoir by his Sou. 

Macmillan & Co. 1897. Svo, pp. 516 + 551 ; 36s. 

net. 36 

Athen., 9 and 16 Oct. '97 ; Lit., 23 and 30 Oct. '97. 
The Letters of Elizabeth Barrett Browning. Edited, 

with Biographical Additions, by P. G. KENYON. 

Smith, Elder & Co. 1897. 2 vols. cr. Svo, pp. 

xiv + 476 and 464; 15s. net. 37 

Lit., 13 Nov. '97 ("a very weighty and a very charming con- 
tribution to the history of literature ") ; an interesting review 
by A. M. in Boatman, Dec. '97, p. 99. 

Wordsworth, A Primer of. By LAFRIE MAGNUS. 

Methuen. 1897. Cr. Svo, pp. 227 ; 2s. 6d. 38 
Lit., 6 Nov. '97 ("valuable"); Educ. Times, Nov. '97, p. 462 
("very helpful"); Athen., 25 Dec. '97 ("a clever and well- 
informed performance "). 
The Journals of Dorothy Wordsworth. Edited by 

WILLIAM KNIGHT. Macmillan. 1897. 2 vols. 

cr. Svo, pp. 255 + 292 ; 10s. 39 

i.,-20Nov. '97. 
From Shakespeare to Dryden. Being Vol. II. of 

"A School History of English Literature." By 

ELIZABETH LEE. Blackie & Son. 1897. 40 

[In the press. 
For vol. I., cp. Guide I. 43, M. L. Q., No. 65. 

Modern English Prose Writers. By F. P. STEARS. 

Putnam's Sons. 1897. Cr. Svo, pp. 344 ; 7s. 6d. 41 
William Shakespeare's Lehrjahre. Eine litterar- 

historische Studie. Von G. SARRAZIN. Weimar, 

Felber. 1897. Large Svo, pp. xiii + 232 ; 4m.50. 42 
A Book about Shakespeare. Written for Young 

People by J. M'!LWRAITH (Jean Forsyth). Nelson. 

1898. Cr. Svo, pp. 222 ; 2s. 43 
Shakespere - Stiidlen. 1. Die Frosa In Shake- 

spere's Dramen. Von V. F. JANSSEN. Strass- 
burg, Trubner. 1898. Svo, pp. x+105 ; 2m. 50. 44 
The Diary of .Master William silence: a Study of 
Shakespeare and of Elizabethan Sport. By the 
Rt. Hon. D. H. MADDEN. Longmans & Co. 1897. 
Svo, pp. 386 ; 16s. 45 

Lit. 30 Oct. '97 (" as an almost exhaustive treatise on Shake- 
spearian sport, this book may be safely recommended to all 
who love the poet, and to all who love the country and its 

Shakesperc's Selbstbekenutnisse. Hamlet uiid 
sein I riiild. Von HERMANN CONRAD. Stuttgart, 
Metzler. 1897. Paper, 4m.50; ol., 5m.35. 46 
See it. L. Q., No. 302. 

A favourable notice by A. Kresmer in Neogl., 15 Dec. '97. 

Hamlet. Ein neuer Versuch zur asthetischen Erklarung 

der Tragodie. Von Prof. Dr A. DOHINQ. Berlin, 

Gaertners. 1898 [18971. Svo, pp. 310; 7m., cl., 8m. 

20. 47 

Some account of this .book is given fn Lit., 18 Dec. '97 (p. 

279). See also National Zeilung (Berlin), 16 and 30 Jan. 18'JS. 


William Browne. His Britannia's Pastorals and 
the Pastoral Poetry of the Elizabethan Age. By 
FREDERIC W. MOORMAN. (Quellen und Forschungen 
No. 81.) Strassburg, Trubner. 1897. 8vo, pp. 
x+159; 4m.50. 48 

Very warmly commended by Ludwig Proescholdt in L. g. r. P., 

Sept. '97, col. 310. 


Tbe Pi .iiiic in of Elementary Composition. Sugges- 
tions for its Solution. By G. H. SPALDIXG. 
Isbister. 1897. Cr. 8vo, pp. 114 ; Is. 6d. 49 

Educ. Rev., Oct. "HI, p. 231 (commended) ; Educ. Rev. (Arner.), 
Nov. '97, p. 408 (" stimulating as well as didactic"). 

A First Book In Writing English. By G. H. LEWIS, 
Ph.D. Macmillan & Co. 1897. Cr. 8vo, pp. 
x + 293;3s. 6d. 50 

Educ. Ren., Oct. '97, p. 231 (" an admirable grammar of com- 
position, but the inspiration of a feeling for the great in litera- 
ture appears to us to be absent"); Educ. Rev. (Amer.), Oct. '97, 
p. 898 (favourable). 

Practical Lessons in English Composition and 
Essay Writing. By T. C. JACKSON. A. Brown. 
1897. Cr. 8vo, pp. 122 ; Is. 6d. 51 


A Simple liramiuar of English now In Use. By 

JOHN EARLE, M.A., Professor of Anglo-Saxon in 
the University of Oxford. Smith, Elder & Co. 
1898. Cr. 8vo, pp. xiv+297 ; 6s. 52 

Historical Outlines of English Accidence. By the 

late Bey. R. MORRIS ; revised by L* Kellner, 

Ph.D., and Henry Bradley, M.A. Macmillan & 

Co. 1895. Cr. 8vo, pp. xvi+464; 6s. 53 

An interesting review by G. Tanyer in Archie, xcix. pp. 152- 


Thr English Language : Its History and Structure. 

By W. H. G. Low. Clive. 1897. 4th ed. rev. Cr. 
8vo, pp. 248 ; 3s. 6d. 54 

The Evolution of the English 1 1 |ili:i i.< I (A Chart). 

By H. G. TAYLOR JONES, B.A. Kelfe Bro. 1897. 
6d. 55 

EJuc. Rev., Oct. '97, p. 231 ("an invaluable accompaniment 
to the early chapters of language teaching"). 

hoauics' riioiu I ic Method for Learning to Read : 

the Teachers' Manual. Edited by Professor W. 

VIETOR, Ph.D., M.A. Swan Sonnenseliein & Co. 

1897. Two parts, pp. xxiv+79 and iv+117 ; 2s. 6d. 

each part. 56 

Educ. Bee., Oct. '97, p. 232 (very favourable). Cp. M. L. Q. 
'97, No. 417. 

Scenes of English Life. Lessons in English on the 
Series Method, with Instructions to Teachers and 
Directions for Pronunciation. Book 1. Children's 
Life. By H. SWAN and V. BETIS. With a Preface 
on the Use of the Method for Teachers of the Deaf 
by SUSANNA E. HULL. Geo. Philip & Son. 1897. 
Cr. 8vo, pp. lx+119; 2s. 6d. Class Edition 
(Exercises only), pts. 1 and 2, 6d. each, or together 
in cl., Is. 57 

This volume contains an Introduction and Instructions, which 
describe the ' Psychological Method of Teaching Languages," & 
development of the Gouin system due to Messrs Betis and Swan. 
We have not space here to discuss this Method. A competent 
teacher who thoroughly believes in it may achieve satisfactory 
results. There are two matters, however, which provoke 
criticism: the vocabulary, wliicli is not selected wlin sufficient 
care (the beginner should not be made acquainted with out-of- 
the-way words), and the remarks on pronunciation are quite 
misleading. It is a pity that the authors know nothing of 
recent work in phonetics. Many of the scenes are built up with 
evident care. 

Uramiualre Pratique de la Laugne Anglalsc. By 

Prof. LAHMOYER. Boeman. 1897. Part i., or. 
8vo, pp. xii + 316; 4s. 58 

Lehrbnch der eiigllschen Spraclie. Von Dr 0. 

BOERNER und Dr 0. THIEROEN. Leipzig, Trubner. 

1897. Large 8vo, pp. x + 148 (and Vocabulary, pp. 

93) ; 2m.20. 59 

Elcnicntarbuch der engllsehen Sprache. Von Dr 

0. THIERGEN. Leipzig, Trubner. 1897. Large 

8vo, pp. vii+214 (and Vocabulary, pp. 84); 

3m. 40. 60 

We have examined these two books for teaching English to 

German pupils with much interest They are very careful 

pieces of work. An important object which the authors have 

set before them is to help the pupil to fluency in spaking and 

In writing the foreign language. The introductory remarks on 

pronunciation are good ; the vocabulary is extremely well 

chosen ; and the " Reading exercises " are connected passages 

not dull, disconnected sentences. We ish the book a large 


See Neuphil. CbL, Dec. '97, p. 370. 

Exercises In English Word-formation and Deriva- 
tion. By F. RITCHIE, M.A. Swan Sonnenschein 
& Co. 1897. 3rd ed. Imp. 16mo, pp. 55 ; 9d. 61 
This slim volume seems well calculated to increase a child's 

vocabulary, and to give it some idea of the component parts of 

the language. 

The Irish Difficulty : Shall and Will. By the Very 
Rev. GERALD MOLLOY, D.D., D.Sc., Rector, Catholic 
University of Ireland. Blackie 4 Son. 1897. Cr. 
8vo, pp. 198 ; 2s. 6d. 62 

Dr 1C. Hron. The Little Londoner. Karlsruhe, 
Bielefeld. 1897. 8vo, pp. 196 ; 2m.40. 63 

A very favourable review by Ernst Regel in Neu. Spr., v. 


The Oxford English Dictionary. Edited by Dr 

J. A. H. MURRAY. Oxford, Clarendon Press. Series 
ii. , part iii. Field Prankish (Volume IV.). By 
HENRY BRADLEY. Royal 8vo, pp. 193-512 ; 12s. 6d. 
Franklaw Gaincoming ; 5s. 64 

Lit., 4 Dec. '97. 

A Standard Dictionary of the English Language. 
Students' Edition. Abridged from the Funk and 
Wagnall's Standard Dictionary of the English 
Language, by J. C. FERNALD and others. Illus- 
trated. Funk & Wagualls. 1897. 10s. 65 

New Pocket Pronouncing Dictionary of the 
English Language. Eyre & Spottiswoode. 1897. 
32mo, pp. 610 ; Is. 66 

The English Dialect Dictionary. Edited by JOSEPH 
WRIGHT, M.A. Frowde. 1897. Part IV. Caddie- 
Chuck. To subscribers, 21s. net two parts ; to 
non-subscribers, 15s. net per part. 67 

Austral English. A Dictionary of Australasian Words, 
Phrases, Usages, Aboriginal-Australian and Maori 
Words incorporated in the language, Scientific 
Words that have had their origin in Australia. By 
E. E. MORRIS. Macmillan & Co. 1897. 8vo, 
pp. 550 ; 16s. 68 



Jules Clarelle. Plerrllle. Edited, with Biographical 
Introduction and Notes, by E. L. NAFTEL. Hachette 
&Co. 1897. Cr. 8vo, pp. vi + 205; 2s. 69 

La Fortune dc D'Artagnan. An Episode from l.<: 
Vicomte de Jirageluune. By ALEX. DUMAS. Edited, 
with Introduction and Notes, by A. R. Ropes, 
M.A. Cambridge University Press. 1897. Extra 
fcap. 8vo, pp. xvi+272; 2s. 70 

A well-chosen but long text (pp. 182). The notes are good, on 

the whole, but too much translation is given. 

Malot. Remi et ses Anils. A Selection from Sam 
Famille. Edited, with Introduction, Notes and 
Vocabulary, by MARGARET DE G. VERRALL. Cam- 
bridge University Press. 1897. Extra fcap. 8vo, 
pp. xii+195; 2s. 
An excellent text. The notes are hardly full enough ; the 

vocabulary seems to be complete. 


Malot. Ki'ini et M'S Amis. Edited, with Notes and a 

Vocabulary, by J. MAURICE KEY, B.-es-L. Hachette 

&Co. 1897. Cr. 8vo, pp. iv+190; Is. 6d. 72 

(Exercises in French Composition and lietranslation, based 

upon the Idiomatic phrases, difficult grammatical constructions 

and unusual words contained In Malot's Remi et ses Amis. By 

J. Lazare, B.-es-L., and F. Jlinoggio. Hachette A Co., 1898. 

Cr. 8vo, pp. 82 ; 8d.) 

I.' liilc-ili :imj> Marbot. -rlc-niim-. from the 
Mlmolres. By GRANVILLE SHARP, M.A. Long- 
mans & Co. 1897. Cr. 8vo, pp. viii+192; 
2s. 6d. 73 

Educ. Rev., Oct. '97, p. 236 (favourable) ; Journ. Educ., NOT. 

'97, p. 660 ("a better easy reading-book could not hu found ") ; 

Cp. M. L. Q. '97, No. 318. 

Mlrhand. Histolrc <le la Premiere Croisadc. 

Edited by A. V. HOUGHTON. (Siepmann's French 
Series.) Macmillan. 1897. 12mo, pp. xvi+189; 
2s. 6d. 74 

Journ. Educ., Nov. '97, p. 658 ("cannot be pronounced an un- 
miied success"): Educ. Times, Nov. '97, p. 463 (very favour- 

Mcllere, L'Avare. Edited, with Introduction and 

Notes, by E. G. W. BRAUNHOLTZ, M.A., Ph.D. 

Cambridge University Press. 1897. Extra fcap. 

8vo, pp. xlviii + 245 ; 2s. 6d. 75 

See if. L. Q., No. 93. 

Warmly recommended by W. Mangold in ArMv, xcix. 
p. 222. 

The Fairy Tales of Master Prrranlt. Edited by 

WALTER RrppMAtra, M.A. Cambridge University 

Press. 1897. Extra fcap. 8vo, pp. 139 ; Is. 6d. 76 

Text, pp. 58 ; Notes, pp. 28 ; \ oeabulary, pp. 44 ; 

and a list of irregular verbs. 

Nouvelles et Anecdotes. Adapted and edited by A. 
DELACOURT, B.-es-L. Rivington. 1897. Sm. fcap. 
8vo ; 6d. net. 77 


A History of French literature. By EDWARD 

DOWDEN, D.C.L, LL.D. . Heinemann. 1897. Cr. 

8vo, pp. 444 ; 6s. 78 

Lit., 23 Oct. '97 ("a very pleasant book to read, displaying Its 

author's usual care ") ; cp. if. L. Q. '97, No. 326 ; Educ. Time!, 

Nov. '97, p. 462 (v. fav.). 

A Short History of French Literature. By Prof. 
SAINTSBURY. Oxford, Clarendon Press. 1897. 
Cr. 8vo, pp. 636 ; 10s. 6d. 79 

" This, the flfth, edition has been thoroughly revised through- 
out, and the section on the nineteenth century has been practi- 
cally rewritten and very much enlarged. 1 ' 

Lit., 11 Dec. '97 (" an excellent introduction to the vast sub- 
ject "). 

F. Rrnnetiere. Manuel de 1'Hlstolre dc la Lit- 
tlrature Franraisc. Delagrave. 1897. Demy 
8vo ; 5fr. 80 

The Literary Movement In France during the 
Nineteenth Century. By GKOROES PELLISSIEB. 
Translated by ANNE G. BRINTON. G. P. Putnam's 
Sons. 1897. 8vo, pp. 504 ; 12s. 6d. 81 

La Literature Francalse dn Dlx-Xenvieinc >i< . I. . 

Par HUGO P. THIEME. Paris, Welter (59 Rue 

Bonaparte). 1897. Large 8vo, pp. 90; 2f.50, 

cl. 3f.50. 82 

A notice, favourable on the whole, by Carl Voretssch in 

L. g. r. P., Sept. '97, col. 317 ; cp. M. L. Q., No. 106. 

lle Kiitwlcklnngderfranzuslschcii Litlernlnr sell 
1H.-IO. Von ERICH MEYER. Gotha, Perthes. 
1897. Large 8vo, pp. v+292; 5m. 83 

O. ><-|III|I/-.IM. I n testament llttlralre de Jean- 

Jacques Rousseau. Halle, Niemeyer. 1897. 

8vo, pp. 46 ; 1m. 84 

In a careful review (L. g. r. P., Sept. '97, col. 318), Ph. Aug. 

Becker disproves Schultz-Gora's contention that the testament 

Is the work of Rousseau. If. L. Q., No. 329. Reviewed by 

Daring in Lit. Obi., 9 Oct. '97, col. 1286 (favourable) ; by E. 

Hitter In Arcldv, xclx. p. 223 (disagreeing with Schultz-Gora) ; 

and by R. Mahrenhotti in f/eoyl.,1 Dec. '97 (unfavourable). 


Dr R. K i-ii n . Lc Petit Parislen. Karlsruhe, Bielefeld. 
1897. 3rd ed. 8vo, pp. viii + 176 ; 2m. 40. 85 

See Guide 1. 125; U. L. Q.,No. 146. 
Reviewed by /. Aymeric in NeocjL, 1 Oct. '97, p. 4. 

Fraiizosisches Reallexlkon. Unter Mitwirkung 

vieler Fachgenosssen herausgegeben von Dr 

CLEMENS KLOFFEH. Leipzig, Renger. 1897. 1. 

Lieferung. Large 8vo, pp. 1-98 ; 2m. 86 

Lit. CM., 25 Dec. '97 (" ein zuverlassiges und brauchbares 

Nachschlagewerk " Itz G.). 

Modern Fraiire (17S9-1895). By ANDRE LE BON, 
Member of the Chamber of Deputies. Unwin. 
1897. 8vo, pp. xvi+488; 5s. 87 

France. By MARY ROWSELL. (The Children's Study. ) 
Fisher Unwin. 1897. Fcap. 8vo, pp. 382; 
2s. 6d. 88 

Athen., 13 Nov. '97 ("pleasantly written and gives a great deal 
of history and information of all kinds in a very small com- 
pass ") ; Educ. Times, Nov. '97, p. 465 (" will serve its purpose "). 


A Complete Course of French Composition and 

Idioms. By HECTOR REY, B.-es-L. Blackie & 

Son. 1897. Cr. 8vo, pp. 214 ; 3s. 6d. 89 

Journ. Educ., Nov. '97, p. 659 (not favourable) ; Ed,uc., 6 Nov. 

'97; Educ. Times, Nov. '97, p. 463 ("a very useful book at all 

points "). 

Classbook of Commercial Correspondence, French 

and English. By A. E. RAGON. Hachette & Co. 

1897. Cr. 8vo, pp. 300 ; 2s. 6d. 90 

The new edition of this book has been " entirely revised up to 

the latest date" by M. G. Korts (late "Chef de Correspon- 

dance" of the " Comptolr d'Escompte de Palis"). It now 

fulfils its purpose admirably. 

GUI's French Commercial Correspondence. By 

L. SOLEIL. Gill. 1897. Cr. 8vo, pp. 90 ; Is. 91 

Educ., B Nov. '97 ("simple and clear"); Journ. Educ., Dec. 
'97. See M. L. (J., No. 337. 


licorK Slier. Franzosische .Syntax. Mit Beriick- 

sichtigung der alteren Sprache. Wolfenbiittel, 

Zwissler, 1897. 8vo, pp. viii + 475 ; 6m. 92 

A very favourable review by Kn. in Lit. CU., 2 Oct. '97, coL 

1264 ; cp. M. L. Q., No. 342. 

.\ew Ciraiiimaticnl French Course. By Prof. A. 

BARKERS, R.M.A., Woolwich. Whittaker. 1897. 

Parts i. anil ii. in 1 vol., Elementary. Pp. 114; Is. 

Part iii., Intermediate. Pp. 168 ; 2s. 93 

A good representative of the old-fashioned type of French 
Course lucid, with now and then a good tip. Well and clearly 
printed. Educ., 25 Dec. '97 ( Lt c'ear and well arranged"). 

The First French Kook : (irauimar, Conversation 

and Translation. By H. Bui;. Hachette & Co. 

1897. Pott 8vo, pp. xxiv+204 ; lOd. 94 

A new edition of this popular book, too well known to need 

description. It has been admirably printed, and is a marvel of 


The Study of French according to the Newest 
and Best Systems. By A. F. EUGENE and H. E. 

DURIAUX. Macmillan & Co. 1896. Gl. 8vo. 
pp. 348 ; 3s. 6d. 95 

Educ. Rev., Oct. '97, p. 235 (a combination of Gouin System 
and Grammar;; cp. M. L. Q., Nos. 129 and 340. 

A Three-year Preparatory Course In French. By 

C. F. KROEH. Macmillan. 1897. First Year. Cr. 
8vo, pp. 260 ; 3s. 6d. 96 

We commend Professor Kroeh's book to the notice of all 
teachers. It Is the result of his extensive experience at the 
Stevens Institute of Technology. Prof. Kroeh does not follow 
any of the recognised methods, but adopts from each what suits 
his purpose. He owes most to what is called in America the 
' ' Natural Method." No teacher will read the book without learn- 
ing a good deal, which is more than can be said for most of the 
old-fashioned " First French Books" and " French Courses." 


A Comprehensive French Manual for Student* 
Heading for Public Examinations. By OTTO 
C. NAK. Blackic & Son. 1897. Cr. 8vo, pp. 292 ; 
3s. 6d. 97 

Journ. Educ., Nov. '97, p. 659 (favourable on the whole); 
Edw , 13 Nov. '97 (" valuable in view of examination cram- 
ming"); Sduc. Times. Dec. '97, p. 504 ("admirably suited for 
the cxamiimtiun candidate"); Educ. Xetes, 23 Oct. '97 ("the 
took is suited by its simplicity and lucidity, arrangement and 
contents, to meet the requirements of students reading for 
public examinations "). 

in ill In tile Essentials of Freneli Aeeidenee and 
Elementary Syntax. By Prof. V. SPIERS. Simp- 
kin, Marshall & Co. 1897. Fcap. Svo, pp. 157 ; 
Is. 64 98 

Educ. Times, Nov. '97. p. 463 (-'a serviceable companion to 

grammar and composition book "). 

rn Pen de Tout. By F. JULIEN. Sampson, Low, 

Marston & Co. 1897. Cr. Svo, pp. 282 ; 2s. 6d. 

net. 99 

Educ., 20 Nov. '97 (" a curious liotch pot ... contains a 
quantity of useful phrases which are wanting in dictionaries ") ; 
Educ. Times, Nov. '97, p. 463 (" without any definite arrange- 
ment "). 
French Stumbling Blocks and English Stepping 

Stones. By F. TARVER, M.A. Murray. 1897. 

Foap. Svo, pp. viii + 212 ; 2s. 6d. 100 

Journ. Kduc., Nov. '97, p. 659 (not very favourable); cp. 
II. L. Q., No. 353. 
French Verbs Simplified and made Easy. By F. 

JULIEN. Sampson, Low, Marston & Co. 1897. 

Pp. 52 ; Is. net. 101 

Educ., 27 Nov. '97 (very unfavourable); Ednc. Times, Nov. 
97, p. 463 (unfavourable). 

French Idioms and Proverbs. By DE V. PATEN - 

PAYNE. Nutt. 1897. 2nd ed., with an Appendix. 

12mo, pp. xi+187 ; 2s. 6d. 102 

Educ., 6 Nov. '97 (" of reasonable size, and well and clearly 
arranged"); Journ. Educ., Dec. '97, p. 747 ("this useful and 
attractive vocabulary of idioms ") ; cp. At. L. Q., No. 354. 

C. Frlesland. Wegwelscrdiirchdasdeni Studiniii 
der frnuzosischeii Snrachc nnd l.illcralur 
dlciieude blbllograplilsclie Material ; ein 
llilfsbnch fiir Neuplillologcii. Gottingen, 
Horstmann. 1897. Svo, pp. viii-l-37 ; Om.75. 103 
An unfavourable notice by A'ar/ lieinfiard in L. <7. r. P., Se]>t. 

'97, col. 316. A very unfavourable review by Atf. Schtttze in 

Archie, xcix. p. 212 ; cp. U. L. Q , No. 339. 

Alf. Sclmlze. Uber einige Hilfsmittel franzosischer 
Bibliographic. 104 

A valuable article in Archir, xcix. (1897) p. 101. 

A Primer of French Etymology. By B. DALY 

COCKING. Innes & Co. 1897. Roy. 18mo, 

pp. vi + 101 ; Is. 6d. 105 

Educ. Rei\, Oct. '97, p. '.'36 (very favourable), but cp. if. L. Q. 

'97, No. 346. Favourable reviews also in Sped., 7 Sept. '97 ; 

Guardian, 15 Sept. '97; Glasy. Her., 22 July '97; Speaker, 31 

July '97. 

French Conversation with the Examiner. By C. 

ABEL-MUSGRAVE. Swan Sonnenschein & Co. 1897. 

Cr. 8vo, pp. 120 ; 2s 6d. 106 

Educ. Rer., Oct. '97, p. 236 (favourable); cp. If. L. Q., No. 363. 

For Books on FRENCH PRONUNCIATION, see below 



French Dictionary. By F. E. A. GASC. Geo. Bell & 
Sons. 1897. New ed., enl. Large Svo, pp. viii-t- 
956; 12s. 6d. 107 

Uictlonualre Phouelique <!< la Langue, Francalse. 

By H. MICHAELIS and P. PASSY. With a Preface 
by G. PARIS. Hannover, Carl Meyer (Gustav 
Prior). 1897. Svo, pp. xvi+318 ; paper 4m., cl. 
4m. 80. 108 

Neuphil. Cbl., Oct. '97, p. 299 (a very favourable notice by 

Kasten); Ednc. Times, Dec. '97, p. 504 ("will no doubt become 

a recognised authority "); cp. U. L. <, No. 418. 

New Pocket Pronouncing Dictionary of the 
French and English Languages. Daily and 
Commercial Words, List of Proper Names, Tables 
of Coins, Weights and Measures, etc. By A. 
MENDEL. Eyre & Spottiswoode. 1897. 32mo, 
pp. 636 ; Is. 6d. 



Eight Stories from Andersen. Edited by WALTER 

KIITMANN, M.A. Cambridge University Press. 

1898. Extra fcap, Svo, pp. vii + 228 ; 2s. 6d. 110 

Text, pp. 128 ; Notes, pp. 38 ; Vocabulary, pp. 62. 

;oellic. Faust. The so-called First Part (1770-1808) ; 

together with the scenes " Two Imps and Amor " ; 

the variants of the Gb'chenhausen transcript ; and 

the complete Paralipomena of tlie Weimar edition 

of 1887. In English, with Introduction and Notes, 

by II. M'Ci.iNTOCK. Nutt. 1897. Demy Svo, 

pp. xxxviii + 37 : 3 ; 10s. net. Ill 

SceJ/. L. Q., No. 157. 

A review by /(. U. Meyer in Archiv, xcix. p. 437. 
Heine. Har/.rclse. With a Life of Heine, a De- 
scriptive Sketch of the Harts, and an Index. By 
C. A. BUCHHEIM, Ph.D., Professor of Gorman 
in King's College, London. Oxford, Clarendon 
Press. 1897. Third ed. rev., with a Map. Extra 
fcap. Svo, pp. xxv+134 ; 2s. b'd. 112 

Heine's licder nnd (iediclite. Edited by Prof. C. 
A. BUCHHKIM. Macmillan & Co. 1897. Globe 
8vo, pp. 376 ; 2s. 6d. net. 

Tim volume forms a useful addition to the Golden Treasury 
Series, and will, we hope, be instrumental in introducing 
Heine's works to a wide circle of English readers. It is 
pleasing to find that Professor Buchheim can write impartially 
and do full justice to a poet whose claims to greatness are 
disputed in his own country. In his well-balanced introduction 
we feel that the editor rather makes light of Heine's trick or 
mannerism of rounding off a poem by means of some un- 
expected turn which takes the reader aback : in some poems 
indeed this mannerism amounts to a blemish. The present 
selection has been carefully made, due prominence being given 
to the Xordtce lyrics, but we fail to see why Professor Buchheim 
includes as an Auliung some portions of the DeulseMand; surely 
this lengthy poem deals with Zeitrertiactnisse, and therefore 
should not have found a place in the volume (</ introduction, 
p. xiil). To the Professor's promised monograph on Heine 
we look forward with much interest. E.L.M.B. 
Schiller, Historlsche Sklzzen. With Notes, etc., 
by Dr C. A. BUCHHEIM, Ph.D. Oxford, Clarendon 
Press. 1897. New Edition. Extra fcap. Svo, pp. 
162 ; 2s. 6d. 114 

Schiller. Wallcnstelii. Edited by K. H. BREUL. 
Cambridge University Press. In 2 volumes. 1895 
and 1896. 115 

/OK/TI. Educ., Dec. '97 ("The present reviewer . . . can 
testify to its learning, accuracy and judgment"). For Vol. II., 
cp. Guide II. 126. 

Poems of I bland. Selected and Edited by W. T. 

HEWETT, Professor of German in Cornell University. 

Macmillan & Co. 1896. Globe Svo, pp. 348 ; 5s. 

net. 116 

Seeffuftfell. 128. 

Reviewed by J. T. flatjleld ia Archie, xcix. p. 13S (" zu 
bedauern 1st von vornherein, das die Lyrik eines L'hland in 
Auswahl und nichtln vollem Umfang eischeint; doch hit das 
Buch ohne Zweifcl stine Verdienste, obwohl die Anzahl und 
die Stiirke der darin enthaltenen Irrtiimer liber das Mass des 
Erlaubten hinausgehen"). 

Lustige Cicschlchten. Adapted and edited by R. J. 
MORICH. Kivington. 1897. Sm. fcap. Svo, 9d. 
net. 117 


Vegchlchte der deutsclien Lilteratur von dm 
altesten Zciten bis znr Clegennart. Von Prof. 
Dr F. VOGT und Prof. Dr M. KOCH. Leipzig, 
Bibliographisches Institut. 1897. Large Svo, pp. 
760; 16m. US 

We hope this excellent book will soon supplant Eouig ; it IB 

much more sound and reliable. The Illustrations are good. A 

careful and favourable review by S, Feiit in Z. f. d. U., i. 



A. Lyrlsche Diclilmig mid nencrc 
ilcniM-hc Lyrtker. Berlin, W. Hertz. 1897. 
8vo, pp. 270 ; 1m. 30. 119 

A favourable notice by E. Schaumkell in Z. f. d. U., xi. 66.5. 
Kmmaiiiiel Uelbel. Von KARL THEOD. GAEDERTZ. 
Leipzig, Wigand. 1897. L. 8vo, pp. xii + 412 ; 
6m., cl. 7m. 120 

A favourable review in Lit. CM., 9 Oct. '97, col. 1304. 
Heine. 121 

See the articles in Cosmopolis for Dec, '97 (From a ifattreit 
Orare, by I. Zangwill: Heinrich Heine: a Centenary Retrospect, 
by Prof . E. Dowclen: Henri Heine, by E. Rod; and //< -inrirti 
Heines Dichtung, by K. 1'renzel). 

<.." Mir mill Schiller. I In- Lcbeu mill Hire Werke. 
Von MORITZ EHRLICH. Berlin, Grote. Large 8vo, 
pp. vii + 500; 12m. 122 

Klelne Sclirlfteil von Friedrich Zariirke. Erster 

Band, Goethe schriften. Leipzig, Avenarins. 1897. 

Large 8vo, pp. xii + 442; 10m. 123 

A very favourable review by //. tichullcr in Seti. Spr., v. :;:il. 
Criticisms. Reflections, an<l Maxims of iioellie. 

Translated, with an Introduction, by W. B. 

BOXNPELDT. Walter Scott. 1897. 8vo, pp. 261 ; 

Is. 6d. 124 

Lit., 4 Dec. '97 (favourable) ; Bookman, Oct. '97, p. 24 (very 
fav.). It appears that Mr RBnnfeldt owes much to Mr Bailey 

Schiller In sclnen Dranien. Von KARL WEITBRKCHT. 

Stuttgart, Fr. Frommann. 1897. 8vo, pp. 314 

3m.60. 125 

A very favourable notice by //. Unbetcheid in Z. f. d. U., xi. 

725 (one among many cxce'lent " Anzelgcn aus der Sell ller- 

litleratur, 1896-7"). 

(.1 1-111:111 Lyrical anil other Poems. With isomet- 

rical translations. By H. CAMPBELL GALLKTI.V. 

Williams & Norgate. 1897. Cr. 8vo. pp. 180 ; 

2s. 6d. 126 

Journ. Educ., Dec. '97, p. 747. 


With Frederick the treat : a Tale of the Seven 
Years' War. By G. A. HBNTY. Blackie & Son. 
1897. With 12 page illustrations. Cr. Svo, pp. 
384; 6s. 1-J7 

A History of Germany In the Middle Ages. By 

E. F. HENDERSON, A.B. (Trin. Coll., Conn.), A.M. 
(Harvard), Ph.D. (Berlin). Geo. Bell & Sons. 1897. 
Post Svo ; 7s. 6d. net. 128 

Charles the tlreat. By THOMAS HODGKIN, D.C.L. 
Macmillan & Co. 1897. Svo, pp. 251 ; 2s. 6d. 129 


II. in-. IK- >clir. iii-l. -( -I ih( I anf phoiictlscher 
iirniidlagc. Von H. HOFFMANN. Marburg, 
Elwert. 1897. L. 870, pp. ii + 83 + xiv ; 130 

The English-Merman Commercial Correspondent. 

(Hossfeld's ' Pocket Editions). Hirschfeld Bro. 

1897. New ed. 16mo, pp. 432 ; 2s. 131 

A very useful volume, clearly arranged and carefully printed. 


4icrmaii Orthoicrapliy mid I'lionolox.v. A Treatise 

with a word-list. By G. HEMPL. Strassburg, 

Triibner. 1897. Part I. : The Treatise. Svo, pp. 

xxxii + 264 ; 8m. 132 

A very favourable review by W. V[ietor) In Lit. CM., 

4 Dec., '7. 

8prnch-psyclioloj?lsclie simlicn. .Von W. REICHEL. 
Vier Abhandlungen iiber Wortstellung und Beto- 
nung de.s Deutschen in der Gegenwart, Sparsamkeit, 
Begriindung der Normalsprache. Halle, Niemeyer. 
1897. L. Svo, pp. vi-r-S37 ; 8m. 133 

Lit. CM., 1C Oct. '97 (warmly recommended). 


Mnret. Encyklopiidisclies Worterbucli iler en- 
llschciiiiuddeiitschcii S|>r:ichc. Langenscheidt, 
Berlin. Part i. (English-German). Large edition, 
in 2 vols., pp. 2459 ; 42m. Small edition, in 1 vol., 
pp. 845 ; 7s. 6d. 134 

A very favourable notice by Wemlt in A'eup/iil. CM., Oct. '97, 

p. 301 ; a good notice of the first Lieferuny of Pt. il. by W. 

Heymann in L. g. r. P., Nov. '97, col. 371. 

A Dictionary of the German and linuiNli Lan- 
guage*. Abridged. By F. FLCGEL, C. E. 
FEIUNO, and .T. OXENFORD. Whittaker & Co. 
1897. New ed. 12mo, pp. 318 ; 6s. 135 

V V Pocket Uictiouary of I IK- German and EIIK- 
lish l.aiigiiajce.s. Daily and Commercial Words, 
List of Proper Names, Tables of English, American, 
German, French Currencies, Weights, Measures, 
etc. ByJ. B. CLOSK. Eyre & Spottiswoode. 1897. 
32mo, pp. 574 ; Is. 6d. 136 

Ileiilsclies Worfcrliiich. Von Dr F. DETTER. Leipzig, 
Gosehen. 1897. Sm. Svo, pp. xxiv + 146; Om.80. 

Lit. Ct/., 23 Oct. '97 (it is a concise etymological dictionary ; 

warmly commended). 




La Ulvlua t'onimedia di Dante Allghlerl, lllns- 

frata iiei Inoglii e nolle persoue. A cura di 

C. KICCI. Milano, U. Hoepli. lb96-97. Fol. 

lx+744pp.; Lire 40. 138 

See .If. L. Q., Nos. 203, 388. 

Thi.s publication, which has been issued in parls, is now 
complete, and forms a very handsome volume. The editor 
and publisher have carried through a very difficult and arduous 
undertaking with great success, and have produced a book 
which Is unique of its kind, and which cannot fail to be 
appreciated by every reader of Dante. The value of the work 
as a book of reference is much enhanced by the addition of two 
exhaustive indices, containing 1'sts of the 30 plntes and 400 illus- 
tions, and an indication in every case of the sources whence 
they were taken. T. 

Danle. x in Leben mid -(in Werk. gelii \i-r- 
hiilliii* /nr Kim -I nnii znr I'nliiik. Von F. 
X. KHACS. Berlin, Grote. 1898. With 81 illus- 
trations. Lex. Svo, pp. xii + 792 ; 28m. 139 
A Dictionary of Proper Vimr- and Notable Matterg 
in the Works of Dante. By PAOET TOYNBEK, 
M.A. Oxford, Clarendon Press. [/ the 1'ress. 140 
F.iiclclopcdiaDaiitcsca. Vol. ii. (parte prima). M R. 
Dr G. A. SCARTAZZINI. Miiano, HoepH. 1898. 
Cr. Svo, pp. 1171-1712; 61.25. 141 
La Vita \nova di Dante Alighierl secondo la 
lezlone del coil. Strozziaiio II. 143. Con un 
sommario della vita di Dante, e brevi annotazioni 
per uso delle ecuole. A cura di G. L. PASSERINI. 
Torino, G. B. Paravia e Comp. 1897. 12mo, 
xlvii + 75pp. Lire 1.25. 142 
A useful little book. The summary of the life of Dante is 
well done, as might be expected from the joint editor of the 
Codict diplomatico dantesco. T. 

Icoiioxrana Dautesca. Die blldllchen Darstel- 

liingcn /iir Gottliclien Komiidle. Von Lcow. 

VOLKMANN. Leipzig, Breitkopf und Hartel. 1897. 

Large Svo, pp. 179 ; 10m. 143 

Very favourably reviewed by H. W. In Lit. CM., 11 Dec. '97. 

II trattnto De Vnlgarl Eloqnentla dl Dante 

Allghleri. Per cnrn dl Pio Knjna. Edizione 

minore. Firenze, Succ. Le Monnier. 1887. Cr. 

Svo, pp. xl + 86; 11. 144 

Dante. A Defence of the ancient text of the 

' Dlvina t'onimedia." By WICKHAM FLOWED. 

Chapman & Hall. 1897. So. or. Svo, pp. 60 ; 

3s. 6d. 145 

A book with a pretentious title, which contributes nothing 

new to tile discussion of the single passage of the "Divina 

Commedia" dealt with. The writer more than once flatly 

contradicts liims if upon a point which U vital to his 

argument. 7*. 


K.-ui i . . A Question of he land niul of the Water. 

Translated by C. H. BROMBY. Nutt. 1897. Cr. 
8vo, pp. 60 ; 2s. net. 146 

Lit. ,20 Nov. '97 ("Mr Bromby has acquitted himself credit- 
ably of his tusk "). 

An unscholarly piece of work which ought never to have been 
allowed to see the light In its present crude form. It teems 
with gross blunders, and is disfigured by an altogether inex- 
cusable number of misprints. The translator's unfltness for 
the task he has undertaken is manifest on every page of the 
book. (See two letters by Pagct Toynbee in Literature, Dec. 4, 
1897, and Jan. 1,1898). 

i'ber Poetisehe Vision null Imagination. Bin 

Historisch - Psychologischer Versuch anlasslich 

Dantes. VON KARL BOBINSKI. Halle, Max 

Niemeyer. 1897. 8vo, pp. xii + 128 ; 147 

To some extent a recapitulation, as far as Dante is concerned, 

of what has already befn written on the subject. The Diriia 

Commedia is examined from the esthetic point of view, and the 

allegorical form of the poem is discussed. The writer displays 

knowledge In his handling of the subject, but his treatment of 

it is essentially dull. T. 

E. Mast. Srella ill .cinimoilir ili C'arlo Goldoiil. 

Firenze, Successor! Le Monnier. 1897. 2 vols. 

8vo, pp. xxxiii + 539 and 648. 148 

A most favourable notice by E. Uadtlalena in L. g. r. P., 

Nov. '97, col. 381. 

I rn.iin-.-i Sposl, storla iniliiiir-r del seeolo xvil. 
scoperta e rlfatta da Alessandro Mniizoul. 
Edizione curata nel testo da A. CEKQUETTI, 
illustrata da G. Previati, preceduta dei cenni 
hiografici per L. Beltrami. Milano, U. Hoepli. 

1897. Fascicoli 1-3 ; fol. xxiii + 72 pp. 

An illustrated edition of the fromessi Spmi, uniform with 
the illustrated Divina Commedia of the same publisher. The 
work Is to be issued In thirty-six parts at one lira each. The 
price of the complete work will be forty lire. It promises to be 
as great a success as the Dante. T. 

Italian Literature. By the late J. A. SYMONDS. 

Smith, Elder & Co. 1898. 2 vols. large cr. 8vo. 

Vol. i. pp. xvi + 497 ; Vol. ii. pp. xi + 484 ; 15s. 150 
(Vols. Iv. and v. of the new and cheaper edition of "The 
Renaissance in Italy. 1 ') 

Alessaiidro Nauzonl. A cura di L. BELTRAMI. 
(Manual! Hoepli, No. 266). Milano, U. Hoepli. 

1898. 16mo, 193pp.; Lore 1.50. 151 
An interesting little account of the life and works of Manzoui, 

with numerous illustrations and facsimiles of Manzoni's hand- 
writing, among the specimens reproduced being the first draft 
of the first page of the Promessi Sposi.T. 

First Italian Readings. By B. L. BOWEN. Isbister, 
1897. Cr. 8vo, pp. 174 ; 2s. 6d. 152 

Educ. Rev., Oct. '97, p. 236 (" a very good book, for use In 
schools "). 


Die ItallenlHcbe Ilmgaiigspraehe in syslematiseher 
Anordiiiing nnd mil Aussprachehllfeu. Von 

DrO. HECKEH. Westermann, Braunschweig. 1897. 

8vo, pp. xii +312; 4m. 153 

A very favourable review by R. Lorera in Neuphil. Cbl., Oct. 

'97, p. 302 (" lavoro pregevolissimo, destinato a servire di guida 

sicuraachlvuoleaddentrarsinello studio dtlla parlata italiana"), 

and by A. Tobler in Archiv, xcix. p. 228 (also very favourable). 

B. l.oi era. Der Italleiilseue Famillenbrlef. Eine 
Sammlung von italien. Billetten und Briefen des 
Familienlebens mit Angabe der Regeln iiber die 
italien. Korrespondenz zum Schul- und Privat- 
gebrauch. Stuttgart, Roth. 1897. 12mo, pp. 
viii+101; lm.50. 154 


La Leyeiida de log slete Infantes fie Lara. Por 

D. RAMON MENKNDEZ PIDAL. Madrid, Ducazcal. 
1897. 4to, pp. xvi+448; 155 

An enthusiastic review in Lit., 30 Oct. '97. 
Llngnn e Lelteratnra Spagnuola delle Orlglnl. 

EOIDIO GORKA. Milano, Hoepli. 1898. Cr. 8vo, 
pp. xvii + 430; 61. 156 


.. Cederschlold. Oni Svenskan som Skrlftsprak. 

Gciteborg, Wettergren & Kerber. 1897. 8vo, pp. 

viii+355; 3m. 90. 157 

Cp. L. g. r. P., Nov. '97, col. 390. 
Xeohelleiile Language and Literature. Three 

Lectures at Oxford. By P. E. DHAKOULES. 

Simpkin, Marshall. 1897. Cr. 8vo, pp. viii + 70 ; 

Is. 6d. net. 158 

A History of Hungarian Literature. By Dr EMIL 

REICH. Jarrold. [/ the Pre.v. 1">9 

A Welsh Grammar. By Prof. E. ANWYL, M.A. 
Swan Sonnenschein & Co. 1897. Part i., Acci- 
dence. Imp. 16mo, pp. 96 ; 2s. 6d. 160 

A volume of the Parallel Grammar Series. 

[A 2nd. ed. just published; vol. II. (syntax) ready shortly). 

The book is very well arranged, the Introduction and specially 
the Chaps, on Phonetic Laws and Tendencies are excellent. 
The great difficulties of the nouns and verbs in Welsh are set 
forth very lucidly, and the whole book is well adapted either 
for an Englishman or a native. E. C. Q. 


Chaucerian and other Pieces. Edited from 
numerous MSS. By the Rev. WALTER W. 
SKKAT, Litt.D. Being a Supplement to the 
"Complete Works of Geoffrey Chaucer." Oxford, 
Clarendon Press. 1897. Demy 8vo, pp. lxxxiv + 
608 ; 18s. 161 

Athen., 27 Nov. '97 (an interesting and most favourable 

review); Boatman, Oct. '97, p. 18 (an appreciative review by 

C. U. Ilerford); Lit. Cbl., Nov. '97 (an enthusiastic review by 

F. HUhm). 

Klehard Uolle of Hampole. Edited by C. HoRST- 
MANN. Swan Sonnenschein & Co. 1896. Vol. ii. 
Demy Svo, pp. xliv+458; 10s. 6d. 
See Guide I. 56, II. 54, II. L. Q., No. 221. 
A lengthy review of Vol. U. in Archiv, xcix. pp. 158-167, by 

M. Konrath. 

Selections from Sir Thomas Malory's Morte 

Warthnr. Edited, with Introduction, Notes, 

and Glossary, by D. E. MEAD, Ph.D. Nutt. 

1897. Cr. 8vo, pp. lxii + 346 ; 4s. 6d. net. 163 

" Intended for school and college use. The Text comprises 

Books I., II., xlll , xvll , xvlii., x*L" 

Stories from the Faerie Queen. By MARY MAC- 
LEOD. Gardner & Darton. 1897. 8vo, pp. 
xxvii + 395; 6s. 

At/ien., 18 Dec. '97 (favourable). 

Tlie Court of King Arthur : Stories from the Land of 
the Round Table. By W. H. FROST. Macqueen. 
1897. Cr. Svo, pp. 302 ; 6s. 
An adaptation of the chief legends of the Round Table, done 

after Malory into simple language. 

The Student's Dictionary of Anglo-Saxon. By 
H. SWEET, M.A. Oxford, Clarendon Press. 1897. 
Sm. 4to, pp. xvi + 217 ; 8s. 6d. net. 
See It. L. Q., No. 223. 
Reviewed by IT. V(ietor] in Lit. Cbl., 11 Dec. 1897 ("das 

zuverliissigste altenglische Worterbuch, das bis jetzt zn Gebote 


First Steps In Anglo-Saxon. By HENRY SWEET, 

M.A. Oxford, Clarendon Press. 1897. 12mo, 

pp. 120 ; 2s. 6d. 17 

Athen., 13 Nov. '97 (" for beginners who have to dispense 

with a teacher it may be cordially recommended "). 

Onoinastlcou Aiiglo-Saxonlcnm. List of Anglo- 
Saxon Names from the time of Beda to that of 
King John. By W. G. SEARLE. Cambridge Uni- 
versity Press. 1897. Svo, pp. ; 20s. net. 168 

;<>! i><-lie. Elenieiitnrtmch. By Dr W. STREITBERG. 
Heidelberg, Winter. 1896. Svo, pp. xii +200; 
3m., cl. 3m. 60. 
A valuable review by Jellinei in A.f. d. A., xxiil. 330 ; Edue. 

Times, Dec. '97. p. jOS (very favourable). 



Chrestomatlilc iln nioyeu ftge, extrails publics avec 
des tradurtionx, des notes, line introduction 
grammaticalc et des notices liH<-r:iir<>. Par 

G. PARIS et E. LANGLOIS. Hachette. 1897. Svo, 
pp. xciii+352; 3f. 170 

An excellent volume ; remarkably cheap. 
.Incnssin and Mcolcttc : an old-French Love Story. 

Edited and translated by F. W. BotJRDILLON. 
Text collated afresh with the MS. at Paris. Trans- 
lation revised and Introduction rewritten. Mac- 
millan. 1897. 2nd ed. 12mo, pp. 302 ; 7s. 6d. 171 

Kcnaiid of Moiitaiilmu. done into English by 

CAXTON, re-translated by R. STEEL. Geo. Allen. 

1897. 4to, pp. 298; 7s. 6d. 172 

Boatman, Dec. '97, p. 107 (" told in delightful style . . . tills 

beautiful volume "). 


TUe Fall of the Nibelnngcn. Translated by M. 

ARMOUR. Dent & Co. 1897. Sm. 4to, pp. 

xvi + 260; 6s. net. 173 

Athen., 16 Oct. '97 (" The literary style of the translation is 
manifestly modelled on the archaistic phraseology adopted by 
the late William Morris, and has its beauties in combination 
with several faults. Its affectations are too often tiresome ; but 
apart from these, the language and treatment of the original are 
frequently most picturesque and animated"): Bookman, Dec. 
'97, p. 107 (" Miss Armour's part in this book deserves the 
highest praise. . . . There is no other modem version in any 
language in which the stories are rendered more effectively"); 
Aead., 16 Oct. '97 (" Her version will grow on you as a thing 
of spirit and picturesqueness. I, like thousands more, cannot 
read the crabbed, medieval German, but hi this translation I 
have exulted over genius, authentic genius, brought home to me 
hi my mother tongue." Francis Thompson). 

The Lay of the Xlbeliiugs. Metrically translated by 
ALICE HORTON, and edited by EDW. BELL, M.A. 
Geo. Bell & Sons. 1898. Sm. post Svo, pp. 
lxxi + 411; 5s. 174 

The History of Beynanl the Fox. With some 
Account of his Friends and Enemies. Turned 
into English Verse by F. S. ELLIS. With Illustra- 
tive Devices by WALTER CRANE. Nutt. 1897. 
Sq. cr. Svo, pp. xii+289 ; 6s. 175 

At/ten., 27 Nov. '97 ; LU.,11 Dec. '97 (favourable); Koolcman, 

Dec. '97, p. 107 (favourable). 


Tin- Voyage of Bran, Soil of Fcbal, to the Lnml 

of the Living. V 7 ol. II. The Celtic Doctrine 

of Rebirth. By ALFRED NUTT. Nutt. 1897. 

Cr. Svo, pp. xii + 352; 10s. 6d. net. 176 

Allien., 11 Dec. '97 (a long and eminently favourable review)' 

folklore, Dec. '97 (long and fav., by Prof. York Porell). 

Epic anil It, .man. , t Essays in Medieval Literature. 
By W. P. KER, Professor of English Literature in 
University College, London. Macmillan & Co. 
1897. Svo, pp. xx + 452; 10s. net. 177 

Journ. Kim., Dec. '1)7, p. 741 ; c]i. M. L. Q., No. 228. 

The Flourishing of K ..... ance and Hi. Rise of 
Allegory (Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries). By 
G. SAINTSBURY, M.A. Blackwood & Sons. 1897. 
Cr. Svo, pp. 448 ; 5s. net. 178 

Journ. Educ., Dec. '97, p. 741 (favourable); cp. M. L. Q , 
No. 229. 

Emtnys on Literary Art. By HIRAM M. STANLEY. 
Swan Sonnenschein & Co. 1897. Cr. 8vo pn 
iv + 164; 3s. 6d. ' 179 

Journ. Educ., Nov. '97, p. 6S ( a satisfactory little volume- 
simple, sane, and generally well-Informed"); Educ Rev Oct 
'87, p. 232 (" bright in style and Impartial in judgment").' 

The PrInclpleM of ( HI icisin. Being an Introduc- 

. uc- 

tion to the Study of Literature. By W. BASIL 
WORSFOLD, M.A. Geo. Allen. 1897. Svo np 
viii+285; 10s. 6d. ' iso 

. . 

WORSFOLD, M.A. Geo. Allen. 1897. Svo np 
285; 10s. 6d. ' 

Lit., 18 Dec. '97 (an interesting notice). 

All Introduction to Literature. By L. E. JONBS. 

G. P. Putnam's Sons. 1897. [In flu Press. 181 

Principle!! der Literatnrwissciiscliaft. Von E. 

ELSTER. 1 Band. Halle, Niemeyer. 1897. Large 
Svo, pp. xx + 488; 9m. 182 

A very favourable notice by M[ax] K[och] in Lit. CM., 
18 Dec. '97. 

Xeue Beltragc /.iir Theorie mill Teehnik der E|iik 


Leipzig, Staackmann. Svo, pp. xiv+359; 6m. 183 

Lit., 30 Oct. '97 ("A sanity plays upon his pages which is as 

free from narrow prejudice as it is from vapid enthusiasm . . . 

an interesting contribution to the study of contemporary 

literature "). 


Hi-jii il<- Somali! ii| lie (Science des Significations). 

Par M. BRKAL. Hachette & Co. 1897. Svo, pp. 

349 ; 7f.50. 184 

Lit., 4 Dec. '97 ; Lit. C'jL, 6 Nov. '97 (" auf den EinzeluntiT- 
suchungen schelnt uns der Hasptwert des Bitches zu bcrnhcn, 
wahrend wir in den leitenden Ideen keinen wesentlichcn 
Fortschritt zu erkennen vermogen ") ; Educ. Times, Oct. '97, 
p. 425 (v. fav.). 


Le Kytlime dans la Poesie Fraucaisc. By PIERHE 
DE BARNEVILLE. Paris, Pen-in? 1898F71. 18mo, 
pp. 149 ; 2f.50. 185 

Kauffnianii, Frledr. Deutsche Melrik naeh 
ihrcrgeschichtlichen Eiitnlckluiig. Marburg, 
Elwert. 1896. Svo, pp. viii + 255 ; 3m.60. 186 
L. <j. r. P., Nov. '97, col. 361 (a very valuable review by 
0. Brenner); Arc/tiv, xdx. p; 146 (//. Jantzen: very favour- 



Itrcyuiann, n.. Die phonetischc Liltcratur von 

1810 bis 1893. Eine bibliographisch-kritische 

tibersicht. Leipzig, Deichert. 1896. 8vo, 

pp. 170; 187 

See M. L. (J., No. 230 and No. 414. 

A favourable review by H. Klingliardt in L. y. r. P., Dec. '97, 
col. 419. 

II. Kllnghnrdt. Artikulations- und Horiibungen. 

Cb'then, Schulze. 1897. Largo Svo, pp. viii + 256 ; 

5m.50. 188 

A very favourable review by A. Rainbeau in M. F., Nov. '97j 
p. 167; cp. M. L <?., Nos. 233 and 415. 

O. .Icspcrscn. Foiietlk en N.vslcinalisk frciuslil- 
ling of Incrcn 0111 sproglyd. H.I: fonetikkcns 
almindelige del. Kj?benhavn, Schubothe. 1897. 
Svo, pp. 168. 189 


Soamcs's Phonetic Method for Learning to Kcnd. 

Edited by Prof. VlETOR. 190 

See above, No. 56. 
I !<>( uliou and the Dramatic Art. By D. J. 

SMITHSON : revised by C. R. TAYLOB. 191 

See above, No. 30. 


Franzosischc Phonctik fiir Lehrer und Htudic- 

rcnde. Von FRANZ BEYER. CUthen, Schulxe. 

1897. 2 verb. Aufl. Svo, pp. xvi + 222; 4m. 80. 192 

Lit. CbL. 13 Nov. '97 (a very appreciative review, by 

W. V[ietori). The symbols of the Assoc. Ption. Intern, have 

been adopted in this edition. 

Paul Passy. Abregfi de Prononciation Francaise. 

(Phonetique et Ortho^pie.) Leipzig, Reisland. 

1897. Pp. 51 ; 1 fr. 25. 193 

We can recommend this little book very warmly. It Is, of 

course, thoroughly scientific ; the name of the author Is a 

sufficient guarantee. It Is well arranged, and should prove an 

excellent introduction to French phonetics. 



The Verslii Plioiio-Kliytliinle, Method nt French 
Pronunciation. By M. and B. J. YKHSIN. 
Lippincott. 1897. Cr. 870 ; 6s. 
Kduf. Times, Dec. '97, p. 504 ("we cannot recommend tills 

book for schools, but it will assist a teacher or a self-teacher"). 

A Primer of French PronnnrlHtlon. By A. E. 

MATZKE. New York, H. Holt & Co. 1897. 12mo, 
pp. vi+73 ; . 195 

An unfavourable review by ier in Lit. CM., 25 Sept. '97, 
col. 1231. 

Tickcir* Knles for French Pronunciation. 
Hachette & Co. 1897. On Cards ; Is. each. 196 

We cannot recommend these Rules. 

Mictloiinalrc Phoiiellqne de In Langue Francaise. 
(Michaelis and Passy). 197 

See above, No. 108. 

Mentschc I i Iii'l auf Phonetlscher Gruiidlnge. Von 


See above, No. 130. 

Itialcktfrctc Sprnche. M. F., Nov. '97, p. 162. 199 
Important contributions by Keailtch, Spieser and Victor. 


Teaching and Organization, with special re- 
ference to Secondary Schools : a Manual of 
Practice. Edited by P. A. BAHNETT. Longmans 
& Co. 1897. Cr. 8vo, pp. xx + 420 ; 6s. 6d. 200 
A review by Agnes J. Ward in Educ. Rev., Oct. '07 ; cp. 

M. L. Q., No. 421. 

Alms and Practice of Teaching:. Edited by Prof. 

SPENCER, M. A. Cambridge University Press. 1897. 

Cr. 8vo, pp. 292 ; 6s. 201 

Lit., 11 Dec. '97 (-'the editor contributes a suggestive paper 
on the teaching of French and German";. See M. L. Q., No. 

The Principles and Practice of Teaching and Class 
Management. By J. LASDON. Holden. 1897. 
3rd ed., enl. by 3 App. Cr. 8vo, 516 ; 5s. 202 

Replete with valuable suggestions. 

\ll. Vcrsaiiiniluiig deutschcr Phllnlogen mid 
Scliiiliniiuner In Dresden. 

A good account of this important meeting in .\eupliil. CM., 
Nov. and Dec. '97. 

Historical Atlas of Modern Europe from the 
Decline of the Komaii Empire. Comprising 
also Maps of Parts of Asia and of the New World 
connected with European History. Edited by R. 
IjAXK-PoOLE, M.A., Ph.D., Lecturer in Diplomatic 
in the University of Oxford. Parts I. -XV. now 
ready, price 3s. 6d. net per Part. 204 

Part XV. contains 
.Map 27. Scotland, c. 1600. By G. GREGORY SMITH, 

,, 61. The Ecclesiastical Organisation of the 

Spanish Peninsula. By the EDITOR. 
78. Western Asia under the Mohammedan 
Dynasties, c. 970 and c. 1070 A. D. By 

The Modern Quarterly of Language and Literature 

NOTICE TO CONTRIBUTORS. We Modern Quarterly of Language and. Literature, edited 
by H. FRANK HEATH, with the assistance of Dr BKAUNHOLTZ, Dr BREUL, Mr I. GOLLAXCZ, Mr 
A. W. POLLARD, Prof. WALTER RIPPMANN, and Prof. V. SPIERS, is open for the discussion of all 
questions connected with the study and teaching of Medieval and Modern Languages and their 
Literatures. Contributions dealing with Germanic should be sent to Dr BREUL, Englemere, 
Chesterton Road, Cambridge ; with Romance to Dr BRAUNHOLTZ, 37 Chesterton Road, Cambridge ; 
or to Prof. V. SPIERS, 75 Lancaster Road, North Kensington, London, W. ; with the Bibliographical 
List to Prof. WALTER RIPPMANN, 41 Westmoreland Road, Bayswater, London, W. ; and those dealing 
with all other subjects to the General Editor, H. FRANK HEATH, University of London, Burlington 
Gardens, W. All contributions should be clearly written, with the name and address of the author, 
and the number of words they contain, legibly written on the last page. Unsuitable MSS. can be 
returned only if a stamped addressed envelope or wrapper is enclosed. 

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Modern Quarterly 


Language and Literature 

Edited by 

With the assistance of 


Vol. I. 

June i 

No. 2. 





A FRENCH literary man of whatever dis- 
tinction, unless he is a novelist or a dramatist, 
has little chance of being known in England 
except to those interested in the particular 
subjects of his writings. When, in January 
1897, M. Gaston Paris pronounced his 
Discours de Reception at the Aaid6miefmn$aise, 
and the Times gave a prominent place to a 
telegraphic summary of his delicate and 
clear-sighted criticism of the great scientist 
whom he succeeded, it is probable that 
many readers hardly knew his name. For 
it so happens that the particular studies 
which have not only made M. Gaston Paris 
famous through the rest of literary Europe, 
but which owe to him perhaps more than 
any other man their development and 
present position, have been almost com- 
pletely neglected in England. Had he been 
a great classical scholar such as Hermann, 
a great historian such as Mommsen, or even 
a great Orientalist such as d'Herbelot, there 
would have been some chance that a reputa- 
tion, beginning in our Universities, would 
have slowly spread from them outward to 
the British public. But as a philological 
student and an expounder of Old-French 
and the Romance languages, he has had no 
opportunity in England of becoming known 

beyond the very small band of those who 
care for these studies. There is, indeed, 
one branch of those subjects which has of 
late years been less neglected among us. 
Had M. Gaston Paris happened to have 
dealt with the Arthur Romances as he has 
with the Charlemagne, had he written a 
Histoire poetique du Roi Artus, it would no 
doubt have benefitted by the popularity 
which Tennyson has given to these 
Romances, and have been translated and 
read in England. But M. Gaston Paris, 
though he has dealt to some extent with 
the Arthurian stories, as in his luminous 
essay on Tristan el Ixeut in the Revue de 
Paris, began with Charlemagne ; and with 
Charlemagne the English folk are very little 
concerned. Indeed, our historians storm 
at us for ever mentioning his name. And 
yet it may be doubted if all the laborious 
efforts made of late years to give a faithful 
presentment of the historic Karl the Great, 
bleached of all the colours of the romantic 
Charlemagne, have been half so valuable as 
the work in which the young student of 
twenty-six brought out for the modern 
world the inmost spirit of a myth-making 
age ; and gave us the vivid picture of 
the great legendary Charlemagne, who so 


mightily stirred the imagination of medieval 
Europe. The historian hardly condescends 
to notice the defeat of a small rear-guard in 
a. Pyrenean pass ; but who can measure the 
effect on French history wrought indirectly 
by the stirring legend of Roland and 
Roncesvalles ? M. Gaston Paris has shown, 
more than any other, the true way of treat 
ing these legendary records ; not merely as 
an interesting branch of learning ; not by 
any means as " classical " masterpieces 
whereon to form a style of literature ; but 
as living unconscious records of mental 
stages and racial impulses. Having learnt 
from his father, Paulin Paris, to handle his 
country's early literature with reverent 
affection, and from his master, Friedrich 
Diez, to study it with scholarly thorough- 
ness, M. Gaston Paris has in all his work 
shown a rare combination of accurate learn- 
ing with the power of making dry bones 
live again. But his work has been but 
little brought before the world. In the 
twenty -six volumes of the quarterly journal, 
" Romania," founded and edited by himself 
and his friend and colleague, M. Paul Meyer, 
are buried article upon article from his 
pen, mines of learning and masterpieces of 
criticism. But, except to students of the 
Romance languages these are almost in- 
accessible. Since the starting of the Bevue 
de Paris in 1894, an occasional article has 
brought his name before a wider circle of 
readers. But it is even more as a teacher 
and founder of a school that his influence 
is such a living power. And the list of 
those who united to offer him a memorial 
of his election to the Academy contains 
names of students and professors and literary 
men from all parts of Europe and America. 
And what has been his aim in all his writing 

and teaching his own words from the afore- 
mentioned Discours de Pifnepiwn best show : 

" II faut avant tout . . . aimer la veriti 1 , 
vouloir la connaitre, croire en elle, travailler, 
si on le pent, a la decouvrir. II faut savoir 
la regarder en face, et se jurer de ne jamais 
la fausser, 1'attenuer ou l'exage"rer, meme en 
vue d'un int^ret qui semblerait plus haul 
qu'elle, car il ne saurait y en avoir de plus 
haut, et du moment ou on la trahit, fut-ee 
dans le secret de son cceur, on subit une 
diminution intime qui, si Ie"g6re qu'elle soit, 
se fait bient6t sentir dans toute Pactivite 
morale. II n'est donne qu'a un petit 
nombre d'hommes d'etendre son empire ; il 
est donne a tous de se soumettre a ses 

It is difficult to end even a brief and purely 
literary notice of M. Gaston Paris without 
speaking of the more personal characteristics 
which have won him the affection as well as 
the admiration of those who are privileged 
to know him ; the ready sympathy and help 
given to all labourers in the same fields as 
himself, the free and eager recognition of all 
honest work, the delight in praising what is 
to be praised, the kindliness in ignoring small 
blemishes, the lofty superiority to all pettiness 
or jealousy, the welcoming of the workers of 
every nationality, German and English no 
less than French. Such are, indeed, the 
" notes " of the greatest minds in all ages ; 
they are the influence which exalts learning 
and literature above the atmosphere of the 
class-room and the newspaper ; they act as a 
cosmic force which cuts across all seemingly 
opposed strata, and unifies, in re-arranging, 
the mental development of mankind accord- 
ing to some world-scheme grander than our 
ambitions, nobler than our patriotism. 



THE two poems, the titles of which appear at the head of this article, have long been re- 
cognised as standing to each other in the relation of translation and source ; but so far 
a detailed study of the two has not appeared in England. German scholars have here, as 
elsewhere, anticipated us; both Paul Steinbach (Leipzig, 1885 2 ), and Gustav Schleich 
(Berlin, 1887 3 and 1889 4 ), have discussed the question with comparative fulness, but 
not so exhaustively that other gleaners in the same field may find nothing to reward 
their labours. If there were nothing more to be said on the subject than what has already 
appeared, I should hesitate to discuss the question again, even though many interested 

1 The texts followed are those of Schleich and Foerster, but the forms th and y have been substituted for 
|i mid -> in order to facilitate reading. 

' Ueber den Einfluss des Crestien de Troies anf die alt-englisehe Literatur.' 
' Ywain and Gawain.' Oppeln nnd Leipzig, 1887. 

4 ' Ueber das Verhaltniss der mittelenglischen Eomanze Ywain and Gawain zu ihrer altfranzosischen 
cjuelle. ' Berlin, 1889 (a Programm). 



in old, English literature are not sufficiently good German scholars to be able to profit by 
the results of German criticism. But it is because I believe, on the contrary, that there 
is more to be said, and especially that one important means of accounting for, at least, 
some of the English writer's divergences from his ostensible source has been far too much 
overlooked, that I hold that a further comparison of the poems may not be without 
useful results for the student of mediaval literature. 

The English poem we are about to examine exists only in one MS., contained in the 
Cottonian collection in the British Museum (Galba, E. ix.). It was written (by whom 
we do not know) some time in the fourteenth century Ritson thought towards the end, 
during the reign of Richard II. ; Schleich inclines to an earlier date, suggesting the first 
half of the century. The poem of Chretien de Troies (written, Foerster thinks, between 
1104-1173), on the contrary, exists in eight or nine MSS., so that a critical comparison 
of the texts can hardly be carried out on equal grounds the poems may have corre- 
sponded >ven more closely than they appear to do. Schleich suspects considerable lacwnce 
in the English version, and if his supposition be correct, the difference in length between 
the two poems may be a matter of accident almost as much as of design. At the same 
time the correspondence with the French source is, as we shall see, so close, that we 
may legitimately conclude that, though, perhaps, we may not possess the entire poem, 
what we do possess represents very accurately the original text. 

The two poems open somewhat differently : Chretien plunges at once in medias res, where- 
as the English writer after a devout invocation, six lines in length (very usual in English 
mediaval poems, but as a rule lacking in French), devotes eight lines to the praise of 
Arthur (a legitimate indulgence on the part of an English poet), and takes up the story 
at the fifteenth line at the point reached by Chretien in the fifth. Arthur is holding a 
court at Pentecost in Kardyf (F., Kerduel in Wales). After the feast the courtiers, 
knights and ladies, talk together of gallant deeds and of love, tbe French poet taking 
advantage of the opportunity to compare the present with the past, to the disadvantage of 
the former. This passage, 18-46 E., 8-43 F., is with the exception of the opening line, 

And efter mete thare in the hales, Aprts mangier parmi cez sales, 

rather an imitation of the French than a direct translation. King Arthur, to the 
surprise of the assembled knights, leaves the hall and retires with the queen to his 
chamber, where he falls asleep (11. 47-52 E., 43-52 F.). This passage is fairly close to 
the original, though condensed. 

For thai saw tham never so, For ce que onques mes nel virent 

On high dayes to chamber go. A si grant feste an chanbre antrer. 

51-2. 46-7. 

Knights keep watch without the door, the same in each instance E., Dedine, Segramore, 
Gawain, Kay, Ywain, and Colgrevance ; P., Dodiniaus, Sagremors, Keus, Gauvains, Yvains, 
and Calogrenanz ; and the latter relates to his companions an adventure that had fallen out 
ill for him. As they talk together the queen overhears, opens the door and sits down 
among them, only noticed by Colgrevance. The passages may be compared : 

And al his tale herd the quene : 
The chamber-dore slio hes unshet, 
And down omang tliam scho hir set ; 
SodainH sho sat doionright, 
Or ani of tham of hir had sight. 
J'tot Colgrevance rase up in hy. 


Et la reine I'escoutoit, 
Si s'est de lez le roi levee 
Et vint sor aus si a anblee, 
Qu'einz que nus la pmst veoir 
Sefu leissiee antr'aus cheoir, 
Fors que Calogrenanz sanz 
Sailli an piez centre li sus. 


Kay takes offence at this and attacks -Colgrevance ; the two wrangle at some length, 
finally the queen interposes and bids Colgrevance continue his tale. 

Than mid the qiifiie : ' Sir Colgrevance, ' Calogrenanz,' fet la reine, 

I prai the, tak to no grevance ' Ne vos chaille de I'anhatine 

This kene kurpiny of syr Kay : Man seignor Keu, le senesc/uil ! 

Of weked -wordes has he bene ay, Costumiers est de dire mal 

So that none may him cJuistise.' Si qu'an ne Van puet chastiier.' 

125-9. 131-- 


- Colgrevance demurs at first, but finally accedes to the queen's request, bidding his 
hearers to lend both ears and heart to his words. Chretien takes advantage of the oppor- 
tunity to indulge in a characteristic dissertation on the right manner of hearing, which 
takes up thirty lines in the French poem, but is cut down to fourteen in the English. 
This, indeed, is the case throughout in all passages specially illustrative of Chretien's dis- 
tinctive style, his love of self-communing dialogue, and play upon words ; they are either 
missing altogether in the English poem, or cut down to the smallest proportion. It was 
Chretien's matter, not his manner, which the translator desired to reproduce. 

The knight's tale is as follows : Six years (F., seven) previously he was riding alone, fully 
armed, in search of adventures, and came to a road beset with thorns and briars. Through 
this path he rode all day, and towards evening issued (F., from the forest of Broceliande) 
forth on to a plain : 

Whure I gan se a bretise brade ; 


/ saw the walks and the dyke. 


Antrai et vi une bi-etesche 
Et vi le bailie et lefosst. 


The owner was standing on the drawbridge, and received him kindly. 

And on the draw-btig saw I stand 
A knight with fawkon on his liand. 
This ilk knight, tluit be ye balde, 
Was lord, and keper of that halde. 
I hailsed him kindly, als I kowth ; 
He answerd me mildeli with mowth. 
Mi sterap toke that hende knight 
And kindly cumanded me to lyght ; 
His cumandment I did onane, 
And into Juill sone war we tane. 
He thanked God, tliat crude man, 
Sevyn-sithes, or ever lie blan, 
And the way, that me tlieder broght, 
And als the aventurs that I soght. 


Et sor le pont an piez estoit 

Cil cui laforteresce estoit, 

Sor sonpoing un ostor mitt. 

Ne I'oi mie bien saliie 

Quant il me vint a I'estrie prandre, 

Si me comanda a des$andre. 

Je descandi ; il n'i ot el, 

Que mestier avoie d'ostel ; 

Et il me dist tot maintenant 

Plus de fantfoiz an un tenant, 

Que beneoile fust la voie 

Par ou leanz venuz estoie. 


The host led him into the castle, and summoned his servants by striking with a 
hammer on a table. Here the English poet scarcely seems to have understood has 

A burde hang us biforn, 
Was nowther of yren ne of tre, 
Ne I ne wist wJuireof it might be. 


Pandoit une table ; je cuit 
Qu'il ni avoit ne fer ne fust 
Ne rien qui de cuivre ne fust. 


It is worth noticing that Hartmann von Aue also does not say what the ' table ' is made 
of. Foerster considers that the translations of ' Le Chevalier au Lion ' were all made 
from MSS. belonging to the same group. Some of them may, perhaps, have been 
defective here. 

The host's fair daughter appeared and led Colgrevance to a 'chamber where she disarmed 
him, and brought him rich clothing. He sat beside her at supper, and the old knight con- 
gratulated himself on being again host to an adventurous knight. ' It was long since one 
had come his way.' He prayed Colgrevance to visit him again on his return journey. 

/ said : ' Sir, gladly, yf I may.' 

It luid bene shame have said him nay. 


Etje li dis ' Folontiers, Sire ! ' 
Que honte fust de I'escondire. 


The following morning Colgrevance left the castle, and came to a wild and desolate 
clearing, where he finds a hideous ' wild man of the woods ' in charge of a herd of beasts. 
E. says there were 

mani a wild lebard, 
Lions, beres, bath bul and bare. 



F. has only ' Tors sauvages.' This discrepancy is very interesting ; where did the 
variant come from 1 Hartmann specifies ' JVisent und iirrinder,' but says that the meadow 
contained 'aller' t der tiere hande die man mir ie genande.' Now we possess another version 
of the tale ; the Welsh Mabinogi of ' The Lady ' of the Fountain, and this version says 
there were all kinds of wild beasts, and specifies serpents, dragons, and stags. Did the 
English poet know the Mabinogi 1 As we shall see presently there is very little doubt 
that he did, and he may very well have got his idea of the savage and miscellaneous char- 
acter of the beasts herded from there. Hartmann's variant is, on the contrary, characteristic 
of that poet ; he is a writer of great individuality and independence, with a strong feeling for 
the ' probabilities ' of the story. Where we find Hartmann departing from Chretien's version 
of an incident, we also generally find that it is with a view to heighten the artistic effect 
thus, he gives here animals of the same family as those given by his source, but of wilder and 
fiercer species (the bison and the aurochs, both of which figure in early German tradition), 
thus bringing them more into keeping with the extraordinary being who herds them. It is, 
of course, quite possible that the MS. at the root of the English poem did not specify the 
animals, but, in either case, the selection seems to point rather to such a version as that 
of the Mabinogi than to the tradition followed by Hartmann. 

The description of the herdsman agrees closely. 

He was a lathly creature, Einsi (res leide creature. 

A wonder-mace in liand lie luule ; 
And sone mi way to him I made. 1 
HK Jievijd, me thoght, was uls grete 
Als of a rowncy or a nete ; 

He had eres als ane olyfant. 

On his mace lie gan him rest. 

Nowther of wol ne of line 
Was the wede that he went yn. 

Une grande imifue an sa main. 
Je m'aprochai vers le vilain 
Si vi qu'il of grosse la teste 
Plus que roncins ne autre beste. 

Oroilles mossms et gram 
Auteus com a uns olifanz, 

Apoiiezfu sor sa mafue, 
Vestuz de robe si estrange 
Qu'il ni avoit ne lin ne lanr/e. 



A nother noyse tJum herd I sone, 
Als it war of horsemen 
Mo than owther nyen or ten. 


The Knight was far taller than Colgrevance 

I wate, that he was largely 
By the shuldres mare than I. 


Bien cuidai que il fussent dis : 
Tel noise et tel fraint demenoit 
Uns seus chevaliers qui venoit. 


et fu sane dote 
Plus gram de moi la teste tote. 


This strange creature directed Colgrevance to a fountain near at hand. Beside the 
fountain stood a stone (perron), and when water from the well was cast upon the stone a 
violent tempest would arise, which would strip the trees of their foliage. When the storm 
had subsided, a knight would appear, and challenge the intruder to single combat. Col- 
grevance related how he had followed these instructions, found the fountain and perron, 
which is of great beauty. 

An amerawd was the stane Li perrons iert d'une esmeraude, 

(Richer saw I never nane), Perciez aussi com une boz, 

On fowre rubyes on licght standand ; Si ot quatre rubiz desoz 

Thaire light lasted over al Uie land. Plusflanboianz et plus vermauz 

361-4. Que n'est au matin li solaua 

Quant il apert an oriant. 


Both poets also describe in similar terms the noise made by the approach of the Knight 
of the Fountain : 

1 These two lines are transposed in Schleich's text ; I have followed the order given by Ritson, as it 
agrees with the French, and there is no variation in the words. 


and the latter was overthrown, his steed seized by the victor, and himself compelled to 
return on foot to the castle. 

Ywain at once announces his intention of avenging his kinsman : 

' Now sekerly,' said Sir Ywayne, ' Par mm chief,' dist mes sire Yvains, 

' Thou ert my cosyn jermame.' ' Vos estes mes cosins germains.' 

457-8. 581-2. 

Kay mocks at him, and is reproved by the queen ; if his tongue were hers she would 
attaint it of treason. 

Syr, and thi long war myne, 
I sold bical it tyte of treson. 

Bien sachiez : je I'apeleroie 
De trdison s'ele estoit moie. 



The King comes forth from his chamber, and the Queen relates to him the whole story. 
He will go with all his knights to brave the adventure of the spring, and will start on the 
eve of St John the Baptist, a fortnight hence. This does not please Ywain at all ; if all go 
together, Sir Kay or Sir Gawain are sure to demand the first battle. We may note here 
that though in all the three poems the suggestion that Gawain will demand the battle is 
put forward (Hartmann does not mention Kay, evidently considering that Ywain need 
have had no fear of the seneschal, who is invariably worsted. Gawain was a different 
matter; if he anticipated Ywain the glory would undoubtedly be his), in the version of 
the Mabinogi alone does such a combat take place. There, Ywain overthrows all the 
knights, beginning with Kay, till only Arthur and Gawain remain unconquered ; then he 
fights with the latter the undecided combat placed in other versions at the end of the poem. 
. In all probability this is the original form ; the fight with Gawain ivas at tlie Faunhtin. 

Ywain, therefore, sets forth secretly, bidding his squire meet him with horse and armour 
outside the city gates. 

Forth tha.n went Sir Ywayne . 
He thinkes, or lie cum ogayne, 
To wreke his Icosyn at his myght. 


Mes sire Yvains maintenant monte, 
Qui vangera, s'il puet, la honte 
Son cosin einz que il retort. 


The two poems agree on the whole closely, but one passage in the English should be 

Than tvas he seker forto se 
The wel and the fayre tre ; 
The chapel saw he at the last : 
And theder hyed hefulfast. 
More curtaysi and more honowre 
Fand he with tham in that toure. 


There is something wrong here : is chipel a misreading for castle ? Or did the poet 
intend to omit the castle adventure and bring his hero to the fountain without delaying, 
and then changed his mind ; or has a copyist misplaced the lines, and 605 ought to have 
followed straight on 600, so that the passage should read : 

Til lie come to tliat tethir sty 
That him byhoved pass by. 
More curtaysi and more honome 
Fand he with tham in that toure ? 

The lines 601-4 would come in a little lower down, after his meeting with the wild 
herdsman ; something seems to be lacking between lines 618-19, and they would fill 
the gap. 

Everything falls out as Colgrevauce has related; the battle with the Knight of the 
Fountain is long and fierce. 

Thaifaght on hors stifty always, 
The batel teas wele more to prays. 

Mes toz jorz a cheval se tindrent, 
Que mile foiz a pie ne vindrent, 
S'an fu la bataille plus bele. 




Finally the Knight of the Fountain flies, and Ywain after him. He is close behind as 
they cross the bridge to the castle, and the pursuer's horse treads on the spring which 
releases the portcullis ; it descends, cutting the steed in two : 

Byttoyx him and his hinder-arsown 
Tliorgh sadel and stede if mate al down, 
ffi* spores of his heles it schare : 


S'ataint la sele et le cheml 
Deriere et tranclie tot par mi ; 

Si qu'an-bedeus les esperons 
Li trancJm au res des talons. 



The castle gate has closed upon the Knight of the Fountain, and Ywain is caught in a 
trap. But a maiden appears to his rescue. She is the 'confidante' of the lady of the 
castle, and has on one occasion been sent on an errand to Arthur's court ; she was young 
and inexperienced, and none of the Knights save Ywain had shown her courtesy (this seems 
to hint at a rougher and more primitive stage of society than the poems represent ; Arthur's 
knights would hardly have treated a maiden rudely). She will now requite him, by lending 
him a ring which shall make him invisible to the eyes of his enemies. This property of the 
ring is similarly described in both poems : 

Als ihe baric hilles the ire, 
Eight so sal my ring do the ; 


Si li dist qu'il avoit feljorce 
Com a desor lefust I'escorce 
Qui le cuevre, qu'an n'an voit point ; 

At this point there occurs a discrepancy between the two poems which Schleich com- 
ments upon as being surprising : in the English poem the maiden ^conceals Ywain in her 
own chamber, she 'did him sit upon hir bed,' whereas in Chretien it is simply 'un lit,' and 
the maiden goes to her chamber to fetch food for him. On this point Hartmaiin agrees 
with Chretien, and I am inclined to think that the version of the English poet is due to the 
influence of the Mabinogi. There it is undoubtedly Lunet's own chamber in which the 
Knight is concealed, for they pass the night there together, as is clear from the following ^ 
passage: "In the middle of the night they heard a woful outcry. 'What outcry again is 
this ? ' said Owain. ' The Nobleman 'who owned the castle is now dead,' said the maiden. 
And a little after daybreak they heard an exceeding loud clamour and wailing. And 
Owain asked the maiden what was the cause of it. ' They are bearing to the church the 
body of the Nobleman who owned the castle.' " 

However, whether in the maiden's chamber or elsewhere, Ywain is effectually concealed, 
though his foemen, finding his steed half within, half without the portcullis, search high 
and low for him. In all this part of the poem there is a considerable divergence from the 
French source a divergence not to be accounted for entirely by the English poet's love of 
condensation. Thvis, the incident of the dead man's wounds bleeding as the corpse is borne 
past the slayer is entirely absent ; indeed, it is not quite clear whether the bier is borne 
through the hull, or whether Ywain merely sees the procession pass from the window, as in 
the Mabinogi. Again, the grief of the widowed lady of the castle is described in much 
less exaggerated terms by the English poet, a difference which both Steinbach and Schleichj 
agree in ascribing to national reticence ! But may not the influence of the Mabinogi come 
in here 1 The account given there is much more concise, and the English poet knew and 
remembered it. Of this there is a distinct proof in his description of the lady's grief. He 
says : ' Slio wrang hir fingers, otitbrast the blode ' ; a detail of which Chretien makes no mention, ^ 
but the Mabinogi says : ' And it was a marvel Ilml the ends of herjingers were not bruised, from 
the violence with which she smote lier luinds together? Both the Mabinogi and the English poet 
know the colour of the lady's hair ' yellow,' 'fayre ' whereas neither Chretien nor Hartmann 
mention it. 

But whatever may be the reason for the condensation, all this part of the story g> 
Ywain's first sight of the lady, his falling in love with her, Lunet's efforts to persuade her 
mistress to many the knight takes up much less space in E. than in F., the entire 
adventure in the castle occupying 569 lines against 1200 of the source. A part of this 
difference is, of course, due to the omission of the distinctively Chrdtienesque passages, the self- 
communings of the knight and the lady, so characteristic of the French poet. At the same 


time, the translator can hardly be said to depart from his source, though he treats it sum- 
marily ; no new idea is introduced, the arguments used by Lunet to induce her mistress to 
wed Ywain are the same in each case the coming of Arthur, the necessity of finding a 
champion : 

Ye sold think over alkyn thyng 
Of the Kinges Arthurgh cumijng, 
Menes yow noght of the message 
Of the damyscl savage, 
That in hir lettre to yow send ? 
Alias, wlw sal yow now defend 
Yowre land and al that es tluirrtjn. 

Vostre terre qui defandra 
Quant li rois Artus i vandra, 
Qtii doit venir I'autre semainne 
Au perron et a lafontainne? 
Ja an avez eii message 
De la Dameisele Sauvage 
Qtii letres vos an anvea. 
Ahi ! con bien les anplea. 


Who is this ' damysel savage ' 1 Is she the same as the Grail Messenger ? Hartmann's 
variant is worth noting. He says nothing of the damsel or the letter ; in his version a' 
messenger had arrived with the tidings, and finding the knight dead, and the lady over- 
whelmed with grief, had committed the message to Lunet, to be delivered at her discretion. 
Now this is exactly what would, as a matter of fact, have occurred. Ywain left the court 
secretly, immediately on the announcement of the King's intention; a messenger could 
hardly have preceded him, and any following would have found the knight slain ; while the 
lady's excessive grief, described at length by Chretien, would certainly have rendered her 
incapable of attending to business of state. The incident, trifling in itself, is an admirable 
instance of Hartmann's method. He was no mere translator, but a writer of individual 
genius. His 'Sto/' may be borrowed, but he handles it with independence and intelligence. 
The lady finally resolves to wed Ywain, with the consent of her council. She presents him 
to her knights, who are greatly struck by his beauty, they have never seen so goodly a man 
before : 

Him semes to be an emparowre. 


Certes, I'anpereiriz de Home 
Seroit an lui bien inariee. 

The people of the land are more than content with the change of master : 

And al forgetyn es now t)ie ded 
Of him, that was thaire lord fre ; 
Thai say, that this es worth swilk thre, 
And tluit thai lufed him mekil more 
Than him, that lord loas tliare byfore. 


Et li morz est toz ottiez. 



Et les jans aimment plus etprisent 
Le vif qu' onques le mart ne firent. 



The name of the lady varies, evidently due to a misreading of the source ; ' Alundijne ' 

a Laudine.' 

The next adventure occupies under 300 lines in E., against more than 400 in F. 
Arthur and his knights arrive at the Fountain. Kay asks, mockingly, where is Ywain, who 
made boast of the vengeance he would take for his cousin's overthrow 1 Gawain defends his 
absent friend. Arthur throws water on the stone, and Ywain, warned by the tempest, 
arms and rides to the Fountain. Kay demands the first joust (as Ywain had foreseen), and 
is overthrown ; the victor takes his steed and offers it to the King ; he will not keep what 
is, in truth, Arthur's. 

' And to me war it grete trispas, 
Forto withald, that yowres was.' 
' What man ertow,' quod the Kyng ; 
' Of the have I na knawyng, 
Bot if thou unarmed were 
Al els thi name that I might here.' 
Lord, he sayd, ' I am Ywayne.' 


' Sire,' fet il, ' or feites prandre 
Cest cheval, que je mesferoie 
Se rien del vostre retenoie.' 
' Et qui estes vos ? ' fet li rois. 
' Ne vos conoistroie des mois, 
Se je nomer ne vos ooie 
On desarme ne vos veoie.' 
LOTS s'est mes sire Yvains nomez. 




E. omits a thoroughly characteristic passage, following on their arrival at the castle, 7 
and relating an interview between Lunet and Gawain, ' la lune et le soloil,' as Chretien calls 
them, explaining Gawain's claim to the latter title as the ' Sun of chivalry ' ; la lune, he says, 
is but a play upon the maiden's name. 

In both poems Gawain uses all his influence to induce his friend to ride forth with him 
in quest of adventures; but E. has distinctly less point and spirit than F., and is, as usual, 
much compressed. Ywain finally consents to accompany him, and wins permission from 
his wife, who, at parting, gives him her ring. 

And I sal lent to ijow my ring, 

I sal tel to you: onane 
The vertu, that es in tJie stune : 
It es IM preson, yow sal Juilde, 
Al if yowre fase le many f aide ; 
With sekenes sal ye noght be tune, 
Ne of yoiare Mode ye sal lese nane ; 
In batel fane sal ye noght be 
Whils ye it have and thinkes on me. 1 

Ccst mien and que je vos prest. 
Et de hi pierre, queus ele est, 
Vos diraije lot an apert : 
Prison ne tient ne sane ne pert 
Nils amanz verais et leans, 
Ne avenir ne li puet maus, 
Mes qu'il le port et chier le taingnc, 
Et de s'amie li sovaingne. 


A year's leave of absence is granted to him, but, absorbed in knightly adventures (in 
which he and Gawain do not fail to cover themselves with honour, being everywhere victors), 
he lets the appointed time slip by him unperceived. E. only says St John's day (his leave 
was until the octave of the feast) was past. F. is more explicit, it is ' initiost ' before he re- 
members. The King is holding his court at Chester, when a lady messenger arrives, accuses 
Ywain of treachery, and snatches the ring from his finger. 

Sho stirt to him with stern lake, 
The ring fro his finger sho take. 


Et la dameisele avant saut, 
Si li oste Panel del doi. 


Ywain goes mad for grief, and runs into the woods, as ' a wilde beste.' He meets a man 
carrying a bow and arrows, which he takes from him, and slays the beasts, living on their 
raw flesh and drinking the blood. 

Als he went in that boskage. (Et tant conversa, al boschage.) 

He finds a hermitage. The hermit, moved with pity, puts out bread and water for the 
' wode man ' ; Ywain, out of gratitude, supplies him daily with venison, which the hermit 
cooks for him. 

For, if a man be never so wode, 
He wil kum, ichare man dose him gode. 


Mes n'esl riens, tant po de son et, 
Que an leu ou I' an bien li fet 
Ne revaingne maul wlantiers. 


It is not clear how long he leads this life. E. says 'ful fele yere,' F. 'dura longuemanl' 
(the Mabinogi says, ' Till all his apparel was worn out, and his body wasted away, and his 

1 Since writing the above study I have met with an interesting parallel to the ' ring ' episode. In the old 
metrical Romance of Kyny Hum, Rimenild gives her lover a ring, saying, 

' For mi love thou, hit were 

Ami on thyfynger tlwu hit bcre ; 

The ston haveth suclie grace 

Ne shall thou in none place 

Deth underfonge, 

Ne buen yslaye with wronye, 

Yef thou latest theran, 

And thencliest o thi lemman.' 


Whence did this incident originally come ? It will be noted that the passage is much simpler and rougher in 
character than in either of the ' Ywain ' poems. The story of ' Kyny Horn ' is certainly a very old one, and 
the poem anterior to the English ' Ywain.' Is it older than Chretien ? So far as the subject matter is con- 
cerned it may very well be so, and there is no other trace of the French poet's influence discernible in the 
story. If we may judge from the ' Mabinogi ' version, the primitive tale did not know this ring, only Lunet's. 
Did Chretien introduce the incident, and if so where did he find it? There is a French 'Horn,' but it differs 
much from the extant English, is not improbably itself based on an English tradition, and gives th? ring 
episode quite differently. 


hair grew long '), but at length a lady and her two maidens riding by find him sleeping in 
the wood. One maiden recognises him by a wound on his face. 

Sho was aslonyd in that stownde, Tant qu'an la fin lifu avis 

Fw in hys face sho saw a wonde ; Dune plaie qu'il ot el vis, 

. ' . . . . . Qu'iine tel plaie el vis avoit 

Sho sayd : ' By God tliat me has made, Mes sire Yvains; Men le savoti, 

Swilk a wound sir Ywain hade : Qu'ele I' avoit sovant veiie. 

Sertaynly, this ilk es he.' Par la plaie s'est parceue 

1719-25. Que ce est il, de rien n'an dote : 


The lady possesses a precious ointment, given to her by 'Morgan the Wise' (F., Morgue 
la sage). The English poet makes Morgan a man, which has led Ritson to the truly wonder- 
ful conclusion that the heretic Pelagius (whose name = Morgan) is meant ! Hartmann has 
, ' Fei-Mm-gan.' There can be no doubt that it is Arthur's sister, Morgan le Fay, the famous 
enchantress and worker of spells, who is here alluded to. This ointment she intrusts to 
her maid, bidding her anoint the knight, but to make sparing use of the precious unguent. 
The maid expends it all upon Ywain, who recovers his senses, clothes himself in garments 
provided by the lady, and accompanies the maiden to her castle. (The entire episode of 
Ywain's madness occupies 308 11. E., 491 F.) Ywain remains for some days at the castle 
(three months in the Mabinogi), and finally attacks, and vanquishes in single combat, the 
enemy of his hostess, Count Aliers. Here we have a -clear proof -of the English poet's 
knowledge of the Mabinogi version. The lady and her maidens are watching the fight, and 
praising the valour of their champion ; the maiden who has been blamed for the loss of the 
ointment remarks : ' WUhowten let, yowre oynement mai ye think wele set.' Now neither Chretien 
nor Hartmann have the smallest trace of such a remark, but in the Mabinogi, when Owain 
presents the captive Count to the lady, he says, ' Behold a requital to theefor thy blessed balsam.' 
There can be little doubt as to the source of this variant : 

Delighted at the victory, the lady offers herself and her lands to the hero, but Yw:iin 
refuses, and leaves her ' weping sare,' E. ; moid iriee, F. (E. 105 11., F. 209). 

The next adventure explains how Ywain came to be called ' The Knight of the Lion ' 
He rescues a lion which had been attacked by a fierce serpent or ' dragon.' Here the 
translator seems to have slightly misunderstood his source. Chretien says that the dragon 
had made fast his hold on the lion's tail, 'le tenoit par la coe ft si li ardoit t/rstoz ks rains.' 
E. represents the dragon as having cast his tail round the lion, ' With his tayl he drogh him 
fast, and fire ever on him he cast.' At the same time the two agree in saying that Ywain, 
having slain the dragon, is forced to cut off part of the lion's tail, as he cannot otherwise 
release it from the dragon's jaws. 

E. a good deal modifies Chretien's very quaint description of the lion's gratitude. 

Grele fawnyng made lie to the Jcnyght : comanfa a feire 

Down on tlie ground he set him oft, Sanblant que a lui se randoit, 

His fortherfete he held oloft Et ses piezjoinz li estandoit 

And thanked the knyght, ah he kowth, Et vers terre andine sa chiere, 

Al if he myght noght speke with mmvth ; S'estut sor les deus piez derierc 

So wele the lyon of him lete, Et puis si se ragenoilloit 

Ful law he lay and likked his fete. Et tote sa face moilloit 

2002-8. De lermes par humilite. 


The grateful beast follows the knight, and getting scent of venison, leaves his master, 
The mountance of an arow draght Qu'il n'ot pas une archiee alee 

and finds a doe which he slays : 

And drank the blade, whils it was hate. Puis si an but le sane tot chaut. 

2030. 3448. 

The carcase he brings to Ywain, and knight and lion sup off the venison. 

The lyon hungerd for the nanes, Del chevruel tot le soreplus 

Ful fast he ete raw fless and lanes. Manja li lions jusqu'as os. 

Sir Ywain in that ilk telde Et til tint son chief a repos 

Laid his hevid opon his shelde. Tote la nuit sor son escu. 

2051-4. 3476-9. 



The next morning the two companions resume their journey and travel, E. a fowrete- 
nyght (F. une semainne), till they come one day to the Fountain and 'perron.' Ywain, overcome 
with grief, attempts to commit suicide, the faithful lion does the same ! The whole passage 
is most quaint, but too long for quotation (E. 43 11., F. 77). Ywain's lamentations are 

A Is Sir Ywayne made his mane, 
In the cJutpel ay was ane, 
Awl herd his murnyng haly all 
Thorgh a crevice of the wall. 


Que que il einsi se demante, 
Une cheitive, line dolante 
Estoit an la chapele anclose, 
Qui vit et o'i ceste cJiose 
Par k mur qvi estoit crevez. 


It is Lunet, who as a result of the quarrel between her lady and Ywain, has been 
accused of treason against the former ; and is sentenced to be burnt to death the next day 
at noon, unless a champion appears to defend her. There are two knights who might have 
helped her. 

' The tane of t/iam hat syr Gaicayii 
Ami tlie tother lull syr Ywayn. 
For hym sal I be done to dede 
To-moni right in this same stede.' 


' Li un est mes sire Gfauvains, 
Et li autre mes sire Yvains, 
Par cui demain serai a tort 
Livree a marlire de mart.' 


Ywain is, she knows not where ; Gawain she sought at the court of King Arthur, but 
he was absent, in pursuit of the queen. 

' In court he teas noght sene ; Mes la reine an a menee 

For a kni/ght led oway the quene, Uns clievaliers, ce me dist I'an, 

The king tharfore es sicith ffrym ; Don li rois fist que fors del san 

Syr Gawayn foloted efter him, Quant aprts lui Fan anvoia. 

He comes noght hame, for sertayne, Je cuit que Keus la convoia 

Until he bryng the queue ogayne.' Jusqu'au chevalier qui I'an mainnf, 

2181-6. S'an est antrez an moid grant painne 

Mes sire Gauvains qui la quiert. 
Ja mes nul jor a sejor n'iert 
Jusqu'a tant qu'il Varna, trovee. 


This allusion to the ' Charrette ' adventure is interesting. There were, as we know, 
several versions of the story. Chretien is, of course, alluding to that followed in his 
own poem, 'Le Chevalier de la charrette,' with which the above quotation agrees per- 
fectly. Hartmann again has another version which he relates at great length (200 11.), and 
Malory knew a third, derived apparently from a Welsh tradition, which we only know im- 
perfectly. The brevity of the version given in our poem may be due to the translator's love 
for compression, or it may be that the account in his source differed from the story as he 
knew it. The lines as they stand fit in with all the accounts, as Gawain always goes to 
rescue the queen. 1 

Ywain reveals himself to Lunet, and promises to defend her, but he must find a lodging 
for the night. She directs him to a castle near at hand ; thither he and the lion betake 
themselves, and after some demur are admitted. The folk in the castle alternate between 
joy and grief they rejoice at the presence of a valiant guest, but are apparently oppressed 
by some heavy sorrow. Ywain enquires the cause. It is because of a giant named Harpyns 
of Mowntain (Harpins de la Montaingne), who has taken the old knight's lands, slain two 
of his six sons, and will slay the other four on the morrow if the daughter be not delivered 
to his will. The knight has refused to give her to him as his wife ; if he can win her by 
force he will take a terrible revenge. 

the laddes of his kychyn, 

And also that his werst fote-Tcnave, 
His wil of that woman sal have. 


As plus vius garcons qu'il savra 
An sa meison et as phis orz 
La liverra por lor deporz. 


1 I have discussed the story at length in ' The Legend of Sir Gawain,' chap. viii. , with a view to proving 
that Gawain was, in fact, the original rescuer. 

(To be continued.) 



A DESCRIPTION of the manuscript glossary, now, we believe, printed in its entirety for the 
first time, may be found in M. Paul Meyer's Report on the early French manuscripts pre- 
served in the libraries of Great Britain.* About one-fourth of the whole glossary was 
printed as an appendix to this report, and the section de vestilias mulierum appeared in the 
seventh volume of the Jahrbuch fur romanische und englischc Littcmtur. If the veteran 
Romance scholar who first called attention to the importance of the manuscript should find 
leisure to return to it after more than a quarter of a century of indefatigable research, he 
would doubtless be in a position to solve the difficulties whose existence he formerly recog- 
nised. Many of these we must needs be content to indicate, in the hope that the transcript 
here supplied is sufficiently accurate to place more experienced scholars in possession of the 
necessary material for their elucidation. 

It has not seemed necessary to print the demonstrative adjective by which, in nearly 
every case, the manuscript marks the gender of Latin substantives. Latin forms whose 
occurrence we have not noted in the lexica and glossaries at our disposal are denoted by an 
asterisk in cases where they are not made the subject of a special note. 



Inorepari (sic) 




Lupanari ' 









> porparler 



Comentari - 




Crumare 3 




Scalpere, ml 





Obtruere 4 








pastinata 6 







sateie 6 



paguage 7 



erut 8 



narstutium 10 





cepe in singular! 

et plr. cepe. 

nita " 
centanea 18 



mererbur 9 


mariul n 




oinun 18 


puliol " 
cerfoil 15 
aneie 16 
luvesche 17 
sephoine 19 

1 Ducangc has lupauaiis, litpanaribus 

- read cemcntari (suggestion of P. M.). 
3 read tricinare. 

* for obtrudere (cf. Tobler on the Paris 
Gloss. 7692, in Jahrbuch xii., 205). The 
French gloss should be corrected to 

5 probably for satreie. Cf. Wright, A 
volume of vocabularies (1857), p. 140, 
where satureia is glossed satureie. P. M. 
reads safeie, and the error Is reproduced 
in Godefroy. 

6 read pastinaca. 

7 P. M. pagntge (so Godefroy). 

8 probably for true. In any case Gode- 
froy's explanation of erut {chenille) must 
be corrected to roquette. 

a or possibly mereebur (as P. M. reads). 
For mater herlmrum (motherwort) matrum 
herba Is also found (W. p. 30). 

10 read nasturtium. Cf., however, the 
form nastudmn in Scheler's Olla Patella 
(Gand, 1879 and 1884). Cotgrave has 
NA8ITOET, nose-smart, town tars, town 

n Neither here nor in the Harleian MS. 
978 (W. 139) is there any justification for 
the reading (manye) adopted by Godefroy. 
We have apparently to do with a form 
marjol, marjul (marrubiolum). Compare 
the German Afarobel. 

1- P. M. oinum. 

13 so the MS. But read ruta, rue, and 
delete nie in Godefroy. 

" The pylyol mounteyne of the Promp- 
torium Parvulorum (ed. Way, In the publi- 
cations of the Camden Society). 

15 A not unnatural confusion between 
the French types respectively correspond- 
ing to caerefolium and serpyllum. 

16 Wrongly interpreted by Godefroy. 
Anetum is dill (</. W. 140). 

17 p. M. limestica, Kmesche. 

18 read centaurea. For the form centoire 
cf. W. 139. 

19 Oodefroy has overlooked the Identity 
of this form with cifoine. 



cinnamomum - 



gingenbir 5I 














arace '& 











salatrum 25 

popeluro 24 


heifbel beneoite 26 






cheinlee ** 







20 p. M. dnnamonium. 

21 P. M. gingenbre. 

'2-2 We have not been able to discover this 
Latin form, which may possibly have been 
evolved from the French word. This latter 
is found as a gloss to serpillum ( r/.Gode- 
froy under pelestre), and serpillum is made 
synonymous with pirelrum In the Prompt. 
Parv. (under pelelyr). In view of the 
existing Romance developments of pyreth- 
rum (Bartram), it does not seem impos- 
sible that this word (which see in Kortin^, 
Lateinisch-romanisches Worterbuch) may 
also prove to be the origin of pelestre. 

s Cf. atriplex, araxche* (W. 141, quoted 
by P. M.). 

24 Cf. Port, papoula, and see Skeat's 
remarks under poppy. 

25 This spelling (for nolatrum) is also 
found in the Latin and Kngllsh vocabulary 
printed by Wiilcker In his new edition of 
Wright (Vol. I., column 608). 

36 Cf. herbe 6eneiV, hemeluc (W. 140), and 
see Cotgrave under cigtie. 

'-" read chenilee (cf. Tobler in Jahrbuch 
xil. 215). Jiisquiamux it glossed chenille 
in W. 141. 

* Rapports d M. fa Ministre de I* Instruction publiqiw (Premiire partie* Paris, 1871). 



nigella * 







28 P. yL.jugella, an error reproduced in Godefroy. 

At this point in the list of plants, the writer has inserted a series of groups of Latin 
synonyms, each group being accompanied by a single French equivalent. This table of 
synonyms presents no features of special interest, and is therefore omitted here. The 
French words are printed in Meyer's Ripport* 


naris narine 

femur ) . 

polipus *> > 

coxa-crus ;l ulsse 

gariofiluTO girofre 

pupilla | P n 

lumbus reinojt 

gaianga ^ garnigal 
hinnula escaloine 

cilium oil 
supej'cilium surcil 

poplex garet 
tibia gambe 

sandix waranche 30 

albicies blanc del oil 

calcaneus ) t5ii,, 

philix feuehiere 

nasus nes 

cavilla Jkeville 

rapa rabe 

intercilium enti'e les si'cils 

alox grant-orteil 

rapharium o raiz 

pirula bee del nes 

calox " ) . 

affoldium musche 32 

interfinium entj'e les narines 


astula regia wederove * 

voltowts'tui vut 

pellis pel 

banicialis ^ (?) sinerewer (?) 

facies face 

cutis quir 

arundo ) , 
canna } rosel 

gena ml maxilla gonhe 41 
dens dent 

caries'ei poreture de char 
cadaver caroine 

vinum vinum (sic) 

osTs(s;)tWbucea bouche 

sanguis ) 

sicera & scicere 

labrttm' el labium levre 


nectar pieument 

lingua langue 

spina ) , 

ydromellum mede 

lingula langete 

spondile ) escnine 

mustujK must 

palatum palat de le (iic) 

medulla meulle 

acetum eisil 


irque 4 s indecl. angle del oil 

fex'fecis Lie 

barba barbo 

pulmo pulmon 

oriraracha M orasche *> 

gernobodum gerno?i 

epar'patis foie 

auris orcaile (sic) 

jecur giser 

auricula orailete 

intestinum boiel 


temptw poris temple 

genu ) 

mentum menton 

e^pl. genua [ geni 

caput chief 

collum col 

pubes penil 

cor quer 

cervix hatere! 

testiculus ) ., 

vertex vetiz s* 

guttur gorge 

mentula f 

pilus poil 
glabella greve 

lacertus ) , 
brachium J 

cullus > , 
anus J 

glabria teine 

manus mein 

pi-iapus ) .. 

glabro teinus 

digitits dei 

veretrum J 

caries } "ure 

palma paumje] 
vola rel ir in- le plem de la 

inguen'nis os ma^ricis Don 

crinis crine 

declinabile main 

podex poistrun 

frons front 

pngnus poin (sic) 

pollex pucer 

oculus oil 

pugillus petit poing 

index lautre dei 

palpebra paupiere 

artus 't)-tui menbre 

medius Ii nioien 

volvus poil del oil 

articulus orteil 

medicus Ii qwart dei 

scapula ) , 

auricularis le petit dei 

29 read gaianga. 

humenw f 

vulva cun 

30 It may here be pointed out once for 
all that this manuscript contains several 
Picard forms, as also a small number of 
English glosses. 
31 This is certainly the reading of the 

terguwt ve I dorsum dos 
tergMs quir de dos 
corvum 42 q u ; r 
pectMs piz 

tentigo landie 
lanigo prime barbe 
asscella eissele 
cubitus cute 

MS. (P. M. mphanum). Cf. raffarium. 

mamma ) mamelo 

raiz, redich (W. 140). 

mamilla ) 

32 cf. Korting under miucut. 
33 cf. Skeat under woodruff. Godefroy 
(wederove) quite mistakes the signification 
of the word. 

papilla le teteron 
latus ) 
costa ) coste 


w Of these words we have no satisfactory 
explanation to offer. The preceding Eng- 

uteras } ventro 

testum M feste 
paries paroit 

lish gloss makes tmereicort seem not an 

stomachic estomac 

fundamentuw fundeniemt 

impossible explanation of the second word. 
It occurs as the English equivalent of many 
plant-names, including vauria (Wtilcker 
1. 63). 

umbilicus umblcl 
scia honke 
nates nage 

44 read calx. 
45 "hircuus, sive potius hirquuf scrlbl- 
tur, praesertim cum de alarum faetore 

35 Cf. tcicera, tcisere (W. 98). It is the 

piga poil de la nage 

usui*patur, aut de anyulo oculi, ut mox 
dicetur . . ." (Forcellini). The reading 

Greek ffliccpa, and should not appear in 
Godefroy under ceire. 
36 The orache or orage was chryso/ach- 
anum (cf. FT. chryiolaine). Can orirar- 
acha be a corruption of some such form as 

e/plr. dunes ) . 
plr. renes f relns 

here Is not quite clear as between irque 
and irijui, but the gender Is marked as 
neuter. Yrqui (W. 43) is glossed agnerai 
and beah-hyne. Cf. the Lille Catholicon 
under hirquus (ed. Scheler, Brussels, 1885) 

aurilachana ' 

40 for pupitlut or pvpillus. 

*> read tectum or festum. P. M. reads 

"1 P. M. oralcht. 

" Cf. Prov. yena, and perhaps Fr. 

fettum, but the Mrs! letter In the manu- 

'*> read tar lit. 
3> " rotvot dlcimus angulos oculorum " 

42 read coriwn. 

script Is certainly (. The upper portion of 
the s is very faint, and may have been 

(W. 43). 

& read clunei. 

purposely erased. 

43 read dunes, purposely erased. 

In the Latin synonyms for corul (? read courl) the manuscript lias curvus (not circuits). 



cornu corne 

mcnsale \ nano 

ocrea cauche de fer 

inappa f 

postis post 

cestus-tus'tui talevaz 

ina[nt]ilo ) tua , 

panna panne 47 

trabs tref 

salibum *' salere 

l:j "<ar lac 


spatula esclice 

tignuni ** cheveron 

craticula groil 

tegula tieule 

trocus topet 

tidelia pot de tere 

forame pertus 

scutica escurge 51) 

urna ) * 

cuneus coin 

pila pelote 

olla ) P^ 

asser bor 49 

pedum croche a pastr 

cacabwjf ( i 

tholus pumel 

alea tables 

lebes'tis j C1 

caminus aistre 

pirgus vel talus ~j 

tripes trestre et tripe 

epicautorium *> cheimenee 

tessara vel talix- Welz 

strigilis estrille 

fumarium fumere 

us 60 j 

cenovectoriujw chivere 

fenestra fenestre 

scaccarium escheker 

lucibriunculum lihe * 

stillicidium gutere 

*camtorapta croce 

frizoriui/i paele a frire 

imbrex ) , 51 

scaccus esches 

ligo picois 

i i- r lover 
lodium j 

qalus paner 

aq?<agium conduit 

canistrus canestel 

hostium huis 


sporta ) teil 

girufris (?) 52 gon (?) 

cophinus J co 

vertigo v<rvele 

thalamus ) 

sportula corbilon 

lima lime ^ 


taratantari tanus 64 

sera TO Loc 

cenaculum u lea manjue 

cribr)M crible 

clavis clef 

vestibuluw porche 

colum sac a leit 

pessulum pedle 

stabulum estable 

fiscina feissel 

vectis barre 

bostar boverie 

pcomptuarium celer 

repagulum barre 

ovile faude 

doleum tonel 

coluiwpna piler 

plr. caule faudes 

cupa cuve 

tegula sengle 64 

ara poreherie 

cadus baril 

basis fudameretu 
epistislium 65 sumet 
cavilla kerille 

furica ) 
cloaca Jlongame 

muta muhe 

clepsedra dosil a tonel 
forceps- pis tanaile 
forfex "cis forces de caiulur 

torris D6 tysun 

propugnacl?mi bretaske 

coins conoile 

ianua ) 

fusum fusel 


posticus postej'ne 

alabrum ) . 65 
devolutariuw ) 


penum celer 

pan?w aguille a tailer 

scamnum bane 

subula aleiwne 

Plr. arma armes 

scabellum escamel 

aciwc'cui aguille 

clava massue 

sedile seege 

pecten peigne 

gesa gisarme 6 " 

cathedra caaere 

cos keuz 

arcus arc 

sagitta seete 

pertica perche 
hordeum 61 grange 

coclear coiller 

llagelluui Hael 

catapulta seete barbelee 

cumera ) erner 

rlabrum ventiur 

balista arbaleste 

granarium j 

aratrum carue 

trilobus M bozun 
iacwlum dart 
venabulum espee 

apotheca larder 
pistrinum pestrin 
coquina ) . 

cratula herce 
rastrum rastel 
plaustruw* car 

bipennis hache 

biga carete a ii rohes 

sica misericorde 

qwadriga carete a iiii rohes 

clipeus escu 

axis essel 

lorica hauberc 


timo temon 

torax pix a aubecc 

rota roe 

galea Heaume 
gladius nl ensis 1 
mucro el framea J 

supellex et pi. su- hustilement 
securis coignie 

falx facile (sic) 
falcastrum faus 
malleus mail 

tuba I busine 

ascia tildle 

incus'dis englume 

buceina j Dl 

bisacuta besague 

folli* fou de forge 

lituus gredle 

vanga besche 

imilu mele (air) 

4 " See the Interesting note in Prompt. 
Parv. (under pane). 

tribula pele 
terebrum tarere 

mortarium mortier 
ve[ru] indeclinabile in singular! 

P. M. lignum. 

cutellus cutel 

veruo e(plr- verua- espoi en q'tsine 

4ft boorde Is glossed asser in P. P. 
M P. M. epicantorium. 
51 See the note on this word In P. P., and 

eutellus preacu- cutel a poidte 

ansardus Hansard 

verutum haste 
pilus vel pistillus pestel 
olla juste 

cf. W. 203. 
' - the manuscript is very indistinct here, 
but there can be no doubt that the correct 

cutellus bicorna- cutel de deus cor- 
tits nes 

amphora cane 
lagena galun 

reading is gum/us, gon. Compare gum- 

sartajyo j 

alveus auge 

phot, guns (W. 110), and gum/us, dor-bande 

patella J P ae ' e 

alviolus petit auge 

(W. 237). 

rw>l\7T KoMr> 

limen suil 

10 Cf. lyme, therswala (W. 170) and see 

p . otl^lll 

Ducange under limen (to which lima 
should here be corrected, unless It be a 

pTrapsS 015 [escuele 

muscipula ratiere 

corruption of a contracted limina). 

ciphus ) . 

M See Skeat under shingle, and cf. P. P. 

crater \ hanap 

t; - read salinum. 

(schyngyl) and W. 110. 

mensa table 

63 licinitorium (quod monachl dlcunt 

55 read epfstilium. 

lucibrucinnculum) liche (W. 134). Cf. 

M P. M. tortii. 

Ducange licha, and an interesting note 

67 see the Interesting note In P. P. 

59 cf. $corge, scutica (P. T.) and see 

in P. P. (under slft-yston). 


Skeat under scourge. 

W read tamis. 

M perhaps for tribolm (-ulus). Cf. trt- 

60 for taxillvs (P. M. calixus). 

65 troul In Oila Patiilia, Iraoul in tlie 

polus, botie (W. 196). 

6 1 read horrewn. 

Paris glossary 7692 (ed. Hofmann). 



tendicula j. pant eri 
lacum ) r 

polenta kares 7 - vel pultes 

impedium empeigne 

mulct[r]um buket 

petaceum J 

batus boissel 


coxale quissel 

batillus petit [boissel] 

antepedalc vampe 78 

modius mui 

allec harang 

zona I ceinture 

ostorium rastoir 
aviariuwi 67 rusche 

ostrea-rf plr- j oifjtre 
ost)-ea'orm J 

cmgMlm ) 
thiara coife 

polentrudium buletel 

mulus mulet 

galenw capel 

anguilla anguille 
1 iii-ius ) j 

pera escreppe 
*picatium bourdun 


lupus aquations J 

piro riveling ~' J 

rumbus iesturiim 

crepita bote 

Caro suilla car de pore 
petasus bacua 

sturgio ) 
cetus'ti-(plr. cetebaleine 

ciroteca want 
sarabarra esclavine 

petasculus petit bacun 

phocas (sic) craspois 

pema perne 

murena lamproie 

suceidaneum 68 suz 

congrus congije 

hilla aauciz 

mornua 73 muluel 


hinnula escalone 

pecten plais 

trucetum 69 boiel 

dorea doree 

multiplicium ( , em : se 

inductile andoille 

perca perchc 

canalium S" ( 

caro arietis car de moton 

barbulus barbel 

peplum wimple 

caro elixa car quit en eue 

sal mo saumon 

Hameolum hastecul 

caro assa car roistie 

alosa alose 

tricatura trosce 

assunt et verutum haste 

siluiti/s 74 menuse 

tricatorium trescur 

assatura haste faite 

sepia seche 

annilla ibendedor 

cancer crampe 

torqwts J 

monile nusche 


fascia feisse 


depUatoriuiii guigne 

Ova fideliata oes quit en pot de 

anulus anel 


torus lit 

fibula tache 

Ova frixa oes fris 

toreuma lit turne 

limbus urle 

Ova assa oes quit en brese 

toral-ce/ vrnement 

aurifrigium. offroia 

Ova sorbilia oes mous 

Hntheum lincel 
lintheolum petit lincel 

superua Uevestron 
et plr. supera J 

artocrea rosole 

lodex'dicis velus 

geginetum 8l saie 

artocaseus flaun 

culcitra keute 

sericum ] 

artopiscus paste de poissuu 

tapetum tapit 

bombocinium ffi / 

Hbum gastel 

pulvinar quissin 

Panrn/s serio(5 drap de soie 

collirkl i simenel 70 vet lesche 

cervical oreiler 

cirostj'i'ngiusK cbace poinger 83 

de pain 

coopej'torium covertoir 

pilleum Uumnce 

placenta fuache 

epilleolum / aum 

Panis azimus pain aliz 

alluta cordewan 

Panis vapidus pain buste "' 


allutarius cordewaner 

fermentum vel \, .,..-;_ 

cilicium heire 

zima-tis } levem 

subuncla chemisce 

et plr. perizomata quieael de braia M 

et plr. nom. pisa pois 
faba feve 
olug jute 

et plr. brace brais 
et plr. saraballa- ~| famillares (or 
lorum j- famulares) 

et plr. pericelidoa urnement a femme 
liripipium pigace 
speculum mirur 

caulis colet 

et femorale J a moine 

lac leit 

pellicium policun 

serum meghe 

reno'nia pelicun gris 

butiram bure 

ravus-vi pelicim veire 


caseus formage 

penula pene et aliquaado 

Lac coagulatm/i leit qtwile 

est tunica 

dapifer senescal 

coagulum qaaile 

tunica cote 

picerna (sic) buteler 

sagimen seim 

cucula cufle 75 

disoensator 1 

ovellum pel de oef 

pompellura \ man tel 

promus } despenser 

albumen aubun de oef 

pallium f 

pfiTYiprftriiis 1 

vitellum moiel de oef 

capa cape 

,. rcamb-lein 

frixura friture 

capapelh's cape furree 


artocopiw pain broie 

capa pluialts 7G cape a pluie 

cancellarius } ODance ' er 

sigilla \ 

capa singularis cape sewgle 

cocua kieu 

simila vel polentis linr de faiine 

capa perfilata cape a porfil 
aubligar brael 

pistor pestoc 


ligula laniere 
caliga cauche 

77 cf. aitumentum. 
78 cf. Skeat under vamp. 

8(1 cf. Skeat under painter. 

calceua I _, 

78 " a rough shoe worn by the Scots in 

37 for alvearium, or apiarium. 

sotularis J 

the XlVth Century " (W. 26, note). Piro 

88 Dncange Indicates the occurrence of golea semele 
tuccidius for sttccedaneus, and this would 

seem to be a similar confusion . In Neckam 72 cf. Godefroy under ceirc. 

denominibvs utensiiium (ed. Scheler, Jahr- 7a read moruut. 

bucli vii. 69) carne in tucciduo posita Is 74 probably for tilurcus (glossed menuite 

glossed en *uz. Succidium is also glossed in the Lille glossary edited by Gachet, 

1* for pero (explained In WUlcker 602 as 
quoddam calciamentum rustieontm am- 
plum et a'titm, quod alio nomine dicitur 

80 perhaps a scribe's error for camisium, 

81 P. M. gueguientum (with a query). 

tovise in some of the early Latin-English Brussels, 1846). Olla Patella has a form Read tegmentum, (C/. t however, segmenta, 

vocabularies. Cf. also Jahrbuch viil., 81. jtiVwrnu*, and both are referred by Scheler drat nobles, hi Jahrbuch viii., 90). 

For this spelling compare Jahrbuch to siturut (which In its turn Is the Latin 8i> p. M. bombocunvm. 

vil., 69. rendering of menuce In P. P.). 83 For poigner (=poignet) see Godefroy, 

70 Cf. P. P. (symnel). 75 for this form In Early English r/. Skeat whose Interpretation of this article is en- 

71 Cf. Godefroy under bovter (end of under cowl. tlrely misleading, 
article). 76 read plwiali$. 84 p. M. braiet. 



abbat " qui livre la lupatium canfrein 
provende abena redne 

lupus Leu 
lupa leve 

mulio'onis qui garde le mule cingula cengle 
auriga careton scansile estref 

wolpes gopil 
wolpecula petit gopil 

bubulois bover , zonica \trosse 
subulciis porcher trossolare 

petoKciiw " putois 
expeciolus escurel 

opilio berchier chamus Icavestre 
anserarius euer capistrum J 
capi-earius qui garde les equus cantarus cheval escuile * 
chevres equtw spadix harace 97 

mus Isoriz 
sorex J 
mustcla mustoile 
simia ainge 

pedisseq baasse et plr. equitia' et "j 
plr. epiphia j-loreins 
eel phallere J 

tax . us Itaiasun 
melus J 

cuniculus conig 


5 a " tor Ibievre 
fiber / 

gradariKS M Spalefroi 

aper seingler 
ursus urs 
ursa urse 

manus . ^f 
destrarius destrer susas 98 pore 
fugatorius 85 n chacur j uv enca \ 

vipera guivere 
serpens serpent 
coluber culevre 

auecursanus runci * I l-gemce 

i i. UUlAUil J 

buffo crapout 

succMi-aura trot ii,,,, 
veredws cheval caretej- 87 Ipolein 
Equs badius cheval bai > ,.. 
eqpMHotufctai cheval po 88 blden9 
eq(s calidM, cheval bauchan 69 
Candidas j-muton 
eqwKS roseua cheval aor ' ^g-^ 

rana reino 
lacerta lesarde 
formica formie 
talpa taupe 
tinea teindne 
nictecula lw vers qui luist par 

eqaws edorsatus cheval redois ^ ^ c 

aranea iraine 

Redorsatas ^^ ^tllus porct? 

crabo lul esearbot 
apea eez 

T, nefrendis porcel inalade 

vespa gueape 

equa ywe 

oestrum taun 

S[u]bn'vatns esgarete mula mule 

bubalua bugle 

Repedare" 8 regibber^ 61 f ina asnesee 
Antepedare brlndir ^aurus tor 

martrix martri'ne 
onager aane aauvage 
irrudo sansue 

eqxiwmorbo- cheval cordeus 93 j^ n ' estrot de boef 

bombex'bombicis vers qui forme 

eqrSe- cheva,c_,9, = rda -* 

lo soie 
camelus camel 
ericius hericun 

morbosus morveus 
sella sele 

cirogrillus cunin 

antella [a]rcun devant _ . ,,,, ,,,,,,,,,<. 
postella arcun derere 

sudaria cuiere 95 
subaellura suscele altilis et altile oiseaux nun en 


frenum frein cort 

gallus coc 

accipiter hostoir 

85 read abbatit. " Abbatis ad cenam dat S alllna 
equis abbatis avtnara." The word is from pullus 

capua tercel 
falco vet pr- faucun 

batus described as " vas quo avenam ad anser gars 

falco los 

equorum pabulum dimetiri solebant"; auca ewe 

falco g-faucun 

"hlnc qui avenam equis distribuebat, o anas 'tis anete 

nisus esperver 

kalis dictus" (Scheler, Olla Patella, 1879, co i um ba columb 

muachar los muschet 

f. 23). Cf. abbatis, prowande (Vf.Wl). e / plr. paludes columb de bois 

avispulta esmerilun 

found, but we cannot quote an instance of (*"') 

et plr. jactacula get de faucun 

this word. pavo poun 

misus get de esperver 

86 P. M. runet'. grus gnie 

perdix pertriz 

87 P. M. caret. 

alauda alitho 

88 perhaps a scribe's error for pie, or an 

coturnix Q ftttile 

interrupted pomele, 
89 P. M. bauchant. 

mergus plungun 

90 p. M. reads redott and omits derant. DE ANIMALIBUS SILVESTRIBUS 

ardea heiron 

91 Thus the MS. P. M. supplies cheval 

cigonia cigoine 

for the repeated Latin form. l eo H un 

cignus cigne 

9--' P. M. regumber. leena lionesse 

aquila egle 

93 Godefroy's emendation (corbeus) is not . 
convincing. "Curb" is a malformation g rls 

and hardly to be reconciled with morbus in elephans olipnant 
its general sense much less in the special leopardus lupard 

calendula calandre 

sense which morve has acquired in veter- rinoceros Unicorne 

merula ) mer ] e 

inary science. A type contains ("ropy "), draco dracon 

merulus J 

if found, would be quite intelligible. The oervus cer f 
history of roupieux (-morvevx) seems to 
be still obscnre. 

philomena roissenol 
icteris oriel 

94 Another difficult article. The Latin dama deime 

original may have been a compound with damus deim 

99 read/)w/aci'us or putoiitus. 

artus, in which case the original French capmis ) . 
gloss was probably a variant of crancheus, C ap?-folus f cnevecel 
the quotations for which in Godefroy seem i IOTT 
to favour this hypothesis. Or, again, horte- le P us 

1 for nofticula (a variant of noctiluca). 
101 </. crabo, a dore (Wiilcker I. 576) ; 
sacrabo, tcharabol (ibid., 609). 
102 read gerfalco. 

might well be a corruption of an earlier 

i3 the form muscat- Is also found In Olla 

peste- and camerus for cancerus. 96 p. M. escttlle. 


95 This word and the following Latin 97 Cf. ttallant, a horse, haras (Palsgrave). 

I03a apparently the type on which mo/a- 

word are omitted by P. M. 98 read tus'uii. 

cilia is based. 



gitacus (sic) 















> fresaie 
eastri'marginaria widecoc 











104 read escuffle. 

105 cf. Skeat under rail (3). 



Tins is a question on which many critics 
have pronounced judgment with considerable 
confidence. The one thing, however, that 
can be said about it with any certainty is 
that certainty is unattainable, and it is worth 
noticing that those who have studied Rabelais 
with the greatest care have given their 
verdict with the greatest caution. Further, 
whatever the verdict may be, it is not one 
which can be passed off-hand on a mere 
general impression : we must first carefully 
examine and weigh the evidence. I propose, 
therefore, not indeed to make a complete 
examination, but to point out the lines on 
which such an examination should be made. 
First, as to the facts of publication. The 
printing of the fourth book was finished on 
January 28, 1552, and Rabelais died almost 
certainly in 1553. In 1562 there appeared, 
without any name of publisher or printer, 
and without any place of publication, a thin 
octavo volume of thirty-two leaves, entitled 
L'isle sonnante par Muistre Francois Rabelais. 
It consisted of sixteen chapters, being the 
first fifteen chapters of the fifth book, as it 
is now generally printed, and the chapter 
on the Apedefts. In 1564 appeared the 
complete fifth book, under the title of 
Cinquiesrne et dernier livre. It contained 
forty-seven chapters, that on the Apedefts, 
which is clearly an interpolation, being 
omitted. On the last page is a quatrain 
beginning Babelais est II mart, Voicy eitcor 
un livre : and signed Nature Quite, which 
according to some commentators is an 
anagram of Jean Turquet, an unknown 
person, but possibly some relation to the 
well-known Turquet de Mayerne, physician 
to James I. and Charles I., and son of a 
Jean Turquet of Lyons, who in 1570 
married the daughter of Antoine le Macon, 
the translator of the Decameron. There is 
no publisher's or printer's name, and no place 
of publication, but it was almost certainly 
printed at Lyons by Jean Martin, the type 
being identical with that used by him for a 

new edition which was published with his 
name in 1565. In the same year he included 
it in an edition of the whole five books, 
and in 1567 printed it again separately, in- 
serting the chapter on the Apedefts as 
chapter vii. There is also a manuscript of 
the fifth book in the Bibliolheque Nationale 
(MS. francos 2156) entitled Cinquiesrne lime 
de 1'antagruel-fragment de prologue. It con- 
tains 126 leaves, of which the verso of 
the last leaf is blank, and, except the 
numbering of the chapters, is written 
throughout by the same hand, which is cer- 
tainly not Rabelais's. It omits the chapter 
on the Apedefts and also cc. xxiii., xxiv. 1 (the 
account of the game of chess), but has, after 
what is now c. xxxii., an entirely new chapter 
entitled Comme furent les dames lanternes 
servies d souper, and a different and much 
longer ending to the last chapter. The pro- 
logue is only a short fragment (less than a 
third of the prologue in the printed text) 
which ends abruptly in the middle of a 
sentence after the word entre and just before 
the words cesle auge courante Van mil cinq cens 
cinquante. The numbering of the chapters is 
peculiar and worth noticing. After c. 12 it 
is by a different hand. After c. 14 it runs 
as follows: 38-15 ( = xv. of printed text), 
39-16 ( = xvi.), 50, 51, 52, 53 ( = xvii.-xx.). 
Then follow four chapters unnumbered 
( = xxi., xxii., xxv., xxvi.) ; then 58 
( = xxvii.), and the rest are unnumbered. 
There are a considerable number of varia- 
tions, besides those I have mentioned, from 
the printed text; these I shall refer to later on. 
Let us now turn to the external evidence 
for or against Kabelais's authorship. The 
only express statements on the subject are 
the two following. The bibliographer 
Antoine du Verdier, who was born in 1544, 
says in his Prosopographie (1604) that the 

1 My numbering of the chapters of the printed 
text follows that of M. Marty-Laveaux, who does not 

include the Apedefts chapter, and so 
forty-seven chapters for the whole book. 

has only 


Isle Sonnante was the work of (faide pur) a 
student of Valence. Louis Guyon, a physician 
of great learning, who died in 1630 at an 
advanced age, is equally explicit. In the 
thirtieth chapter of his Diverses lecons, pub- 
lished in the same year as the Prosopogmphie, 
after speaking of Rabelais's religious opinions, 
he says : " As for the last book that is put 
with his works, entitled L'isle Sonnante, which 
seems openly to blame and ridicule the 
functionaries of the Catholic Church, I 
protest that he did not write it, for it was 
composed (se fit) a long time after his death. 
I was at Paris when it was composed, and I 
know well who was the author. He was not 
a physician." It has been said that both 
these statements are discredited ; Du 
Verdier's, because he tells us elsewhere that 
the poet Guillaume des Autels, when a 
scholar at Valence, wrote various imitations 
of Rabelais, and does not mention the Isle 
Sonnante, as being one of them ; Guyon's 
because it occurs in a defence of medical men 
against the charge of impiety. Neither of 
these counter-arguments seem to me to have 
any weight. A .stronger, but far from con- 
vincing, argument on this side is the fact 
that until within the last fifty or sixty years 
the fifth book has been generally accepted as 
Rabelais's genuine work. As early as 1584 
Etienne Tabourot, who was born in 1549, 
quotes a passage from c. xii. as by Rabelais. 
Passing to the internal evidence, I will 
first mention under two heads some features 
of the fifth book which seem to make 
against Rabelais's authorship. 1. Anachron- 
isms. The only striking one is the reference 
in c. xviii. to Julius Caesar Scaliger's Exer- 
cihitumes contra Cardanum, which was not 
published till 1557. 1 But the tedious 
repetition of the words Or fa in cc. xii. and 
xiii. is apparently borrowed from the twenty- 
first story of Des Perier's Joyeux devis, first 
published in 1558, while the monosyllabic 
answers of the Frere Fredon (c. xxvii.) 
though the idea occurs in the Dialogue 
de Messieurs de Mallepaye et de Baillevent 
published in an edition of Villon's poems 
in 1532, may possibly be borrowed from 
Des Perier's fifty-eighth story, Du moyne 
qui respondent tout par inonossyllabes rymez. 
2. Repetitions. Several passages of the pro- 
logue are repeated almost verbatim from 
the prologue to the third book. The Isle 
Sonnante (cc. i.-viii.) is another version 
of the island of Papimanie. The greater 
part of c. ix. (Disk des Ferrements) is 

1 It has been suggested that Rabelais may have 
heard of Scaliger's views before they appeared in 

borrowed from the earlier books. In c. xviii. 
we have the shipwreck over again. Chapter 
xxviii. is a repetition of the attack on fasting. 
The country of Satin (c. xxix.) is another 
version of the island of Medamothi. 

A more difficult and delicate line of argu- 
ment is that derived from the general 
character and style of the work. First, it 
has been said that the tone of the satire, 
especially in the account of the Clmts fourre's, 
is too bitter and violent for Rabelais. 
To this it has been answered that he had 
grown bitter with increasing age, and from 
disappointment at the non-realisation of his 
dreams of a regenerated society. But it is 
difficult to see what had happened since 
the completion of his fourth book in 1550 
or 1551 to account for such a change of 
tone. If ever he had special cause to feel 
bitter it was in 1546, when he went into 
exile at Metz. As regards style, any argu- 
ment founded on this must be necessarily 
unconvincing. However strongly the in- 
dividual critic may feel the force of it 
himself, it is not one which is likely to have 
much weight with other people. I may, 
however, call attention to the tangible fact 
that the introduction of the first personal 
pronoun which characterises the greater part 
of the fifth book is unlike Rabelais, who in 
the fourth book almost invariably uses nous, 
je occurring only once (iv. 12). As for the 
rest, I can only say that, as a matter of 
personal impression, and without in the 
least putting it forward as an argument, I 
should on the evidence of style alone assign 
to Rabelais cc. xxxii. to the end, cc. xxiii. 
and xxiv. (the account of the game of chess), 
and the greater part of c. iv., that is to say, 
from La manure est tclle, down to indemnite et 
franchise. All the rest, with the exception 
of a short passage here and there, I should 
say was the work of an imitator. Especially 
it seems to my ear to lack an essential quality 
of Rabelais's style, its rich and full harmony. 
With regard to the thought and general treat- 
ment as distinguished from the language my 
impression is practically the same ; that is 
to say, the first part of the book seems 
to me unworthy of Rabelais and to deserve 
most of the strictures passed on it by Des 
Marests in the notes to his edition. On the 
other hand, the concluding chapters are, in 
my judgment, as fine as anything in Rabe- 
lais's acknowledged work. Aid Rabeluedus aut 
diabolus. But, as I have said, this is impres- 
sion and not argument, and there remains 
to indicate still another line of argument, 
and one which promises results capable of 
being tested. 



I have said that there are a considerable 
number of variations between the manuscript 
and the printed text. In a great many cases 
the manuscript, which is the work of a some- 
what ignorant scribe, is manifestly wrong, 
but in not a few cases it alone gives either 
the true reading or something nearly akin 
to it. I will mention some of the most 
striking instances. 1 In c. xxxix. the printed 
text has echo, paroles, mews; the MS. has 
eclw, les meurs et les esprits ; the true reading 
is ethe (>j&j) les meurs et les esprits (see Plin., 
n.h. 35, 10, 98). In c. xlii. the printed text 
has Pompeie Pauline; the MS. has Lullie 
Pauline ; the true reading is Lottie Pauline. 
In the same chapter, in the reference to the 
canon of Polycletus, a comparison with Plin., 
n.h. 34, 8, 55, shows that the MS. reading, 
par I'aide de I'art (artis opere), is right, 
while that of the printed text, apprendre de 
I'art, is nonsense, and, though I differ on 
this point from the principal editors, I feel 
sure that the MS. reading, faictz de murrhine 
confinez en I'acuiU des troys angles, is right, 
and that of the printed text, fails de 
marguerites fines en I'assiette de trois angles, 
wrong. 2 Again in c. iv. apotropieres is surely 
preferable to apolrophees as a rendering of>;, while in c. xx. there is no 
question between fantaine de j(o)uvence and 
fontaine dejeunesse. What is the conclusion 
to be drawn from these instances 1 Clearly 
this much, that in each case the MS. 
represents an original text which was the 
work of a man who had a greater knowledge 
of classical literature than the man who 
edited the book for the press. Further, it 
will be noticed that four of my instances 
come from the later chapters, 3 the fifth, not 
a strong instance, from c. iv., the greater 
part of which I believe to be by Rabelais, 
and the sixth from a short passage at the 

close of c. xx. (cela estoit dispos), which 

in point of style is not unlike Rabelais. On 
the other hand, in the rest of the book 
cases of this sort occur sparingly, if at 
all. A more complete examination than I 
have been able to make would, I am sure, 
prove fruitful. 

I may now sum up the result of this 
inquiry. We have seen that all the objec- 
tions to Rabelais's authorship, the evidence 
of du Verdier and Guyon, the anachronisms 
and the repetitions, the dissimilarity of tone 

1 I have taken these readings either from M. 
Marty-Laveaux or from Des Marests. 

2 I am glad to find that Mr W. F. Smith adopts 
the MS. reading. 

3 I could cite other instances, hardly less striking, 
from these chapters. 

and style, apply only to the first two- 
thirds of the book. The rest is not in the 
least affected by them, while the evidence 
of its brilliant thought and expression : is to 
some extent supported by the manuscript 
readings, which point to the author being a 
man more learned in Greek and Latin than 
his editor. 

On the whole, then, I accept without 
hesitation the last sixteen chapters of the 
fifth book as Rabelais' s genuine work, and 
to these I would add, though somewhat more 
doubtfully, the account of the game of chess, 
which is borrowed from the Hypnerotormchia 
Poliphili, a work known to Rabelais, and 
the greater part of the fourth chapter. As 
regards the rest, my conviction is less strong, 
but I believe that except for occasional 
passages it is either not the work of Rabelais, 
or it is work that he deliberately rejected. 
There is no reason, I may point out, why he 
should not have written the conclusion and 
nothing else when death overtook him. All 
that was wanted for the completion of his 
design was the arrival of the travellers in 
the country of Lanternois and the oracle of 
the Bottle. Any other addition to his 
previous account of their travels would be 
an occasion for satire and philosophy, but 
would not be necessary to his story. Finally, 
I venture to suggest the following hypothesis 
as to the origin of the book. After Rabelais's 
death there were found amongst his papers 
the completed manuscript of the conclusion 
of the voyage (cc. xxxii.-xlvii.) ; the account 
of the game of chess (cc. xxiii., xxiv.) ; various 
fragments, including the greater part of c. iv., 
and p'erhaps a few headings of chapters. 
There may have been also some rough 
drafts which Rabelais had rejected in favour 
of chapters which had already appeared in 
the fourth book. This material came into 
the hands of some more or less learned and 
literary person, possibly Jean Turquet by 
name, who proceeded to supplement it with 
an imitation of the dead master, which, 
with a genuine fragment by Rabelais 
(c. iv.) worked into it, he published as a 
posthumous work of Rabelais under the 
title ot L'isle Sonnante. Then finding that 
his forgery was generally accepted as genuine, 
he set about with the help of Rabelais's 
headings and fragments to write more 
additions. Finally, he published the whole 
work with the genuine sixteen chapters of 
the conclusion as the Fifth book of Rabelais. 
The precise relation of the manuscript to the 
printed text I do not pretend to determine, 

1 So far as the last sixteen chapters are com orned 
I entirely agree with Mr Saintsbury. 


nor can I guess why the account of the game only in the manuscript, the editor perhaps 
of chess is omitted in the manuscript, as wisely cancelled after reading it in type, but 

his mutilation of the ending to the last 
chapter proves his lack of taste as well as 

there is an evident gap in the narrative 
without it. The spurious chapter on the 
supper of the dames lanternes, which appears 

his lack of learning. 



THE development of a literary language 
out of a comparatively meagre popular 
vocabulary is a phenomenon no less inter- 
esting than the evolution of a higher form 
of life out of a lower. And as in animal 
morphology the survival of elementary types 
serves to establish what might otherwise be 
but a theory, so in linguistic morphology 
the existence of an elementary language, a 
sort of linguistic embryo, gives support to 
theories based largely on extinct species. 

There is a " Vie des mots," but there is 
also a "Vie de la langue." Shall we com- 
pare the language to an animal species ? 
The words are the limbs, organs, and char- 
acters of the individuals, rarely precisely the 
same in any two of them. The history of 
the language is the history of the evolution 
of the species. Variations occur some are 
advantageous, and are transmitted ; rudi- 
mentary organs or limbs persist, traceable 
often, like the hind-legs of the whale, only 
in the embryo. 

Such an elementary language is Mauritian 
Creole. Herein lies its interest. Classical 
Latin produced the offspring Lingua Rustica, 
which has now in course of time given us 
modern French. Modern French has, in 
course of time, produced the offspring 
Mauritian Creole, which will probably be- 
come extinct before ever it reaches a higher 

In order that, from the outset, the con- 
sideration of this language may bo more 
intelligible, it will be well to summarise 
some of the chief points in the history of 
the island. These, for the sake of clearness, 
may be put in tabular form. 

MAURITIUS, 57 50' E., 20 30' S. 

1505. Discovered by Portuguese. Unin- 
habited. Named Ilha do Uerne. 

1598. Taken by Dutch. Named L'lle 
Maurice after Prince Maurice. 

1712. Abandoned by Dutch. 

1715. French take possession. Held by 
agents of the French East India 
Company. Called He de France. 

1798. Seat of the French Government in 
the East removed to it from Pon- 
dicherry. Introduction of sugar- 
cane, roads, forts. Capital, Port 
St Louis, founded, etc. 
1810. Attacked by England. 
1814. Given to England by the Treaty of 
Paris. By the 8th article of 
Capitulation the island retained 
its own laws, customs and religion. 
The population is thus composed : 
European. French, English and half-castes. 
Coloured. Hindu coolies ; these form more 
than two-thirds of the popula- 

Africans, Asiatics, Negroes, 
Malagasies, Parsees, Singhal- 
ese, Chinamen, Malays, Las- 
cars, Mozambiques, Bengalese, 

Total population 378,000, of whom 261,000 
are Indians, originally imported coolies. 

The origin of the word "coolie" is un- 
certain (see Whitney, XIX. Cent. Diet., and 
Murray, New Eng. Diet.) : 

1. Kuli. Bengali, Canarese, Telugu, Malay- 

ala and Tamil, a day-labourer. 

2. Kolis or Kolas, a hill-tribe of Bengal often 

employed as labourers. 

3. Kolis or Kolas, a hill-tribe of Gujarat 

(see Blandford's "India"). 

According to Murray the first mention of 
Coolies is in early seventeenth century, and 
refers to Gujarat. 

Slavery was introduced by the Dutch in 
1712, natives of Africa being imported ; from 
these are descended, partly by marriage 
with Europeans, the Creoles. These latter 
have a rich olive-brown complexion with 
dark curly hair. 

Under the French the slave-trade was in 
the hands of European merchants and Creole 
colonists. They imported coolies from the 
banks of the Ganges, and from other parts 
of India, as well as negroes from Madagascar 
and the Mozambique coast. The white 
Creoles are chiefly of French descent, 
largely from officers, soldiers, and sailors of 
the French East India Company. 



Under the British, coolies have been im- 
ported from India, Tamils from Madras, 
Bengalis, Kolabas from Bombay, and others 
from the interior, and even Magars from the 
far north. These coolies are imported for a 
period of three years. They then return 
to their own country. Those who go to 
work on the plantations often never learn 
the new language, but always need an 
interpreter between themselves and their 

Thus we have a vastly heterogeneous 
assemblage of races in this island which is 
but 39 miles long and 28 broad. Hence 
arose the absolute necessity of having some 

We may here conveniently insert maps 
showing the languages in India and Africa 
that may have affected Creole. 

The chief of these in India are Bengali, 
Hindi (with its branches Gujcrati and Pun- 
jabi), Marathi, Tamil, Telugu, Malayala and 
Canarese. Of these Gujarat! is the Hnynu 
f rn urn of the Bombay presidency, and Hindi, 
or more specially a form of it known as 
Urdu, a form containing an admixture of 
Persian, Arabic, and Turkish words is the 
lingua franca of most parts of India. The 
Gujarat! traders are mentioned as having to 
some extent carried their language with 
them to China and Africa e.g. to Hong- 

!/ in/mi frimra; and this naturally enough is 
a degenerate form of the language of the 
early French masters of the island. 

It is part of our purpose to trace how far 
this lingua frune/t has been influenced by the 
various mother tongues it has replaced, and 
how far it has arisen simply from its having 
been learnt orally and not from literature. 
It is a common-place that the Chinaman's 
Pidgin-English lacks the " r " that is wanting 
in his own language. We should expect 
that similar influences have been at work in 
Mauritian Creole. Further, it will be neces- 
sary to take into account certain points in 
the pronunciation of French at the period 
at which the language sprang into being i.e., 
during the eighteenth century. 

kong, Zanzibar and Mauritius. The shaded 
portions of the Indian map show the Dra- 
vidian or non-Aryan languages. These have 
probably influenced the Aryan languages in 
some points of pronunciation e.g. Telugu has 
probably affected the Bengali dialects nearest 
to it. It will be seen that in this Dravidian 
area lie the French possessions Pondicherry, 
Karical and Mahe 1 , which last was taken by 
de la Bourdonnais, who was for some time 
governor of the He Maurice. 

Turning to Africa, we see that the half of 
the continent south of a line crossing horizon- 
tally from the Bight of Benin, with the 
exception of the south-west corner, is occupied 
by one large group known as the Bantu lan- 
guages. It is said that none of these are 


more removed from one another than French 
is from Italian. 

There is lastly Malagasy, which, in spite 
of its geographical proximity to Africa, is 
not linguistically connected with it. Its 
affinities are rather with the great Malayo- 
polynesian group. This language is of im- 
portance since it was largely from Madagascar 
that the French drew their slaves, especially 
at first. They drew more, however, from the 
Mozambique, as they found them more tract- 
able than the Malgasies. 

Naturally, in a population so heterogeneous 
as this, it is impossible for there to be but 
one pronunciation. All that can be done, 
then, is to select that pronunciation which is 
most prevalent. In this there is little diffi- 
culty, for the various transcribers agree very 
closely in their transcriptions, the chief 
variations being in the modes of representing 
the sounds. The system adopted here is 
slightly modified from that used in Anderson's 
version of St Mark. 

Some help has been obtained from Baissac's 
"Etude sur le Patois Creole Mauricien." 
Nancy, 1880. [British Museum. 12903, 
bbb. 25.] In this, however, no attempt is 
made to trace the various linguistic influences 
at work. Other works of reference will be 
found collected at the end of this article. 

Nearly all the words and phrases cited are 
taken from the just mentioned translation 
of St Mark by the Rev. S. H. Anderson, 
published by the British and Foreign Bible 
Society. It is a work that contains many 
inconsistencies ; but considering the material 
to work upon, such inconsistencies are not 
at all surprising. The vowels are to be pro- 
nounced as in French. Those followed by 
" n " take a slight nasal sound. An advan- 
tage in taking this as our text is that it is 
a book easily and cheaply procured, should 
any reader of this feel inclined to read some 
of the language in a continuous form. 

Before commencing a detailed study of the 
language, a few selected quotations will not 
be out of place. These will give a general 
idea of the sound of the language and of the 
problems to be attacked. 

Mark viii. 14 : E zot ti fine Uiylpran diptn ; 
I zot ti dna ne"k e'ne ton sel avec zot dan bato. 
And they had forgotten to take bread, and 
they had only one with them in the boat. 

Mark viii. 23 : E lipran sa dimoune avtg la 
par lamfyi e condir li an dehor villaz, 6 aprt Id 
ti fine met lasaliv laho so lizU 4 poz so de" lamen 
laho li, li dimand li, Eski vou voar kiksoz? 
And he takes that blind man by the hand 
and conducts him outside the village, and 
after he had put spittle on his eyes and had 

put his hands upon him, he asked him, Can 
you see anything ? 

Mark xi. 5 : Kik zans, parmi dimoune Id ti 
apr<! dibou la dir zot, Ki vou for aprt larg sa 
piti bourik la 1 Some folk among the men 
that were standing there said to them, What 
are you doing setting free that foal of an 
ass ? 

There are here some words recognisable 
immediately : avec, bato, condir, villaz, dimand, 
bourik, etc. ; others whose origin is less easily 
detected : dipdn (du pain) ; avfy (aveugle) ; 
Iizi6 (les yeux) ; zans (gens) ; while others 
have their identity or significance more com- 
pletely disguised : zot (les autres) ; nfk (ne 
que) ; fine (fini, sign of a past tense) ; dimoune, 
(du monde) ; aprt (tense-sign of continuous 
action as well as preposition). 

It is the discussion of the second and third 
of these categories that will chiefly occupy 
our attention. Our task will be lightened if 
we note tabularly some of the chief varia- 
tions from Modern French in the pronuncia- 
tion of certain vowels and consonants, re- 
serving for later any discussion of reasons 
for these variations. 

A. Vowels. 

1. (a) ui appears as i lui, li ; fruit, fri; 
(b) ui ,, oui nuit, nouit ; 

2. (a) eu e" seul, s6l ; preuve, 
prtv ; 

(b) eur er 1'heure, ttr ; peur, 
per ; 

3. u ,, i plus, pli ; muet, 
mie" ; ceinture, stntir ; 

4. (a) oi oa moi, moa ; voir, 

(b) oi ,, ( droit, drft ; roide, 
rfd (cf. mod. Fr.). 

(c) oin ofn besoiu, bizofa ; 
loin, lotn. 

B. Consonants. 

1 . ch s chemin, simSn; chose, soz. 

2. j> z mange, mm* ; jette, met. 

o 11 I mouille,,y fille, Jiy ; soleil. wIA/ 
' 1 / (cf. tranquille, Irankil).,, 1 ni si nal > siniaL 
' / in gagne, gam. . 

C. Omission of unaccented syllables : 
bliyt, oublier ; maziiif, immaginer ; tand, en- 

D. Omission of the final syllables le, re 
after mutes : malprop(re), tb(\e), /^A(le), 
dissip(le), kat(re). 

This will suffice to explain nearly all the 
words concealed under a change of letter 
only or under the phonetic script. The 
following cases involving various combina- 



tions of these changes will now be quite 
intelligible : zizd, juge 1 ; fdy, feuille ; may, 
maill(er) ; ave'g, aveug(le) ; pdstir, pecheurs ; 
tt'inie, eteigner, for eteindre, &c. ; habit/ i/n 
poul sumo, habille 1 en poils de chameau ; 
asterla, a cette heure-la ; avla, ah ! voila ; 
eski, est-ce que, &c. 

Many of these points are the natural result 
of a foreigner trying to learn French orally 
e.g. A. 2, 3, and B. 3, 4 ; also C. and D. 
Others seem to lead us back to the eighteenth 
century pronunciation of French e.g. A. 4, 
oi pronounced as oa, ot, and The same ex- 
planation accounts for some final consonants 
that are silent in mod. French being pro- 
nounced in Creole : Zuns, gens ; siz, assis ; 
sis zour ; six jours. 

B. 1 arid 2 are not so easy to account for 
with certainty. It is true that French itself 
was somewhat uncertain between ch and s ; 
cf. "Sine" for "Chine" (cf. Thurot, II. 
218), "dessire" for "dechire" (rf. Thurot, 
II. 215). Foreign influence has, how- 
ever, almost certainly been at work here, 
and probably cumulatively from different 
directions. On the Indian side we have 
the following facts : In Tamil ch is pro- 
nounced as s, and dj as z ; the same occurs 
in Telugu before all vowels except i, e, ei. 
In inland Bengali s tends to replace sh. (On 
the coast the opposite tendency prevails.) 
Further, cch often changes to a, and in East 
Bengali regularly. Bengali uses z for j and 
j for z, almost at pleasure. In East Hindi s 
tends to replace sh, which the people seem 
incapable of pronouncing. This is in the 
district round Tirhut, Purneah, Bhagalpur. 
The Arabic sh becomes s. Thus we have 
xekh and samil for shekh and shamtt. On the 
other hand the Hindi peasant is said to be 
unable to pronounce z. In Malagasy, which 
Baissac speaks of as " une des deux aieules " 
of Creole, j is pronounced as z, while, on the 
other hand, s before i and e becomes a soft 
sh. We even get malagasyized French 
words : salana, chaland ; zariday, jardin. 
In Mozambique the sounds sh and ch both 
occur, though in the neighbouring and 
closely allied dialect of Kilimane, on the 
coast S. of Mozambique, z replaces ch. To 
which of all these influences are we to sup- 
pose it due that we have in Creole samo for 
chameau, &c. ] Not to Mozambique, for 
Baissac specially notes a Mozambique native 
as pronouncing DicJung chourti dan mo Iddo 
(du sang sortit de mon dos). Malagasy and 
Bengali seem here to have been the dominant 
influences ; this would also accord with the 
fact that these races were the chief early 

An apparent exception to A. 3 is found in 
the indefinite article ene. This is probably 
due to the confusion in the native's ear be- 
tween the masc. and fern, of the French art., 
and inability to pronounce either the nasal 
masc. or the umlaut u of the fern., resulting 
in a compromise, a sort of average struck 
between the two. It is also interesting as 
retaining probably in the second syllable the 
more definite pronunciation of the mute e of 
the eighteenth century. 

We will now pass on to consider a few 
particular points of interest, trying in the 
same way to trace, if possible, foreign (i.e. 
non-French) influence. Creole possesses no 
definite article. The French article has 
become part of the body of the word, or 
in the case of the masc. art. before a con- 
sonant, has often entirely vanished e.g. simeh, 
chemin ; but Udo, le dos ; (cf. origin of English 
" algebra " or French " lierre ") ; moreover, 
according as the French word occurs more 
frequently with the definite or the partitive 
article, so has Creole adopted the one or the 
other as the initial syllable ; thus we have si 
disel perdi so gou, si du sel perd son gout ; 
kun mo ti kas senk dipdn, quand je cassai cinq 
pains. So in ene po dilo, un pot d'eau ; di 
in dilo is part of the word, and not equivalent 
to a de of the genitive case ; the genitive case 
being expressed in Creole by simple juxta- 
position e.g. cold lamdr, the sea shore. Ene 
(jran lafoid, une grande foule, shows the same 
combined article. Three possible causes pre- 
sent themselves. Tamil possesses no definite 
article. Has the Tamil native from Pondi- 
cherry taken article and word to be one 
whole, the idea of an article not being 
present to his mind 1 Mozambique and its 
kindred possess no article proper, but pre- 
fixes showing sing, and plur. : thus mu-ntu 
person, ba-ntit persons while a ba-ntu means 
" a " or " the " people. Has the Mozam- 
bique native taken the French article to be 
a prefix such as his own language possesses ? 
Malagasy, it would at first sight appear, 
could have had no influence here, since it 
possesses an article, which is used not only 
as our ordinary definite art., but also in the 
way corresponding to the Greek or German 
article for converting other parts of speech 
into nouns. Yet, on closer investigation, we 
find in Malagasy cases that exactly parallel 
the forms in Creole. They are malagasyized 
French words as above. Examples are 
disely, du sel ; lapotly, la poele ; dipaine (Or. 
dipdn), du pain. 

The word "/i" represents Fr. lui, li 
dinwmd li, he asks him. But in disel li Ion 
it seems as if it might have a different force. 


It is probably for Vest (i.e., il est, with 
pleonastic il). One is tempted to recognise 
in it the li that occurs in Yoa, Senna, 
Karanga, &c., as one form of the copula (no 
proper verb "to be" existing in the Bantu 
languages). U u-li njuja, thou art young. 
In li bon ki nou isi, it is good that we are 
here, it has the same force. 

A similar case is the word " ti." This is 
the sign of a past tense : promid ti pran <% 
fam, the first took a wife. This is almost 
certainly the French " etait." There seem', 
however, a possibility that the existence of 
a certain Dravidian particle may have in- 
fluenced the formation of the Creole word. 
This view is perhaps supported by the fact 
that the form eU exists, and is used where it 
is more of the nature of a participle than an 
auxiliary of tense, zot ti dtcouver Utoa, a cot li 
ti dU. They uncovered the roof where he 
was. Yet if Mail gave ti we should have 
expected M6 to do so, unless there were some 
other additional influence at work on one 
word or the other. 

Other interesting tense-signs are fine, va, 
pour, ajrre, showing respectively perfect, 
future, remoter future, and continued action. 
Combinations of these are used for the 
other tenses. The following examples will 
show this : Ddmon fini sorti, the devil went 
out ; Si zami li ti fine n6, if he had never 
been born ; Pour war si li ti va gueri li, to see 
if he was going to heal him ; Ki nou pour mor, 
that we must die ; Ti pour FMpak, it was 
about to be the Passover ; E ti apr4 cos avec 
li, and were conversing with him ; E li trouv 
got apre dormi, and he found them sleeping 
(zot, them, is for " les autres "). 

The form tna means either " there is " or 
" there are," or stands for the verb " to 
have " ; Va tna tramblman de tfr, there will 
be an earth-quake ; Vou ena zorey, you have 
ears. It would seem to be a result of a 
confusion between " il y en a " and " il 
en a." 

We may now turn from verbs to another 
point in connection with nouns, which will 
have already caught the eye of the reader. 
Zvrty and zoi are cases of a change as exten- 
sive as the amalgamation of the article with 
the noun in the singular. It is in fact the 
same phenomenon in the plural. The 
article has vanished in the plural before 
words beginning with a vowel, leaving only 
the z of the liaison. Moreover the word 
thus formed has, in many cases, become also 
the form for the singular. We have avec 
zouwie, with the workmen ; pran diptn 
zanfan, to take the children's bread : but in 
the sing. t!ne pti zanfan, a little child ; enUv 

so zorey, cut off his ear. Of. mod. vulg. Fr. 
sous quatre (pron. katz) yeux. An analo- 
gous formation appears in the word nam, 
soul, for " son ame." It is simply the same 
principle that has given us in French 
"lierre" for "1'ierre"; and in English, "a 
newt " for " an eft." 

We may conveniently at this point 
discuss some forms which have received, 
what seem to me, inadequate explanations 
from M. Baissac and from M. Paul Passy. 
Two of these words are zozo, bird ; and lili, 
bed. Of these, Baissac says that, lili is 
formed by reduplication from " lit," a bed, 
in accordance with a tendency in the lan- 
guage towards dissyllables. He cites, as 
parallel cases, n6nl, a nose ; loulou, a wolf ; 
dilo, water. Passy says that they are cases 
of the reduplication so prevalent in the 
languages of primitive peoples. It is indeed 
true that in the languages which have had 
their influence on Creole this tendency is 
largely prevalent, notably in Malagasy and 
in the Bantu languages. Yet this reduplica- 
tion is certainly not the sole cause of the 
forms in question. In the first place dilo, 
as has been shown above, is merely a case 
of the combination of the partitive article 
and noun. Secondly, the first syllable of 
zozo, a bird, certainly contains the z of the 
liaison, prefixed to the words, which, in 
French, have an initial vowel. This word 
appears in Haytian Creole as zozw, which is 
certainly not a reduplicated form. Similarly 
lili and loulou, with almost equal certainty, 
contain the amalgamated article. What we 
have to account for is the sound -assimilation 
that has taken place. Such assimilation is a 
fairly common phenomenon in any language. 
In some, however, it is more marked than in 
others, and this is so particularly in some 
of the Dravidian group, as for instance in 
Telugu, and shows itself especially in con- 
nection with the vowels i and u. Thus 
" katti " becomes in the plural not " kattilu " 
but " kattulu," the assonance being retro- 
gressive ; similarly an o due to assonance 
tendency is found in " ura," pronounced 
" ora," while "uru" is so pronounced. It 
is also worth noting that of fourteen 
examples cited by Passy these two from 
Mauritian Creole are the only ones that are 
not reduplications of dissyllables, which is 
the type of reduplication in the languages 
he cites and in those here referred to. 
Further, we have examples of similar assimi- 
lation in cases where the reduplication 
hypothesis cannot possibly hold. Such are 
dipi, boucou, azounou, lizie (Haytian Creole 
Zie\) ; for " depuis," " beaucoup," " a 



genoux," " les yeux," and many others 
(Baissac's word nine is manifestly nothing 
more than ene ne, un nez.) Cases there are 
in Creole, however, of reduplication of a 
type common in all languages, viz., the 
repetition of a word for the sake of emphasis, 
such are pti pti morso for petit petit, or 
lien btin blan; English, very very white; 
or Italian, molto molto bianco. It seems, 
then, far more probable that we are here 
dealing with cases of vowel assimilation 
rather than with reduplication. 

The French negatives have in Creole 
joined together their two parts. They are 
ntipa, narien, napli, nfk (ne que), while zame 
and person have no " ne " attached to them 
at all. Examples are e zot ti tna nek hie and 
they had only one ; zamt nou ti war kiksoz 
(quelque chose) com sa, never did we see 
anything like that ; mo napa dir narUn 
person, I do not tell anyone anything. The 
form of these negatives, with the vowel a 
in the first syllable, is fairly manifestly due 
to the frequent recurrence in French of 
sentences of the type, " II n'a pas fait 9a." 
The form nek is less easily explained. The 
phrase "il ne faut pas " appears, as in mod. 
French, as fo pas. The loss of the negative 
with person, zamt, when it follows them is 
also parallel to mod. vulgar French. 

Besides the words .cited in the earlier part 
of this paper as examples of words simply 
concealed under a phonetic guise there are a 
few particular cases worth noting. 

Abe\ Abe, si Satan ti revolt^ contr lirnem. 
Well, if Satan be revolted against himself. 
For, eh ! bien. 

Ano. Ano f&r isi troa latanl. Let us make 
here three tents. Probably for " aliens." 

Bourl6. Kan soley ti fine IM, li ti bowrU. 
When the sun had risen it burnt it. 
Probably for " bruler," by a very common 
form of metathesis. Cf. French fromage 
with Italian formaggio ; Lat. formaticum. 

Casiet. E li dir lou sa san cadet. And he 
said all that without secrecy, for " cachette." 

Tiombo. Zot ti met lamfn laho Jesu e zot 
tiombo li. And they laid hands on Jesus 
and seized him. Baissac says it is for 
" tiens bon." If so, it is probably another 
case of vowel assimilation. But cf. zot tini 
bon nek pour kiktan, they endure but for a 
time. It is not for "tomber," for that 
appears as tombe, e.g., krla ossi zot tombe. 
That hour also they fall. 

Kisisa for " qu'est-ce que a 1 " 

Kikxene for " quelques-unes. 

Ziska for jusqu'a. 

These three appear in : Vre mem mo dir 
vou, fiui kikztne, ki dibou isi, ki napa va connf 

kisisa lamor, ziska ki zot fine voar roayom 
BondU vini. Verily I say unto you that 
there are some standing here, who shall not 
know what death is until they shall have 
seen the kingdom of God come. 

Fane. So rdpitasion ti fane partou. His 
fame spread abroad. From Fr. " faner " in 
the sense of spreading hay, and so generally 
to scatter. This is its chief sense in Creole, 
as witness the Mauritian gallant's toast of 
" The Ladies." " Je bois, Messieurs, aux 
roses fanees autour de la table." Otherwise 
this would be a doubtful compliment. 

Pti I It is worth noting the difference 

Piti J between these two words of the 
same origin : pti is adjective ; pti lisien, the 
young dogs. But piti is noun ; ene piti 
bourik, a foal of an ass. Cf. Piti Bondie. 
Le Fils de Dieu. This distinction points to 
a distinction in pronunciation, which mod. 
French hardly recognises. Michaelis and 
Passy's Phonetic Dictionary gives " p(a)ti " 
for both adj. and noun. 

Perhaps the most interesting class of words 
in the language are those which bear the un- 
mistakable stamp of 'a popular origin. They 
show, too, a phase of the language parallel to 
that of low Latin in comparison with the 
classical language. 

Pere, mere, fils, are replaced by papa, 
maman, piti ; comman sa fer ki li so piti ? 
How is it that he is his son ? 

Asterla gutt pid fig. Then he looked at a 
fig-tree. Pid is Fr. pied as in un pied de 
vigne, a vine. 

Asterla, is for, A cette heure-la. 

Savir zot latab zans ki sanz larzan. To cap- 
size (their) the tables of the folk who change 
money. Chavirer. 

Sa ki sava bidn napa bizodn docter. He that ' 
is well hath no need of a doctor. Sava, from, 
Comment 9a va ? and 9a va bien. 

Comman dkine blansisser laho la ter capav fer 
vine blan. As no fuller on earth can whiten 
it. Inho for la-haut, vine for venir. Cf. mod. 
Colloq. Fr. faire venir blanc, to make come 
out white. 

M6 li kit sa dra la, e li sove tou ni. But he 
left the linen cloth and fled naked. 

Apport (ne denti. E li dir zot, Ki sa portri 
la, e ki sa Uaitir la ? Bring me a penny, and 
he said to them, Whose is this image and 
superscription ? 

E zot amen sa piti bourik la av Jem, 6 zot zet 
zot lenz laho li, e Jesu ti assiz laho li. E boucou 
dimawne etal zot Unz dan si-men ; e pUn lot fane 
brans, ki zot ti fine caupd dan boa. 

And they bring that foal of an ass to Jesus, 
and they throw their garments upon it, and 
Jesus sat upon it. And many men spread 


their garments in the way, and many others 
spread branches in the way, that they had 
cut from the trees. 

It will be interesting, in conclusion, to 
compare a short passage in French with the 
same in Creole. We will take Mark xii. 1. 

"Quelqu'un planta une vigne, et 1'envi- 
ronna d'une haie, et il y creusa une fosse, et y 
batit une tour ; puis il la loua a des vignerons, 
et s'en alia dehors." 

Ene om li ti plant 6ne zardtn, 6 ti met Aie 
lentmiraz otowr li, li ti fer ladan ine bassin pour 
faraz reztn, e li ti fer 6ne latour f li ti Imrf li avec 
planter, e li ti til dan lot pfyi. 

Here the popular words are very promi- 

Such then are some of the chief features of 
this language, and these will ' suffice to give 
some idea of its character. To enter upon a 
more detailed discussion of its grammar, 
syntax and phonetics, would here be out of 
place, and more fit for a complete grammar 
of the language, which this short paper can- 
not claim to be. What has been here de- 
scribed will, however, suffice to show, if 
nothing else, at least the great risks that 
he runs who tries to " pick up a language by 
ear," without at the same time studying its 
literature. On the other hand, it serves 
equally well to show the futility of learning 
a language from its literature only, and ex- 
pecting then to understand it when spoken. 
It may thus be considered as a living argu- 
ment in favour of a combination of these two 
methods in the ordinary courses of instruc- 
tion. But a perhaps more interesting fact 
brought into relief by this study is the com- 
plication of influences that have affected the 
language in its growth and history. We 
can follow Creole from its Aryan source to 
Rome, thence across Europe to France, and 
thence across the waters to Mauritius. At 
the same time its original sister languages 
having passed westward, established them- 
selves in India, whence in turn they reach 
Mauritius, but as victims, not as victors. 
Further than this, we find the Bantu and 
Malayo-polynesian groups, both of them of 
as yet unknown origin, each influencing in 
its growth this new-born scion of the Aryan 

race. Thus there is, so to say, concentrated 
into this tiny spot of earth a compendium of 
the history of a large part of the world. 

Which of all these influences has been 
most potent seems well-nigh impossible to 
decide ; this, however, is certain that, in 
spite of the richness of the individual lan- 
guages in grammatical or syntactical forms, 
the result is a language with nothing but the 
merest traces of either. Yet it is this very 
fact that renders it so admirably adapted to 
its purpose. It is, indeed, a splendid ex- 
ample of linguistic adaptation to environ- 


Baissac, M. C. Etude sur le Patois Creole Mauri- 
cien. Nancy, 1880. 

Baissac, M. C. Le Folk-Lore de 1'Ile Maurice. 

A. Bos. Note sur le Creole que 1'on parle a 1'ile 
Maurice (Romania ix., 1880, pp. 571 ff.). 

H. Schuchardt. Sur le Creole de la Reunion 
(Romania, xi., 1882, pp. 589 ff.). 

A. Dietrich, Les parlers Creoles des Masearcignes 
(Romania xx., 1891, pp. 216-277). 

(R. de Poyen-Bellisle. Les sons et les formes du 
Creole dans les Antilles. Baltimore, 1894). 

Grant, Ch. History of Mauritius. London, 1801. 

Encyclopedia Britannica, 9th Ed. Article on 

Pondicherry. Whittaker's Almanack, large ed., 
1897. Mauritius. 

Larousse. Diet. Univ. du xix Siecle. Article, 

Beaton. Coolies and Creoles. London, 1859. 

Boyle, Ch. J. Far Away. London, 1867. 

Christaller, J. G. Die Sprachen Africas. Stutt- 
gart, 1892. 

Ton-ends, J. Grammar of the Bantu Languages. 
London, 1891. 

Cousins, W. E. Concise Introduction to the Study 
of the Malagasy Languages. Antananarivo, 1894. 

Caldwell, R. Comparative Grammar of the Dra- 
vidian Languages. London, 1875. 

Beames, J. Comparative Grammar of the Modern 
Aryan Languages of India. London, 1872. 

Gundert, H. Malayalam Grammar. Mangalore, 

Dalai, D.D. Manual of Gujarati Grammar. Surat, 

Pope. A Tamil Handbook. 

Tisdall, W. St C. Simplified Grammar of the 
Gujarati. Paul, 1882. 

For maps showing languages, see Berghaus' Physi- 
kalischer Atlas. Gotha, 1892. Abteilung vii., Atlas 
der Vblkerkunde. 




By W. P. KER. (Macmillan.) 

By GEORGE SAINTSBURY. (" Periods of European Literature," Vol. II. Blackwood.) 

IT is somewhat curious that, after being 
comparatively neglected, the Romantic 
Period of European Literature should have 
received, almost at the same time, two sub- 
stantial treatises devoted to it by eminently 
competent hands. One had previously to go 
to Ellis and Warton and Dunlop for instruc- 
tion in English, and poor instruction it was. 
The texts they had were poor and late ; 
their guesses as to the QueUen were sadly to 
seek ; above all, their critical powers were of 
the feeblest, and they judged the Romances 
after the canons of Boileau interpreted in a 
spirit half British-Philistine and the other 
half French- Voltairean. What strikes one 
first and foremost about the two new books 
on Romance is their sane yet generous 
criticism of the literary merits of the Ro- 
mances and Sagas judged as literature and 
solely as that. Luckily there is not much 
chatter about Harry or Harriet to record at 
this early period, but both writers avoid even 
what little there is and treat their subject 
solely in so far as it is qualified to please, 
amuse, and excite the literary emotions. 

The two books supplement one another. 
Prof. Ker's is in the main an account of the 
Sagas, with disquisition de quilmsdam aliis. 
Prof. Saintsbury is at his weakest, or at 
least at his curtist, on Iceland. Prof. Ker 
throughout considers the social background 
out of which the literary pictures stand 
forth ; Prof. Saintsbury, perhaps wisely, 
neglects the influence of social development 
on literary form. Prof. Ker is always dis- 
cussing the relative merits of the diverse 
forms of literary art in general, not with- 
out reference to the De Poeticu ; Prof. Saints- 
bury leaves abstract discussion severely 
alone. Between the two, the " ordinary 
reader" can get as much instruction as to 
the matter and style of European Romance 
as he is likely to require, while the student 
will get from Prof. Saintsbury just that 
general review which he needs to " place " 
any particular object of his study in its due 

Turning to the books separately, one is a 
little disappointed with Prof. Ker's ; not 
so much perhaps from any fault of the 

book or of Prof. Ker as from the high 
expectations which one had formed of any 
work coming from the author of the Intro- 
duction to English Prose Writers. One ex- 
pected the same breadth of treatment, so- 
briety of judgment, accuracy of phrasing, 
and sense of proportion which distinguishes 
that essay. But one scarcely gets that com- 
bination in Epic and Romance.. As already 
observed, the larger part of the book is 
taken up with the Sagas, and welcome as 
is a critical introduction to Saga-study, 
Vigfusson's Introduction to the Sturlunga, 
when combined with Dasent's to the Njdla, 
already supplies the place. There is besides 
a tendency to the cobbler's praise of leather 
in Prof. Ker's judgments on the epic nar- 
rative, as he calls it, of the Sagas. Now 
there is undoubtedly a remarkable com- 
minution of treatment between the greater 
sagas and the Homeric epics. The imper- 
sonality of treatment, the subconscious irony 
of tone, the nobleness and naturalness of 
sentiment, are common to the two litera- 
tures. But, unless criticism means nothing, 
the patent fact that the Greek epic is poetry, 
the Sagas prose, is itself sufficient to put a 
gulf between them. " Not as narrative," 
Prof. Ker may reply ; but even as narra- 
tive the Greek verse, with its necessary diver- 
tissements, prevents that tendency to tedium 
which is the all-pervading weakness of the 
Sagas, even the greatest of them. Their 
method is throughout the realistic ; in narra- 
tive they are, so to speak, of the Dutch 
school. That makes them all the more 
effective when they come to the great pas- 
sages, but in the intervals not on so high 
a level ; it renders the details tedious, especi- 
ally as, in most cases, their form is the bio- 
graphy, if not sometimes the family history. 
Hence their greatness is in patches, and a 
thing which rarely happens with really great 
literature their excellence comes out higher 
in extracts than as wholes. What does that 
mean but bad artistry in the adaptation of 
means to end t Prof. Ker is not unaware 
of all this indeed, he has an admirable 
passage explaining the looseness of texture 
in many of the Sagas. But his language at 


times is unqualified, and too likely to leave 
a false impression of the artistic values of 
the Saga narratives. 

Nor has he left a clear impression of the 
distinction he means to convey by the two 
terms of his title. One gathers only that 
there is something special about the epic, 
while it is the tendency of romance to be 
romantic. More seriously, Prof. Ker has 
to own that there is often more romance in 
what he calls Epics than in the Romances 
properly so-called. This is at once to give 
up the attempt to distinguish between what 
it might have been preferable to call Early 
and Later Romance. The contrast in tone 
between Beowulf or Roland, for instance, and 
Erec or Aliscans, is indeed great. But one 
can fill in the intervals with approximations 
to the tone of one or other till we get a 
series which would be in the main homo- 
geneous. We want a name for the series in 
preference, the calling one end of it Epic 
and the other Romance. The futility of the 
latter process comes out most clearly when 
we are asked to call the " matter of France " 
Epic (really because we happen to have an 
early example of it in the Roland) and the 
"matter of Britain " Romance. It is indeed 
a curious fact that the jongleurs, as a rule, 
confined themselves strictly to the one or the 
other. But, after all, speaking generally, the 
two sets were produced contemporaneously 
under the same influences, and though their 
"matter" is different, the form is the same. 

The real contrast to be drawn is that 
between subjects which are regarded as 
sacred (not necessarily religious), and those 
which are not of this character; in other 
words, it is the mythological element which 
is a necessary ingredient in the epic. Prof. 
Ker declares that in the Iliad the mytho- 
logical elements are subordinate and ex- 
ternal, but that is judging from our point 
of view. To the Hellenic mind the inter- 
vention of Athene or Hermes was even more 
interesting than the natural emotions of 
Achilles and Priam. At any rate the sacred 
or mythological character of the theme serves 
to account for the difference of tone between 
the medieval folk epics and the later romances. 
Even the Roland had its sacred character in 
the times immediately preceding the Cru- 
sades. The Morte d' Arthur has its interest 
from this point of view as an attempt to 
create a sort of artificial mythology about 
the earlier history of Britain. It was the 
infusion of the mystic element of the Holy 
Grail which makes the Arthuriad so con- 
fusing to classify pseudo-epic in tone, 
romantic in treatment. 

Apart from this want of perspective in 
the treatment of its parts, and apart from 
a certain want of definitencss in the defini- 
tion of his subject matter, Prof. Ker's book 
forms an admirable Einlfitung to medieval 
literature. He rightly concentrates his atten- 
tion on typical examples of the various 
branches with which he deals, and one is es- 
pecially grateful to him for the admirable ver- 
sions which he has given of some of the most 
striking passages in the sagas and romances. 
This is indeed to interpret for us the spirit 
of romance. Of criticism of these detailed 
descriptions I do not feel myself capable, but 
I must express my surprise that Prof. Ker 
regards the Flamenco, as at all distinctive 
of the medieval romantic school. It appears 
to me quite exceptional in its approximation 
in form, and even to a certain extent in 
sentiment to the modern novel. 

Turning to Prof. Saintsbury's work, one 
is struck with the success with which he 
has marshalled, within a comparatively few 
pages, such a very wide extent of literature. 
Part of it had already been surveyed in his 
Short History of French Literature, but his 
treatment here is both fuller and more 
mature, while he has added summary 
accounts of German, Icelandic, Provencal, 
and Spanish literature in the period of 
which he treats which display the same 
skill in selecting the distinctive qualities of 
whole literary movements. He quite un- 
necessarily apologises for his lack of expert 
knowledge of these latter literatures. For 
the particular purposes of his book it was 
preferable that he should regard them, as it 
were, from the outside. 

It is somewhat difficult, nevertheless, to 
understand the exact scope and plan of 
the series of which Prof. Saintsbury's book 
was the first volume issued. There is a 
sense in which we can talk of European 
literature almost in every age. Since the 
break up of the Roman Empire there has 
been some particular form and branch of 
literature which has attracted the common 
attention of all the western nations of Europe. 
In the particular period with which Prof. 
Saintsbury deals, even the same subjects 
were treated throughout the whole area. 
The Arthuriad, the Eenard, the Exempla, 
and some of the oriental collections of tales 
were reproduced in almost all the tongues 
spoken between Iceland and the Pyrenees, 
and between Wales and Constantinople. The 
treatment of these common topics in their 
various forms would constitute European 
literature in a strict sense, but what this 
series aims at doing would rather appear to 


be an account of the literatures of Europe at 
a certain epoch, giving special prominence to 
the literature which was most ti/iiiii/t/rliriii/ at 
the time. So far as any particular literary 
product is not common to all, it is neces- 
sarily not European, and from the nature of 
the case this description would apply to the 
majority of the works dealt with in any one 
division of the series. Some years ago 
Prof. Dowden suggested a short Primer of 
European literature dealing with the general 
tendencies of literature in Christendom. 
This would indeed have been European 
literature in the proper sense, whereas 
Prof. Saintsbury's series will, so far as 
one can observe, consist of a collection of 
histories of the literatures of the various 
European countries bound up together 
according to epochs. No single literature 
can on these lines be treated uniformly, and 
it is difficult to see the exact aim that such 
a series is intended to subserve. It will 
indeed testify to the wide learning of the 
separate contributors, but few of them, still 
less Prof. Saintsbury, need such testimony. 

One would have expected some attempt 
at an explanation of the general character 
of the epoch with which Prof. Saintsbury 
deals, but, as before remarked, he confines 
himself entirely to the literary aspect of his 
theme, and has nothing to say of the historic 
or social background which caused the uni- 
formity so characteristic of the romance 
period. This adds unnecessarily to the dis- 
connected character of his treatment, and at 
times has resulted in some serious lacuna;. 
The first chapter on the function of Latin 
suffers particularly from this neglect. There 
is no mention of the E.ffin/ilti nor of the 
curious Natural Histories which had such 
striking influence, while the lives of the 
Saints and the huge Encyclopedias, like that 
of Vincent of Beauvais, should not have been 
left out of any account of European litera- 
ture. They had at least more influence on 
the general course of literature than the 
scholastic philosophy to which Prof. Saints- 
bury devotes a few pages. Still more import- 
ant in any adequate treatment of the rise 
of allegory, so characteristic of this period, 
was the allegorical method of exegesis applied, 
in the first instance, to the Old Testament, 
and spreading thence over the whole of 
European thought. I note too an absence 
of all reference to the influence of the East 
and of Byzantium, which would appro- 
priately come in if a strictly European stand- 
point had been maintained. 

Where Prof. Saintsbury does generalise he 
is often very suggestive. Thus he rightly 

claims for Britain both the source and de- 
velopment of the Arthurian romances. He 
might indeed have gone further and claimed 
for the Angevin Empire at least most of 
what is specifically known as romantic litera- 
ture. As I have elsewhere pointed out, 
nearly two-thirds of the French writers of 
the twelfth century were connected with the 
court of England. 

Prof. Saintsbury is indeed at his best 
in dealing with the " matter of Britain." 
Amidst the vagaries of enthusiasts he keeps 
his head clear, while he does fair justice to 
the enthusiasts themselves and their reason- 
ing. It is somewhat curious that he does 
not appear to be aware of the existence of 
Gaston Paris' very thoroughgoing treatment 
of the whole subject in the thirtieth volume 
of the Histoire Litternire, at least he does not 
mention it in the bibliographical note on 
page 87, where he declares that "a complete 
and impartial history of the. whole subject 
is still wanting and sorely wanted." The 
utility of these bibliographical notes, indeed, 
is somewhat doubtful throughout, so much 
is omitted that has equal' right of entry, the 
method of reference is so irregular, while 
actual mistakes are not altogether absent. 
Bibliography, too, becomes so soon obsolete 
that it is likely to be misleading within a 
few years. 

It is obviously impossible in a cursory 
review of this kind to devote attention to 
any of the special topics which crowd 
Prof. Saintsbury's pages. A miscellaneous 
chapter, like the seventh, dealing with 
Renard, Ysopet, the Fabliaux, the Romance 
of the Rose and the early chroniclers, is as 
good a one as any to test Prof. Saints- 
' bury's method. With a few incisive touches 
he brings out the main points of interest 
of each class of literature, but the treat- 
ment is necessarily slight, and resembles too 
frequently mere catalogue raisonnde. Prof. 
Saintsbury consistently puts aside the ques- 
tion of sources, which is surely specially 
relevant when treating things from a Euro- 
pean standpoint, but it is quite sufficient 
defence for him that it was impossible to 
deal adequately with such unsettled prob- 
lems in a book of this kind. 

Altogether, these two books ought to aid 
in that revived interest in the literature of 
romance which has come to us more perhaps 
from pictorial than from literary art. When 
we reflect what a comparatively easy thing it 
is to acquire a knowledge of early French or 
Middle German, it is surprising how few 
students of the delightful literature which 
exists in these tongues are to be found in 


this country. If some of our minor poets, 
instead of presenting us with their minor 
poetry, would apply their skill in verse to 
the production of some of the Pastourelles or 
the Lyrics of Walther von der Vogelweide, 
not to mention the Roland and the Cid, they 
would deserve our gratitude, while increasing 
their reputation. AucMSsin et Nicolete has 
been made an English classic, why not Robin 
d Marion, if we may regard Henryson's ver- 
sion as obsolete ? The longueurs of the Chansons 

de Geste stand in the way of any complete 
translation, but a volume of selections some- 
what on the plan of Ellis would make de- 
lightful reading. But there is no end of 
the suggestions that one could make of this 
kind with reference to this particular period 
of European literature. As Prof. Saints- 
bury remarks, "it produced some of the 
greatest matter, and some of not the least 
delightful handlings of matter, in book- 
history." JOSEPH JACOBS. 


Edited by EDMUND GOSSE. 
IV. Italian Literature. By RICHARD GARNETT, C.B., LL.D. 

DR GARNETT'S History, like the others in 
this series, is incommoded by the publisher's 
limitations, which prevent the author from 
saying what he would like to say, and pull 
him up at every turn just when he is getting 
well into his subject. These little books, to 
put it plainly, are illiberal and vexatious a 
scholar of Dr Garnett's eminence might be 
allowed to choose his own way of treating 
the matter of his studies. It is a relief to 
turn from this restricted kind of writing to 
the absolute freedom of Dr Garnett's style 
in those delightful historical studies called 
the Twilight of tlie Gods. In this present 
book he is writing with less than half his 

Granting, however, the scale on which this 
history is composed, it can be said at once 
that few authors, at any rate in England, 
could have dealt more effectively with the 
theme. The history has the right excel- 
lences of a short history ; it is clear, it is 
well-proportioned, it gives a due amount 
both of facts and of critical judgment (till 
the printer's limit is reached) ; above all, it 
is calculated for the only reader who is worth 
considering, the inquisitive person who will 
want to know more, and who will find his 
way from this book to the Italian authors 

Some objections have to be taken, for in 
some points the history seems open to amend- 
ment. For one thing, the proofs have not 
been read with enough care, and some of the 
misprints are annoying. " Sonnetto " is not 
a sonnet (p. 9). Ciullo d'Alcamo, Cielo dal 
Camo, is twice mis-spelt on p. 7. " Jacopino 
di Todi" (p. 21) means Jacopone daTodi: 
" Che farai, fra Jacopone ? " On p. 216, 1. 10, 
read II Pamdiso degli Alberti. On p. 284, 


the opening line of Filicaja's famous sonnet 
is grievously mangled. There are more 
serious faults. The history of the earlier 
poetry might have been made more definite, 
and the differences between the Sicilian school 
and the Tuscan should have been more fully 
explained and emphasised. Injustice is done 
to the Provencals on p. 5 ; the old familiar 
injustice, which persists in looking only at 
the artifices and affectations of those poets, 
and in ignoring their more natural and spon- 
taneous melodies. There is more life, more 
of the spirit of Villon, or of Dunbar, in the 
Provencal poets, in the Count of Poitiers or 
the Monk of Montaudon, than in the Italian 
contemporaries of Dante ; it is a mistake in 
historical judgment to treat the Provencals 
merely as pioneers, or as a stage to be hurried 
over. Again, Dr Garnett's estimate of Dante 
raises many questions. Dante's treatment of 
Ulysses is called " astonishing." Dr Garnett 
appears more impressed by the punishment 
of Ulysses among the thieves than by the 
story of his voyage " beyond the Sun." 
There is an interesting comparison of Dante 
and Milton, which would leave any one who 
did not know Dante with the idea that Dante 
was a fine minute worker, incapable of rising 
above the finer touches of description to the 
stronger excellences of swift movement or of 
lofty eloquence. A sentence may be quoted, 
and wondered at : " In an age when minute 
description is in fashion, Dante's virtuoso-like 
skill in graphic delineation has been favour- 
able to his renown; but a reaction must 
ensue when a bolder and ampler style of 
handling is again appreciated at its worth " 
(p. 50). 

It may be remarked that on p. 105 the 
Travels of Marco Polo are mentioned as if they 



were IMiun prose of the thirteenth century; 
the French original belongs to the very end 
of that century. On p. 221 a word would 
have sufficed to indicate that the Penfamerme 
was written, not merely by a Neapolitan, but 
in the Neapolitan language. Room might 
have been found for Antonio Pucci in the 
history of the more popular poetry of the 
fourteenth century, and for Martelli, in the 
eighteenth, by reason of his metrical innova- 
tions. Among the books of reference in the 
appendix should be included the Crestomazia 
of Monaci, as it represents those aspects of 
the early Italian literature which have been 

least considered in England : the common 
unrefined medieval forms, very different from 
the courtly styles, Sicilian or Tuscan. 

The parts of Dr Garnett's history which 
seem to have been written with most enjoy- 
ment and most success are those on Petrarch, 
Tasso, and Leopardi. 

If in this review some points of Dr Gar- 
nett's statement have been challenged, it 
has been with the fullest acknowledgment, 
both of the great difficulties in his task and 
of the very remarkable and admirable way 
in which they have been surmounted. 

W. P. KER. 

Von M. EVERS. Leipzig, 1898. B. G. Teubner. M. 1. 

Zu den jVorztigen von Schillers ' Jungfrau 
von Orleans,' vor seinem vorhergehenden 
Drama ' Maria Stuart,' wird gewohnlich der 
Umstand gerechnet, dass in dieser ' schwarz- 
drapierten Tragodie ' nur die Busse und 
Siihne zum Vorschein kommt, wahrend 
in dem romantisch - lyrischen Trauerspiel 
sowohl Schuld als Busse sich zeigt. Vom 
rein dramatischen Standpunkt aus betrach- 
tet, ist dieser Umstand im allgemeinen, 
entschieden ein Vorteil ; in kritischer Bezie- 
hung jedoch kann er leicht zum Nachteil 
ausfallen, besonders in Dramen, wo die 
Schuld nicht klar und deutlich hervortritt, 
und folglich zu verschiedenen Deutungen 
Veranlassung geben kann. So entstand in 
Bezug auf Schiller's ' Jungfrau ' unter den 
Kritikern die Frage : Worin bestand eigent- 
lich die schwere Schuld der Heldin, dass sie 
sie folgerecht mit ihrem Tode biissen musste? 
War es schon die plotzliche Verliebung in 
den englischen Feldherrn Lionel, oder bloss 
die Folge dieser Leidenschaft, die Scheming 
des Feindes niimlich ? War es die willkiir- 
liche Uberschreitung der vom Himmel der 
Schlachtenjungfrau auferlegten Sendung 
durch die Totung des Wallisers mit eigener 
Hand ? Oder endlich war es die Selbst- 
iiberhebung der niedriggeborenen Hirtin 1 
Die schwierige Losung dieser Fragen war es 
nun, iiber die sich im gespaltenen Lager der 
deutschen Kritiker ein heftiger Streit ent- 
spann, der zu der vorliegenden Schrift die 
nachste Veranlassung gab. Die Polemik 
wurde urspriinglich in der von Dr Otto 
Lyon herausgegebenen ' Zeitschrift fiir den 
deutschen Unterricht' gefiihrt. Herr M. 
Evers hatte in dieser Monatsschrift seine 
Ansichten tiber die Tragik in Schillers 

schwungvoller Tragodie niedergelegt und 
wurde in Folge dessen von dem bekannten 
Germannisten Dr Albert Richter, scharf 
angegriffen. Herr Evers antwortete in 
eiriem umfangreichen ' Aufsatz, von dem er 
kiirzlich den vorliegenden Separatabdruck 
herausgab. Mangel an Raum verhindert uns 
die verschiedenen Ansichten der streitenden 
Parteien eingehend zu erortern. Wir wollen 
uns daher nur darauf beschranken, das 
Resultat zu dem Herr Evers in seiner mit 

frossem Fleiss und Ernst ausgearbeiteten 
chrift gelangt ist, kurz anzugeben. 
'Schon vor der Lionelscene mit ihrer 
immerhin entscheidenden Wendung,' be- 
merkt der Verfasser am Ende seines Auf- 
satzes, ' verstrickt sich Johanna- -eben von 
der Nachtscene II., 4 und den Montgomery- 
scenen alsder"Achse derTragik"ab in jene, 
zuniichst allerdings noch unbewusst wahn- 
hafte und gerade deshalb um so tragischere 
DOPPELSCHULD ; einmal der gewaltsam ei- 
genmiichtigen GRENZUBERSCHREITUNG ihres 
reinen Propheten und Fiihrerberufs durch 
personliche Einmischung in den Ein- 
zelkampf und blutige Totung einzelner, 
sogar wehrloser Feinde ; anderseits, un- 
trennbar damit verbunden und wechsel- 
seitig bedingt, der momentan-exaltierten 
SELBSTUBERHEBUNG in Leugnung all ihrer 
irdisch natiirlichen Beziehungen und in 
Selbstvergleichung mit den Engeln Gottes. 
... So wird sie sehliesslich bis zu solcher Hohe 
unbewachter Selbstiiberhitzung getrieben, 
wo als ebenso psychologisch natiirliche Folge 
der jiiheste Umschlag ins gerade Gegenteil 
droht und in der Lionelscene, in gottver- 
hangter Nemesis-Fiigung, auch thattsachlich 
eintritt, um sie nun in wirklich btivusst- 


empfundene Schuld und Gewissensqual zu 

Denjenigen die eine genaue kritische Un- 
tersuchung der Frage, worin eigentlich die 
Tragik in Schiller's ' Jungfrau von Orleans ' 
bestehe, anstellen wollen, sei Herrn Evers' 
Schrift samt den einschlagigen vorangegan- 

*enen Aufsatzen in 
bestens empfohlen. 1 

Lyons Zeitschrift, 


1 The same question has of late been admirably 
discussed in the second volume of Ludw. Beller- 
mann's fine book ScMUcrs Dromon. Eeitraye zu ihrcm 
Verstandnis. Berlin : Weidmann. 1891. K. B. 




(Mod. Lang. Quarterly, No. 2, and Mod. Quarterly of Lang., No. 1.) 

(1) Paragraphs 8 and 9 require some 
modification and correction. I have been 
reminded by a distinguished continental 
Teutonist, through our " mutual friend " 
Dr Lawrence, that cunmn, trudan, and wigan 
itself, belong to a class of primitive tense- 
forms in which the accent fell on the stem- 
vowel instead of the root, and the root 
consequently appeared in its weakest form 
[as in the sixth Sanskrit conjugation ; cf. 
trpdti with sdrpati, wk. root srp] ; whence it 
follows [unless in any instance two presents 
were handed down] that what seem to be 
the regular forms, qvi/aun, tredan, weihan, 
are really the younger, evolved by analogy 
to the normal ablaut-series of their several 
classes. Wigan (uriym) originally belonged 
to the i-series ; rc-umlaut in Teut. would lead 
to wejan, which is the A-S. form (in compp., 
Beow. 2401, Byrht. 183, 228), and to O.N. 
vega : in Gothic, of course, the e reverted to i. 
So far, therefore, the influence of the similar 
verb wegan, wigan = La.t. where, need not be 
taken into account. [The verbs in question, 
the " Aoristproesciitia," were first investigated 
by Osthoff, Betiriige, viii. 287-311 : an out- 
line of the subject is given by Kluge in 
Paul's Grundriss, i. 369, and in Streitberg's 
Urgerm. Gram., 291, 292. I read Osthoff's 
art. on its appearance (about 1882), but 
forgot Captain Cuttle's standing order. 
While simplifying my paragraphs, the cor- 
I'ection makes the form wigan indisputable.] 
(2) Streitberg, in U. G. 126, following E. 
Hermann, in Kukn's ZS. xxxiii. 531, points 
out that in Teutonic the coalescence of 
prefix and verb could not have taken place 
until after the completion of the Teut. 
" Accentverschiebung " ; otherwise the prefix 
would have taken the accent (duginnan, 
suppose) as the noun-prefix did ; whereas 
the accent rested and remained on the root- 

syllable of the verb (diujliiwm = begin). 
This fact of accentuation was established by 
Lachmann nearly seventy years ago : H. and 
S. now give the immediate rmstm for it, and 
bring down the chronology of coalescence to 
a comparatively late date, perhaps towards 
the beginning of our era. But the process 
was not everywhere completed for centuries 
later, as is shown by the numerous instances 
of " hovering " of the particle, of which I 
gave a few specimens in par. 16. 1 Now, 
behind the accentuation, a reason is required 
for that remarkably prolonged non-coales- 
cence ; and until a better is offered I 
venture to suggest that a feasible one is 
supplied by the hypothesis in par. 14 : we 
have only to assume a persistent Spniclt- 
gefiihl to the effect that the particle did not 
strictly and fully belong to the verb, a 
Gefiihl at once evidenced, and kept from quite 
dying out, by survivals of the primitive 
construction, object (direct or indirect) 
+ particle + verb. The suggestion is not 
weakened by the fact of the much earlier 
coalescence of particle and noun, which may 
indeed have taken place, in each instance, 
soon after the two were brought into juxta- 
position ; for, firstly, there was no other 
word" alongside to claim the particle by 
prior right ; and, secondly, the juxta-posited 
part, and noun would inevitably be assimi- 
lated, as regards both coalescence and accen- 
tuation, to the . pattern of the ancient 
compounds of the forms adj. +subst., subst. 
-fsubst., etc. 

1 It is not improbable that, in Go., many examples 
are concealed by the non-separation of words in the 
codices; e.g. , 1 Cor. x. 1, mnrcin^AiAiddjedim , 
printed mareiii tyiirhiddjedun, " they-went-throu<jh 
the-sea," but not unlikely to be marein-tyairh idtlje- 
dun, " tliey-went the-sea-through." (Compare the 
Skt. conglomerates of the form (say) pit 
" he-is-standing-near-his-father.") 



(3) The assumed " provection " of the 
particle from the subst. to the vb. may be 
illustrated by the numerous instances in 
English of the provection of a consonant 
from the end of one word to beginning of 
the next, as shown in Nell, wuncle, (the) 
once, (the) fother; the names Price, 
Powell, etc. Mr Giles (p. 177) gives similar 
instances from the Greek. The much rarer 
examples of " retrovection " of a consonant 
(as in a?i adder, a?t apron, etc.) illustrate 
the transference of the preposition from its 
phrase to the preceding verb (par. 21). 

(4) A large number of prefixal substan- 
tives, immediately derived from verbs, 
survive in English, even although their 
related verbs may now show a subsecutive 
particle (par. 18), e.g. : bystander, but to 
stand by' ; onlooker, but to look on' ; outcast, but 
to cast out'. Some such have even got dupli- 
cates by following the example of the verb ; 
as, slander by', looker on'. The latter pattern 
is to be expected in modern instances, 
hanger on', passer by', or that beauty, a 
clmeker out ; and Autolycus was " a snapper 
up' of unconsidered trifles." The substan- 
tives may still take the plural, hangers on', 
chuckers out', etc., etc. The use of such 
forms may be indefinitely extended : thus 
we read, " There is a school of speakers otif 
. . ." (Merriman, "The Sowers"). The 
foregoing are nomina agenlis ; but there are 
similar instances, though fewer, among 
abstract verbals ; as, an outlook, dupl. a look 
out', like the verb to look out' ; so a race-horse 
may have a walk over ; a school-boy, at the 
" tuck-shop," a luck in' ; " Ike's friends are 
giving him a send off' " (Punch's Aim. '98) ; 
and so on. 

(5) Par. 22, "Norse influence": Mr 
Kington Oliphant ("0. and M. English") 
says " Danish ; " we mean the same thing : 
" A new construction of prepositions [?] is 
seen [circ. 1160] in candles to ceten bi. . . . 
This gives wonderful freedom to our con- 
struction of sentences : Orminn, forty years 
later, was often to imitate this idiom, which 
seems to be Danish." T. LE M. D. 


In common, I suppose, with most editors 
of classical works, 1 have found that much 
interesting material for annotations and 
explanations has fallen in my way too late 
to be incorporated in my work ; at all events 
until the remote period when a new edition 
may by the exhaustion of the stock in hand 
become a question of the immediate future. 
In the case of Dante, however, this process 

is governed it would seem by the move- 

Del oerchio che piii tardi in cielo e torto, 

and the margins of an editor's own copy be- 
come filled with ' happy thoughts ' craving 
utterance in vain. Profiting therefore by 
the appearance of the Modern Quarterly, I 
have ventured to pick out one or two such 
annotations that I have made at various times 
in the last few years, and offer them for the 
consideration of scholars. The two references 
to Eckhard are the merest sample of the 
parallels that can be found in Dante, especially 
in the Paradise, to the doctrine of the first 
and greatest of the ' Deutsche Mystiker.' 
How there comes to be this close similarity 
in thought and often in phraseology between 
two men whose writings were probably un- 
intelligible, and almost certainly unknown 
to each other, is a question into which I am 
not now prepared to go, though some day I 
hope to do so. 

Hell ii. 88-90. 'Temer si dee ... dell' 
altre no, che non son paurose.' 

Of. Ar. Etu. iii. 6. foj3oijfj,eda ds d 

lb. id. 100. Imitated by Boccaccio, Fiam- 
melbi iv. : fortuna spaventevole, nimica 
di ciascun felice. 

Ib. xv. 67. Blondus Flavius Foroliviensis 
has a curious passage (apparently alluded to, 
but without reference, by Troya, Veltro 
Allegorico, p. 126) in connection with the 
epithet ' blind ' applied to the Florentines. 
Speaking of the embassy sent by Henry VII. 
to the Florentines in 1310 he goes on : 
' Dantes Aldegerius Forolivii tune agens in 
epistola ad Ganem Grandem Scaligerum 
Veronensem partis albae extorrium et suo 
nomine data (quam Peregrinus Calvus 
scriptam reliquit) talia dicit de responsione 
supradictae exposition! a Florentinis urbem 
tenentibus tune facta, per quae temeritatis 
et petulantiae ac caecitatis sedentes ad 
clavum notat ; adeo ut Benvenutus Imo- 
lensis, quern Peregrin! scripta legisse credi- 
derim, Dantem asserat hinc coepisse Flor- 
entines epiteto caecos appellare.' Where 
Benvenuto makes this assertion does not 
appear. It is not in his comment on the 
line. Peregrinus Calvus was secretary (epis- 
tolarum magister) to Scarpetta degli Ordelaffi, 
and many letters of his are said to have been 
extant when Blondus wrote, a little more 
than 100 years after Dante's death, in which 
Dante is frequently mentioned. Where are 
they now 1 

Ib. xx. 63. To ' Tiralli ' Benvenuto notes : 
'unus comitatus in introitu Alenvnniae 


ubi regnant . . comites . . qui vocantur 
Turones.' ' Turones ' = Diirrenstein, a castle 
near Schloss Tirol, by the name of which the 
counts were also known. 

Pug. iii. 133-5. Compare the final words 
of the 87th chapter of Villani, Book vi. : 
' Iddio giiisto signore, il quale per grazia 
indugia il suo giudicio ai peccatori perche si 
riconoscano, ma alia fine non perdona a cui 
non ritorna a lui, tosto mando la sua maladi- 
zione e ruina a Manfredi.' It is hard not 
to believe that the words which Dante puts 
into Manfred's mouth were meant as a 
deliberate rejoinder to this or some similar 

Ib. xv. 55, Note that in Dante's time 
clivicto and consorto were terms in frequent 
use the former denoting the period which 
had to elapse before a person who had served 
any public office would be re-elected ; the 
latter, a member of one of the consorlerie, 
or bodies of clansmen and adherents who 
gathered round the heads of the great 
houses. The two things were not uncon- 
nected, as we learn from M. Villani, viii. 23 : 
' A costoro [artefici minuti e nuovi cittadini] 
quasi non toccava divieto, perche non erano 
di consorteria ' ; the divieto having by this 
time been extended to the whole family of 
an office-holder. Now Dante has caught the 
two well-known words in the speech of Guido 
del Luca (see 1. 87 of the previous canto), 
and not having understood their sense as 
used by him, turns to Virgil as they move 
forward, with ' What did that spirit from 
Romagna mean by talking about divieto 
and consorto 1" A charmingly natural and 
picturesque touch. 

Ib. xvii. 106-111. Compare Eckhart, Ser- 
mon V. (Pfeiffer, p. 31, 1. 8 sqq.) : " Es ist 
enkein creature sd snoede, diu ihtes minnen 
miige, daz boese ist, wan waz man minnet, 
daz muoz entweder guot sm oder guot 
schlnen. Nft nement allez daz guot, daz 
creaturen geleisten miigent, daz ist ellez 
ein luter bdsheit gegen gote." 

Ib. xxx. 85 sqq. Curiously like Odyssey 
L 205 sqq. 

us Si x"V Karer^Ker' eV a.Kpoir&\oi.<ru> 
rjv r' EBpos KartT-q^ev, tiity Ze0ty>os Kara 

&S TTJS TTIKCTO /CoXi TTttpTJia 5aK/>l^Ol5(T7;S. 

Par. ix. 103-105. Compare Eckhart 
(Pfeiffer, p. 557, 1. 8 sqq.) : " Der reht were 
gesetzet in den willen gotes, der solte niht 
wellen, die siinde d& er in gevallen was, daz 
des niht geschehen were ; niht also als er 
wider got was, sunder als verre du da mite 
bist gebunden suo merre minne." 
: Ib. id. 123. The allusion is obvious to 

Psalm Ixxvii. (78 in our version) 54 : " in 
montem quern acquisivit dextera eius." The 
conquest of the Promised Land was the work 
of God's right hand ; the victory of Christ 
was won by the two hands nailed to the 

Ib. xvii. 18. Very probably suggested by 
a saying which Aquinas (S. T. ii. 2, Q. 127, 
A. 9) quotes from Gregory : " Jacula quae 
praevidentur minus feriunt." 



1. The O.E. verbs hentan, myntan. 

THAT O.E. huntian, ' to hunt,' is related to the 
Gothic hin\>an, 'to seize, take prisoner' (cp. 
also G. hurifrs, ' captivity,' O.E. hu\>, ' booty,' 
etc.) is the generally accepted view. An 
Indogermanic t, of which the ]> in hin]mn is 
the regular Germanic representative, could, 
under certain conditions, especially when 
next to a nasal, become Indog. d, as in Lat. 
mendax besides mentiri (cp. Brugmann, Grun- 
driss der vergl. Gram., 2ndEd. I. 701, and Anm. 
d). This Indog. d yielded the Germanic t 
which we have in huntian. In the same way 
has arisen the t in O.E. hentan, ' to seize, 
pursue ' ( = *hantjan), which is, though, so 
far as I am aware, it has not been pointed 
out before, the causative verb belonging to 
the same strong verb hintyan. 1 Similarly 
from the Indog. root *myt (cp. Lat. mens, 
mentis) come both O.E. gemynd 2 (N.E. mind) 
and O.E. myntan, ' to think, intend.' 

2. Old English *cafian. 

To express the idea of separating the chaff 
from the corn, we find in the modern dialects 
the verb to chave or cave (cp. Wright, Engl. 
Dialed Diet., i. pp. 548 and 569). The form 
chave is obviously either an Old or a Middle- 
English new formation from the substantive 
O.E. ceaf, M.E. chaf. And this may also be 
the case with the form to cave in so far as it 
is used in the Northern Dialects : an O.E. 
(West Saxon) *ceafian would be represented 
in N.E. by chave in the South, but by cave in 
the North. But a glance at Wright's dic- 
tionary shows us that, whilst to chave seems 
to be confined to a limited area (West York- 
shire, Cheshire, and Shropshire), the form 
cave is in use, not only in the North, but in 
the Midlands and the South (in Wiltshire, 
Hampshire, Isle of Wight, Sussex, etc.). 

1 It has been supposed that Jumdis connected with 
the same root, and means ' that which grasps ' ; but 
this is improbable ; cp. E. Zupitza, Die germanischen 
Gutturale, Berlin, 1896, p. 183. 

2 The d instead of ]>, for Indog. t, by Verner's law. 



This Southern cave evidently cannot come 
from an O.E. (West Saxon) *ceafian, nor from 
a M.E. (Southern) chaven : in other words, 
it cannot be either an Old or Middle-English 
new formation from the substantive ceaf. 
Nor is there any Scandinavian word from 
which it could come. If, however, we 
assume by the side of the primitive Ger- 
manic substantive *caf, a verb *cafojan 
derived from it, the Modern to cave in the 
South of England becomes perfectly regular. 
In the case of the substantive the develop- 
ment was : caf > ccef > ccef (palatalization of c 
to 6 by the ui) > ceaf; in *cafojan on the 
other hand, the a (standing in an open 
syllable followed by ij) was not changed to 
'.e, so that the palatalization and subsequent 
assibilation to ch never took place, the 
&-sound remaining. This verb may have 
been a primitive Germanic or a prehistoric 
English formation, but in any case it must 
have been derived from the substantive 
before the palatalization of c by a following 
(K ; otherwise it would have yielded chave. 
Now this palatalization of c is older than the 
i-umlaut, which had been fully carried out 
before the period of our earliest writings 
(Pogatscher, Paul und Braune's Beitriige, xviii. 
474, places the i-umlaut in the sixth century, 
and it cannot well belater) ; hence we are 
justified in asserting that, at some period 
earlier than the sixth century, a verb was 
derived from *caf which in O.E. must have 
assumed the form *cqfian. Though no such 
verb is recorded, the to cave of the Southern 
dialects of to-day prove that it did exist in 
Old English. ARTHUR S. NAPIER. 

OXFORD, Chriitmas 1897. 

PAUL MEYER. (Tire des Notices et 
Extraits des MSS. de la Bibliotheque 
Nationale et autres Bibliotheques. 
Tome XXXV., 2 e Partie.) Paris: 
Klincksieck. 1897. 4to. 42 pp. 

ALEXANDER NECKHAM, * as is well known, was 
an Englishman, who was born at St Albans 
in September 1157, on the same day as 
Richard Cceur-de-Liori, whose foster-brother 
he was. After spending some seven years 
as professor in Paris, he returned to 
England in 1187, and having become an 
Augustine canon, was elected abbot of the 
monastery of Cirencester in 1213. He died 

1 M. Paul Meyer takes occasion to remark that the 
notice of Neckham in the Dictionary of National 
Biography is very inadequate. 

in 1217. He left behind him a number of 
writings in prose and verse, comprising 
philosophical and biblical commentaries, as 
well as treatises upon science and grammar, 
several of which have been printed. 

The Corrogationes Promethei, to which M. 
Paul Meyer draws attention in this article, 
was one of his earlier works, having been 
written before the De Natwris Rermn and 
De Laudibus divinae Sapientiae, and probably 
before his election to the abbacy of Ciren- 
cester. This work, of which eighteen MSS. 
are known (eight of these being in Oxford), 
consists of two parts. The first contains an 
elementary treatise on grammar, borrowed 
for the most part from Donatus and Priscian. 
The second part contains a commentary on 
the Bible, which has a special interest, inas- 
much as in some passages glosses in French 
are introduced. A- note on the word nameat 
(in Numbers xxi. 5) furnishes a delightful 
specimen of mediaeval etymology (which, un- 
like the generality of mediaeval etymologies, 
happens to be correct), the fitness of which, 
we may be sure, had been brought home to 
the writer during more than one stormy 
passage across the channel ; he says : 

"Nausea est indignatio stomachi, cum quis ad 
vomitum paratus est, et dicitur a naus, quod est 
navis, quia in navi nauseat quis de facili." 

Perhaps the most valuable part of the 
grammatical treatise is the chapter on ac- 
centuation, which was unknown to Thurot 
when he wrote his article on mediaeval 
Latin grammarians (Notices et Extraits, xxii. 
2 e partie). 

The meaning of the title, Corrogationes 
Promethei, given by Neckham to this work, 
was a puzzle even to his contemporaries. 
M. Paul Meyer, however, gives an ingenious 
and convincing explanation of it. Corroga- 
tiones, as is evident from a line in the 
Graecismus of Evrard de B6thune, is simply 
an equivalent of congregationes, in the sense 
of "compilations." Prometheus is a de- 
signation for Neckham himself. The point 
of its application lies in the fact, insisted on 
in a contemporary note in one of the MSS., 
and again in the prologue to the treatise on 
canon law of Peter of Blois, that the son of 
lapetus, while chained to a rock on the 
summit of Mount Caucasus, occupied his 
enforced leisure in studying the stars. The 
Corrogationes Promethei, then (or novi Prome- 
thei, according to some MSS.), would simply 
mean the compilations of a man condemned 
to idleness. This view, which we have little 
hesitation in accepting as the correct one, 
receives strong confirmation from a passage 


in Neckham's Prologus, in which he expressly 
states that the work was undertaken as a 
distraction during his hours of idleness 
"Ne igitur ocio languenti etiam viriles 
animos effeminanti torpeam, scribere de- 
M. Paul Meyer is to be congratu- 


lated on having satisfactorily solved a puzzle 
of nearly seven centuries' standing. 



In Matzner's Middle English Dictionary, and 
also (I am sorry to say) in my own revised 
edition of Stratmann, there appears a sub- 
stantive gannok, explained to mean " a 
banner." No such word existed in the lan- 
guage ; it is a corruption of the surname 
Talbot. The genesis of the blunder is 
somewhat curious. The passage cited for 
gannok is in Robert of Brunne's translation 
of Langtoft's Anglo-French chronicle, ed. 
Hearne, p. 113 : 

"Steuen stoutly deles, in stedes )x>r he kennes, 
>at ageyn him holdes kasteles on )>am ra|>ely rennes 
In Hcrford fulle stoutely his gannok has vp set. " 

(I retain Hearne's punctuation.) The source 
of this portion of Langtoft's history is Henry 
of Huntingdon, Hist. Angl., viii. g 7, where 
we read as follows : 

"Quidam namque proditorum, nomine 
Talebot, tenuit contra regem castellum 
Herefordi:e in Wales." 

The substance of this is reproduced by 
Langtoft (Rolls ed., I., p. 472) in the follow- 
ing line : 

" A Herford on Wales le galbot est assis." 

This reading, which is due to the not un- 
frequent confusion between T and G in MSS. 
of the early fourteenth century, is probably 
original in Langtoft, and is printed in the 
text of the Eolls edition. Several MSS., 
however, have the reading gannoc or gannok 
instead of galbot. The corruption seems 
difficult to account for ; possibly the Ib may 
have been misread by a copyist as to, and 
transcribed as un, which is practically the 
same thing as nn. However this may be, 
it is clear that the MS. of Langtoft which 
Robert of Brunne had before him had the 
reading gannok. It is not wonderful that he 
failed to recognise it as a personal name ; 
what he thought it to mean we can only 
guess, but very likely he supposed that a 
"gannok" was some sort of banner or 
standard. HENRY BRADLEY. 


Mr H. Bradley in the July number of the 
Modern Language Quartrrly, raised an interest- 
ing question the explanation of the voicing 
of the p in depth, and (N. Derbyshire) baptise. 
With regard to the former word I quite agree 
with his statement that the two pronuncia- 
tions are found in current English, while I 
believe the voicing of the p in the second 
word is commoner than he supposes, lint I 
think the phonetic statement requires a little 
development. In both cases (I speak at any 
rate with certainty of my own pronunciation) 
the on-glidc of the stop (what Germans called 
the implosion) is voiced (b), while the off- 
glide (the explosion) is breathed (p). So that 
we might roughly represent the pronuncia- 
tion as ' baptize,' ' deaths.' Mr Bradley's 
explanation of the grounds of the change 
may be correct ; but it is possible that it 
may be a merely mechanical continuance of 
the vowel voicing into the first half of the 

Stop. J. P. POSTGATE. 


IT is always interesting to discover the true 
sense of a word which has hitherto been mis- 
understood ; and one of my chief pleasures 
has ever been the tackling of difficulties 
which have eluded others. A healthy dis- 
content with inadequate solutions is much to 
be cherished ; but I beg leave at the same 
time to say that, if we are to arrive at the 
truth, we must wait resignedly till the true 
solution " swims into our ken," and then 
snap it up. It makes all the difference 
between guesswork and certainty. 

In Chaucer's Knightes Tale, we are told 
that, after all, but few people were wounded 
in the tournament, and even these were soon 

' ' To othere woundes, and to broken annes, 
Some hadden salves, and some hadden charmes, 
Fermacies of herbes and eek save 
They dronken, for they wolde hir limes have." 

What then is save 1 

In my Glossary I give the usual solution, 
as in Tyrwhitt and Stratmann ; I take save 
to be a derivative of the Lat. saluiti, mean- 
ing "sage." But it is only fair to myself to 
say that it always seemed to me a most un- 
likely result. For if the Lat. saluia becomes 
sauge in French, and sauge or sage in English, 
how can it also become save f What is the 
good of phonetic laws if they make no dis- 
tinction between -ge and -ve ? 

Again, sage is a plant, but save is some- 



thing that can be drunk ; it is equivalent to 
a " pharmacy of herbs," and must therefore 
be a drink made from them. 

The trouble is, that no other example of 
save occurs in books. But my good friend 
and fellow-collegian, Professor Henslow, has 
lately sent me some transcripts in which it is 
not only mentioned but minutely described. 
There needs no more guesswork now. 

In MS. Harl. 2584, page 13, there is a 
poein of a few lines, forming a sort of pre- 
face to various Recipes for healing drinks 
and unguents ; in the course of which the 
following lines occur : 

' ' Be the wounde neuer so deep, 
Wher-of thar hem take [no kepe] ; 
So that thei drynke save or Antioche, 
Hem dar noght drad of no;t outrage." 

There is another copy, by the way, in MS. 
Sloane 1314, which helps to mend the text. 

Now here we may first note the curious 
word that; i.e., " it needeth," which Chaucer 
uses some ten times ; and we should observe 
that, only two lines below, it is miswritten 
ilitf. Hence the last two lines tell us plainly 
that wounded men need not dread any un- 
toward event, provided that they, drink save 
or else " Antioch." Chaucer says the same 
thing; viz., that the wounded men drank 
pharmacies of herbs and save, precisely 
because they desired to preserve their limbs. 
It now becomes incumbent on us to learn 
precisely, if we can, what were the ingre- 
dients of save and of Antioch. 

The MS. is so obliging as to give us a very 
exact account. The recipe for save is sadly 
too long, but we may as well have it in full ; 
so here (with an apology for tediousness) it 
duly follows : 


" Take burnet, dauc, turmentylle, maiden- 
heer, bugle, pigle, sanyercle, herbe Ion, 
herbe Roberd, herbe Water, the grete con- 
sauwd (that is, comferi), the mene cowsauwde 
(that is, daisie), the grete hempe-croppes, the 
reed-cool-cfoope, the reed-brere crooppe, mad- 
der, colucrfoot, sowthistyl, groundeswillye, 
violet, wyld tesel, moderwort, egremoyne, 
wodebynd, rybwort, mousere, mous-pers, 
flowre of brome, beteyne, ueruayne, croppe 
of the white-thorn, of the rede nettel, 
osmound, fyue-leued gras, scabiose, strau- 
beriewise, mylfoyle, pympernel, schichele, 
auans ; and as moche of auans as of alle the 
other herbis, be euen porciouw. And thei 
schulen be gadered \n may, before saynt 
lohnes daie. And brayye hem in a morter, 
and medle hem with may-botere friche and 
clene, made as the melke cometh fro the 

cowghe. Yif thou haue no may-butter, take 
other better and purge it clene, and let it 
kele, and medlet [i.e., medle it] in a vessel til 
it be colde, and sethen chaunge it, and do 
a-way the grounde, and sethen do it ouer the 
feer ; and clere it, and lat it kele, and do it 
in boxys (?) ; and the wounded man shal 
drynke ther-of with ale other with win, as 
moche at ones as a barlych-corne, or as a 
whete, first and laste eche daye til he be 
hool ; and couere the wounde with the leef 
of a calsfol3(?); and gif thou ne might 
noght fynde all these herbes, take 32 of the 
furst, and of auans as moche as of al the 
other, with mader; for it nedeth noon other 
xii iif ne treyte." 

Briefly, save was prepared from about 
forty herbs, if they could be had, or at least 
from thirty-two of them, mixed in equal 
portions, except that there was to be as 
much of avens as of all the rest put to- 
gether. The mixture was to be brayed in 
a mortar, mixed with best butter, and kept 
for use. When wanted, the sick man was 
to drink as much of it as would make a 
small pill in ale or wine, twice a day. It 
was sure to cure him ; for he was to go on 
drinking it " till he was whole." 

The last word, treyte, must not be lost 
sight of ; elsewhere it is written entret, which 
is clearly the same as the 0. F. entrait in 
Godefroy, which meant (1) a linen band 
covered with liniment; (2) a cataplasm for 
wounds; (3) an unguent or remedy in 
general. As I do not find entret or entreat 
(in these senses) in the New English Dic- 
tionary, I beg leave to recommend it for 
insertion in the future Supplement. 

Further light is given by the recipe for 
"Antioch," otherwise called "a drink of 
Antioch." It was made from about twenty- 
five herbs, more than twenty of which 
appear in the list already given. These 
herbs were to be fried in fresh butter, and 
strained through a cloth. Two gallons of 
white wine were afterwards added, together 
with a quantity of honey and some warm 
water. The quantity of the dose is not 

A last word as to the etymology of save. 
If we trust implicitly to phonetic laws, we 
should expect the Latin form to be sapa, 
seeing that savoir and savon come from sapere 
and saponem. And this form will be found 
in Ducange in its due place. "Sapa, 
mustum coctum; a sapore sic dici videtur, 
nostris raising Gloss. Lat. Gr. : sap a, I^Ji^aa, 
arapi&iTrig oTnog. Papias MS. : Tertia parte 
musti amissa, quod remanet carenum est ; 
cui contraria sapa est quse f erven 'o ad 


tertiam partem descendit." He refers, 
further, to Pliny and Columella ; and the 
same references are given (with several 
others) by Lewis and Short, who explain 
sapa to mean "must or new wine boiled 
thick." It is therefore quite safe to explain 
Chaucer's save, from this time forward, as 
meaning " a decoction of herbs." And it is 
worth notice, by way of curiosity, that the 
herb called sage is, singularly enough, wholly 
absent from the catalogue given above, in 
spite of its appalling length. 

As regards the rhyme of save with have, 
we may notice that the a in have was pro- 
perly short, and we should expect the a in 
save to be like it. At any rate, both vowels 
in the Lat. sapa are short. 

As the word occurs in Pliny, it is interest- 
ing to see how Holland translates the pas- 
sage in bk. xiv., ch. 9. He says : " For as 
touching Syrseum, which some call Hepsema, 
and we in Latin Sapa [i. Cuit], it is a meer 
arti6ciall thing, the deuise of mans wit, and 
no worke of Nature ; namely, when new 
wine is sodden away a third part; for 
when it boiles to the halfe, we then call it 
Defrutum." Compare sapa in Florio, and 
sale in Cotgrave. 

Hence we find, further, that the sixteenth 
century equivalent of save was cuit or cute, 
which is well exemplified in the New Eng- 
lish Dictionary, where it is defined as " new 
wine boiled down to a certain thickness and 
sweetened " ; from F. cuit, L. coctum. It was 
therefore " a decoction." 



IN Warton's History of English Poetry there 
is a dissertation on the Lays of Marie de 
France, where many pages are covered by 
a long argument directed against an unsup- 
ported guess by Ritson, who wanted to make 
out that the word " Breton " referred, not to 
Brittany, but to Great Britain. 

It seems to me somewhat extraordinary 

that no appeal was made to linguistic evi- 
dence. For there are at least two words 
mentioned in the Lays that are of Breton 

In the lay of Lauslic we are told, at the 
outset, that the word laiislic means rossignol 
in French, and nightingale in English, but 
that the " Breton" name is laustic. 

In the edition of Marie's Lais by Warncke, 
p. xciv., he says there is a Breton poem called 
Ann Eostik, which he explains by Le Hossig- 
nol; without further remark. It is worth 
saying that Legonidec's Breton Glossary 
gives eostik as meaning "a nightingale"; 
and it is surely obvious that Laustic is 
nothing but this Breton word with the 
French definite article prefixed ; the Breton 
for " the " being ann. It is clearly the same 
word as the Welsh eos, a nightingale, with 
the addition of a suffix. In other words, 
Laustic is for L'austic, meaning " the nightin- 
gale," but only explicable as such by the 
help of French and Breton. 

Once more, we have the Lay named Bis- 
clavret. Of this I can find no explanation- 
beyond the mere announcement that it means 
" werwolf " ; and this no more than Marie 
expressly tells us herself. The explanation 
is not very difficult. 

In the first place, the MS. has Bisclauret, 
with u, not v ; I cannot say which of the two 
it ought to be. 

However, the Breton word for " werwolf " 
is Ueizgaro, derived from Breton lleiz (Welsh 
blaidd), a wolf, and French garou, a werwolf ; 
the idea of "wolf " occurring twice over, 
precisely as in the true French equivalent 

All that is wrong with Marie's form is that 
the / has got into the wrong syllable. Change 
Bisclauret into Bliscauret, and we clearly see 
a sufficient likeness to bleizgaro. It is also 
clear that the Anglo-French scribe turned 
the Breton z<j into the more manageable sc. 

This is a second proof, from the language 
alone, that the lays are of Breton origin, and 
settles the question at once, wjthout any 
further trouble. WALTER W. SKEAT. 


THB thanks of the Editors are due to Mr Paget Toyn- 
bee and Mr Krebs for the care and trouble they have 
freely given in the compilation of the contents lists of 
many of the foreign reviews. The Editor would grate- 
fully receive further offers of help towards making this 
section of the Quarterly complete. 

Subscribers to the Modern Language Association who 
have paid their subscriptions for 1898 can have No. I. 
of the Modern Quarterly by applying to the Hon. Sec. 

r W. G. Lipscomb, M.A., University College School 
A few copies of No. I. of the Modem Language Q>tai to-/y are 
still to be had, price 3s. each. Number II. is out of print 

DEATHS : Professor F. Scholle at Berlin, author of 
valuable contributions to French philology, mostly 
bearing on the Chanson de Roland. (May), Marie- 
Ludovic Chre'tien-Lalanne, writer on history and litera- 

Socie'te' de I'histoire de France. (June), Auguste 
Brachet, French philogist, author of a Dictiomiaire des 
doublets, a Grammaire kistorique de la langue fran^alse, 
and a Dictionnaire etymologupte de la laiigveframpue. 




Modern Language Xotes. January-March, 1898. 

January: Kii/ni: Dante's influence on Milton. 
Noyes : Aristotle and modern tragedy. Warren : 
Mediaeval French literature. Bright : Cynewulf's 
Christ. Guides: American-French dialect compari- 
son. Broicne : Certain Scotticisms. Bright : A 
Shakespearian quibble. 

Reviews : Alatzke : First Spanish Readings, iii. (Haan). 
Goodrich : Goethe's Gotz von Berlichingen (Senger). 

Correspondence : Carpenter : The additions to the 
Spanish tragedy. Mac Mechan : "Take in." Ott : 
Dulcinea in German. Child : King or Cony. 

february : Wiener : America's share in the regenera- 
tion of Bulgaria (1840-59). Wood: Germanic Ety- 
mologies. Geddes: American-French Dialect com- 
parison, ii. 

Reviews : Wyatt : Old Engl. Grammar (Klaeber). 
Rennert : La isla Barbara and la guarda cuidadosa 
(Fitz-Gerald). Milclisack : Historia Dr Job. Fausti . . 

March : Child : The 15th annual meeting of the Mod. 
Lang. Association of America. Wilson : The 3rd 
annual convention of the Central Division of the Mod. 
Lang. Association of America. 

Renews : Gorra : Lingua e letteratura Spagnuola 
(Marden). Stceet : First steps in Anglo-Saxon (Klae- 

Correspondence: Hart and Cutting^: Wallenstein's 
Lager. Afagill : Corre.spondance internationale. 

Chapin : Eugenie Grandet Ott : Fangs meaning 

talons. Buchner : Friederike von Sesenheim. U.K. 

Romania (public par Paul Meyer et Gaston Paris). 

Tome xxvi. No. 104. F. Lot : Notes sur le Afoniage 
Guillaume. G. Huet: La redaction neerlanduise de 
J/" '"//.$ d'Aspremont. A. Jeanroy : Les chansons de 
Philippe de Beaumanoir. Paget Toynbee: Dante's 
obligations to the Afagnae Derivationes of Uguccione da 
Pisa. C. Nigra : Xote ^timologiche e lessicali. 
Melanges. F. Lot : Le Charroi de Nlmes. F. Lot : 
Beg nes. Comptes Rendus. F. W. Bourdillon : Tote 
listoire de France (G. P. ). A. Van Borkum : De 
middennederlandiche beicerking eau der Parthenopeus- 
Roman (G. P.). P. Arfert : Dai Alolic der unter- 
schobenen Braut in der internalionalen Erzahlungs- 
litteratur. (G. P.). Pio Rajna : II trattato de Vulgari 
Elot/nentia di Dante Alighieri. Edizione minore. 
(Paget Toynbee). G. Mazzatinti : La Biblioteca dei 
re d'Aragona in Xapoli. (P. M.) PeViodiques. 
Zeitschrift fur JKomanische Philologie, xxi. 2-3. (G. P., 
P. M.). Litfraturblatt fur Germanische und Romanische 
Philologie, xiii. 1892 (Juillet-De'eembre), xiv. 1893, xv. 
1894, xvi. 1895, xvii. 189G, xviii. 1897 (Janvier-Juin). 
(E. M.). Qiornale Storico delta Letteratura Italiana, 
xxiv. (70-72), xxv. (73-75), xxvi. (76-78). (P. M.) 
Chronique. Livres annoncfe sommairement E. 
Lidforss : Los Cantares de, Alyo Cid. M. Grammont : 
La dissimulation consonantique dans les langues indo- 
europeenes et dans lei langues romanes. P. Vidal : 
Notice sur la vie et les travaux de Julien- Bernard A lard, 
ancienarchieistedesPiirenees-Orientales. A. Trombatore : 
Folk-lore. Catanese. H. A. Rennert : La Isla Barbara 
and La Guardia cttidadoxa, tiro comedias by Miguel 
Sanchez. F. Johannesson : Zur Lehre vom fmnzb'sischen 
Reim. T. Lindner : Zur Fabel von der Bestatlitng 
Karls des Grossen. D. Dan : Din toponimia rominesca. 
E. Staaff : Le sutfixe arius dans leg langues romanes. 
O. P. Ritto, N. Skovgaard, K. Nyrop : Rolandskvadet. 
H. L. W. Otto : Kritlsche Studien uber das anonyme 
Jeu saint Lof)s roy de France. A. Pillet : Die neu- 
provenzalischen Sprichwiirter der jiingeren Cheltenhamer 
Liederhandschrift. C.-M. Des Granges : De scenico 
solilofjuio in nostro medii aevi theatro. U. Chevalier : 
Repertorium hymnologicum. U. Chevalier : Bibliothlijue 
Liturgi'/ue, torn. vi. E. Porebowicz : Revision de la loi 
des voyelles finales en espagnol. V. Creacini : Bordello. 
V. Crescini : Di Nicolo da Verona. F. Romani : 
L'amore e il mo regno nei proverbi abruzzesi. G. Pult : 

Le parler de Sent (Basse-Engadine). G. Haepke : 
Kritische Beitrage zu Jacques AlileCs Drama ' La 
Destruction de Troye la Grant.' R. Ruths : Die 
franzosischen Fas&ungen des Roman de la Belle Helaine. 
A. Gast^: Alichel Alenot. E. Koschwitz : Anleitung sum 
Stitdtum der franzosischen Philologie. A. Dietrich : 
Pulcinella. Pompejanische Wandbilder mid riimische 
Satyrspiele. E. Zerolo : Legajo de varios. Cairasco de- 
Figueron y el empleo del verso esdrujulo en el Siglo 
xn, etc. A. Lazzari : Vgolino e Michele Verino, stitdii 
biografici e critic!. L. Gautier : Bibliographic des 
chansons de gesle. F. Kraus : Girbert de imd 
Seine Werke. J. Mortensen : Profandramet i Franhrike. 
P. Schweiger : Der Zauberer Virgil. Paul Meyer : 
Notice sur les Corroyationes Promethei d'Alexandre 
Sfeckam. G. Mazzoni : Afico di Siena e mia ballata 
del Decamerone. M. Scherillo : Bertram del Bornio. J. 
Subak : Die Conjugation im Neapolitanischen. E. 
Schneegans : Die Volkssage und das altfranzosische 
Heldengedicht. A. Lindstrom : L'analogie dans la 
declinaison de.i substantifs latins en Gaule. F. Novati : 
L'infiusso del pensiero latino sopra la civilla italiana del 
media evo. M . Gaster : A n old hebreiv romance of 
Alexander, translated from kebi'eip MSS. ofcent.xii. C. 
Wahlund : La belle Dame sans mercy. En fransk dikt 
forfaltad of Alain, Chartier ar 1426, och omdiktad af 
Anne de Graville omkring ar 1525. T. Zanardelli : 
Histaire de la liiterature italienne. Les premiers siecles. 
G. Sommer : Essai sur la phonetirjue forcalijuerienne. 
H. Salzmann : Die innere JLinheit in Li Coronemenz 
Loots. E. Picot : Le due d'Aumale et la Bibliotltique de 
Chantilly. L. Anelli : Ori'gine di alcuni modi di dire 
po/mlari nel dialetto fastese. Proverbi vastesi. W. 
Rb'ttiger : Der heutige Stand der Tristanforschung. G. 
Ernst : La flexion des substantifs, des adjectifs et des 
participes dans le Roland d'Oxford. G. Rydberg : Zur 
Geschichte des franzosischen a II. Uebersicht der geschicht- 
lichen Entwickeltimj des a in alt- und neufranzosischer Zeit. 
M. J. Minchwitz : Beitrage zur Geschichte derfranzositdien 
Grainmatik im siebzehnten Jahrhunderl. A. Nutt : The 

Voyage of Bran, son of Febal, to the Land of the. Living. 
Vol. II. The Celtic Doctrine of Re-birth. With 
Appendices by Kuno Meyer. M. Friedwagner : Alerangix 
ran Portlesguez, altfranzosischer Abenteuerroman, von. 
Raoul von Houdenc. J. L. Weston : The legend of Sir 
Gawain. Studies upon its original scope and significance. 
A. Zenatti : Gerarao Patecchi e Vgo di Pen-so. L'Abbe 
Rousselot : Priucipes de la phonetiijue experimentale. E. 
Gorra : Lingua e letteratvra Spagnuola delle origini. J. 
Ulrich : Altoberenyadinische Lesestiicke. Zuxammengestellt 
und mit einem Glossar versehen. F. Wulff : Dante s Vita 
Nuom i svenst driikt mit gm.ndtexten via sidan. Table 
des Matieres. 

Tome xxvii. No. 105. F. Lot : Gormond et Isembard. 
A. Piaget : Le Chapel des fleurs de lys, par Philippe de 
Vtiri. Paul Meyer : La traduction provencflle de hi 
Legende doree. F. Novati : Poesie musicali francesi de' 
sec. xiv e xv, tratte da AfSS. italiani. Melanges. A. 
Mussafia : Knclisi o proclisi del pronome persona.le atono 
i/ual oggetto. E. Walberg : est : me(s)t. A. Jeanroy : 
Une imitation d' Albert de Sisteron par Alahieu le Juif. 
Comptes Rendus. Miscellanea nuziale Rossi-Teiss 
(G. P.). T. Maxeiner: Beitrage zur Geschichte der 
franziisisclien Worter im Mittelhochdeutschen. (F. Piquet). 
Pe'riodiques. Zeitschrift filr Romanische Philologie, 
xxi. 4-xxii. 1. (G. P., P. M.) Giornale Dantesco, 
Anno iv. (I. della Nuova Serie). (Paget Toynbee). 
Chronique. Livres annonce's sommairement 0. Den- 

i i..i,-i n 1 1 : La Prise de Cordres el de Sebille. F. Richenet : 
Le Patois de Petit-Noir, canton de Chemin (Jura). 
Bibliolhique nationale. Catalogue des collections manu- 
scrites el imprimles relatives d I histoire de Atetz et de la 
Lorraine, Iegu6es par M. Auguste Prost. F. D'Ovidio : 
Talento nei suoi varii valori lessicali. C. Salyioni, 
L'elemento volgare negli Statuli latini di Brissago'. 
Intragna e Malesco. L. Re"thy : Daco-Rouinains on 
Italo-Roumains. G. Paris : L'Estoire de la Guerre 
Sainte, histoire en Tiers de la troisietne croisade (1190-1192), 


par Ambroise, publie et traduite d'apres le MS. uniqite du 
Vatican, et accompagnee d'une introduction, d'un qlossaire 
et d'une table des noms propres. V. Crescini : Due 
Noterelle filologiche. B. LSzar : Ueber das Fortvnalus- 
Marchen. P. A. Gejter : Histoi-ish Sfeerbliet of latinets 
qui ock qualis fo/rtutta som relativ pronom.ina i de 
romansi-e sprdten. H. Everlein : Ueber Jut/as Machakee 
von Gautier de Belle perche. D. A. Bello : Gmmdtica de 
la lengua castellana destinada / uso de los Americanos. 


Bevue lies Liingues Romanes. Sept. -Dec. 1897. 

Sept. -Oct. : Appel : Poesies provencales incites. 
Lambert : Contes de Languedoc (suite). C/iassary : 
Laxime d'Amour. De rebus gestis Francorum. Lo- 
doicus XII. (ed. Pelissier, suite). 

Bibliographie: Anglade. MoMaigiie : Evais, ed. 

Nov. Dec. : Pelissiei- : Correspondance du cardinal 
Quirini a la bibliotheque de Brescia. Martinenche : 
Dans les bibliotheques et les archives d'Espagne. 
Pelissier : Textes et fragments ine'dits relatifs a I'annee, 
1500. Ulrith : L'Evangile de saint Luc (suite). Rigal : 
Un pretendu plagiat de Victor Hugo. 

Bibliographie : Guillaume de la Barre, roman d'aven- 
tures, par A. Vidal, Edition Paul Meyer (compte rendu 
de Chabanneau). Chrestomathie du moyen age, par 
Gast. Paris et Langlois (Anglade). 77. A'. 

Revue Critique. Janvier- Mars, 1898. 

No. 1 : Albertazzi : Romanzieri e romanzi del cinque- 
cento e del seicento, Bologna, 1891. Marchesi : Per la 
storia della Novella italiana nel secolo xvii Roma 1897. 
Vwtor : Einf iihrung in das Studium der Englischen 
Philologie, 2 te Auflage, Marburg, 1897. 

No. 2 : March : Kiinigin, Elisabeth von England und 
ihre Zeit, 1898 (" Description complete de 1'Angleterre 
d'Elisabeth "). 

No. 3 : Noreen : Spridda Studier Svenska Etymo- 
logier, Upsala, 1897. Tamin : Svenska Substantiv, Up- 
sala, 1897. Jespersen: Fonetik, Copenhagen, 1897. 
Brugmann und Delbrlid : Grundriss der vergleichenden 
Grammatik, Bd. i. ; 2 te Bearbeitung, Band iv., 2. 

No. 4 : Stendlial (Oeuvres posthumes) : Napoleon 
Voyage de 1'Italie a Brunswick Jjes Pense'es, etc. , ed. 
Mitty, 1898. Pernot: Grammaire grecque moderne, 
1897 ("Grammaire bien composee et complete"). 

No. 5 : Martin und Lienhart : Worterbuch der 
Elsassischen Mundarten, Heft 1 und 2, 1897 ("Com- 
plet et precieux repertoire des dialoctes alsaciens avec 
les principales locutions, les usages locaux, proverbes, 
facelies, devinettes et rondes enfantines "). 

No. 6 : Dante : De vulgari eloquentia, ed. Rajna, 
edizione minore, 1897("Voici une Edition reduite du 
grand travail d'un texte critique de ce Trattato de Dante 
publie par Rajna en 1896. On y trouve, en outre, trois 
index priScieux "). Scarta:sini : Enciclopedia Dantesca, 
ii., 1, M-R, 1898 ("Importante publication ").Ritto : 
Rolandskvadetmetrisk oversat, Copenhagen, 1897 (" Une 
habile traduction danoise de la Chanson de Roland 
enrichie d'une interessante introduction par Nyrop "). 

No. 7 : Rydberg : Traitement de 1'E francais(" Apercu 
des deVeloppements de, e, qui avait encore en ancien 
francais la valeur de e sourd, mais est devenu un veri- 
table e muet dans la langue moderne "). 

No. 8 : Breal : Essai de Semantique (Science des sig- 
nifications), 1897 (" Etudes sur un sujet trop neglig^ et 
un domaine non exploite, qui r^pondent a un besoin 
vivement senti et rendent de grands services "). 
Verity's Edition of the Merchant of Venice (excellente 
de tous points). Inne's Ed. of Two Essays of Macaulay 
(Edition consciencieuse). Wohtenholme' s Ed. of Minna 
von Barnhelm(digned'e'loges). Mippmann's Edition of 
Eight Stories of Anderson, and of the " Fairy Tales of 
Master Perrault," etc. . . Zdziechowski : Byron ijego 
wiek (Byron and his age, Cracow, 1898, the second vol. of 
a great work in Polish, ' ' qui constitue une contribution 
tres-importante a 1'histoire litte'raire de 1'EuroDe au 

No. 9 : Rousselot : Phon^tique experimentale, i. 

1897. Flenslurg: Die Wurzel to-im Indo-germanischen, 
1897. Nagel: Geschichte der Musik in England, 1894- 
97, 2 Bde (von Dunstable in 15. Jahrh. bis Purcell im 
17. Jahrhundert). Sandi*: La lirica amorosa di 
Michelangelo Buonarotti, 1898 (Beau travail). 

No. 10: WaliszevsH: Pierre le Grand, 1897 (le 
dernier ouvrage du brillant biographe de 1'impdratrice 
Catherine II.). Tltalmayr : Goethe und das Klassische 
Altertum, 1897 (Utile compendium fait avec soin). 

No. 11 : I'edersen: Aspirationen i irsk, 1897 (Etude 
sur 1'Aspiration en irlandais remplie d'importantes 
remarques et de comparaisons entre les langues brit- 
toniques et gaeliques). Krohn : Suomalaisen kirjalli- 
sunden vaiheet, 1897 (La litt^rature finnoise). Gaste : 
La langue de Menot, 1897 ("Sermons du pr&licateur 
du XV a siecle que ses contemporains appelaient Larxjut 

No. 12 : Cian : Sulle orme del Veltro, studio dan- 
tesco, 1897 (" Utile opuscule sur le symbolisme tant 
controvorsd du premier chant de 1'Inferno. Dans le 
fatras de publications sur Dante, qui se multiplient 
sans rien ajouter^a la science, le lumineux travail de 
M. Cian merite d'etre signal^ "). 

No. 13 : Eniault : Glossaire moyen-breton, 1896. 
Beljame : Edition critique du Macbeth de Shakespeare 
(" Une tres-pre'cieuse contribution aux Etudes shake- 
speariennes "). H. K. 

Revue il'llltitolre Lillcrnirr de la France, V. 1. 

15 Janvier 1898. 

Texte : Les origines de 1'influence allemande dans la 
litte"rature fran^aise du XIX C siecle. Chamard : La date 
et 1'auteur du " Quintil Horatian." Chnuard : Quel- 
quos oauvres inedites de Musset. Tamizey de Larroi/ue : 
Une improvisation pofitique de P. H. de L'hospital. 
Martinenche : Les sources de " 1'Ecole des Maris." 
Latreille : Lamartine et Ponsard. Rossel : La po^sie 
francaise en Roumanie. 

Comptes rendus : Bossuet : Instruction sur les e*tats 
d'oraison (Urbain). 

Weiss : Gilbert's Satiren (Radomant). Saurian : La 
preface de "Cromwell" (Texte). Bibliographie des 
oeuvres d'Erasme (Martin). 

Revue des Deux Mondes. Janvier-Man 1898. 

\ er Janvier : Ckerbulicz : Jacquine Vanesse, ii. 
Caro : Pas k pas (fin). 

Funck-Brentano : Les problemes bibliographiques. 
Remit dramatiyue: Le repas du lion Les mauvais 
bergers ; par Lemaitre. Re-cue Musicale : Les maitres- 
chanteurs Sapho ; par Bellaigne. 

\" Janvier: C/itrbuliez: J. Vanesse, iii. Bentzon : 
Un musicien poete : Sidney Lanier. Regnier : Le 
bucher d'Hercule, poesie. Levy-Bruhl : Le centenaire 
d'Auguste Comte. Melinand : Le reve et la re'alite'. 
Doumic : L'oeuvre d'Alphonse Daudet. . . . 

l er Fevrier : Cherbulies : J. Vanesse, iv. Broglie : 
V. Duruy. Revue dramatiqite : Lemaitre : Cyrano de 
Bergerac, drame par Rostand. Le Passfi, com^die par 
Porto-Riche. La Ville Morte, par G. d'Annunzio. 

15 Fevrier : Chcrbuliez : J. Vainesse (fin). Bruneliere : 
La doctrine Evolutive et 1'histoire de la littf^rature. 
Revue litteraire : Doumic : A propos du d^sastre par P. 
et V. Margueritte. Revue Itrangere : La correspon- 
dance d'un PreYaphaelite : Letters of D. G. Rossetti to 
W. Allingham (1851-1870), ed. Birbeck Hill, par T. de 

l er Mars : Rabusson : Les Chimeres de Marc le 
Praistre, i. Rod : Une trageclie de M. Sudermann. 
(Johannes : " Une de ses meilleures oeuvres "). 

Revue dramatifjue : Lemaitre : Les Transatlantique ; 
par Hermant. Catherine ; Le nouveau Jeu ; par 
Lavedan. L'Affranchie ; par Donnay. 

15 Mars : Rabusson : Les Chimeres de Marc lo 
Praistre. . . . La Siseranne : Le peintre de 1'Engadine : 
Segantini. Spronck : Al. Dumas fils, i. Revue litt^r- 
aire : Classique ou Romantique. (L'Elegie en France 
avant le Romantisme, 1778-1820, par Potez, 1898. 
La fin du classicisme et le retour a 1'antique dans la 
seconde moitie' du XVIII 8 siecle . . . par Bertrand, 
1897. . . .) Po&ies d' A. Chenier, ed. Becq de Fou- 



quieres, 1888). Rtruts etrangeres : Wyzeica: La cor- 
respondance d'un PreYaphaelite allemand : Steinle's 
Briefwechsel, ed. Steinle ; 1898. H. K. 

Ciioruale Storlco della Leltcradirn Italiana (diretto 
da F. Novati o Rodolfo Renier). 

-l/i/io xvi. Vol. xxxi. Fascicolo 1. A. Galletti : Fra 
t/i'unlaiio da Pisa predicatore del secolo XIV, i. La Vita, 
ii. La forma presente dei Sermoni di fra Giordano. Con 
(fiia/i rriteri furono raccolti. Varieta. V. Cian : Pel' 
Bernaido Bembo. Le relazioni letterarie, i codici e gli 
scritti. G. Giannini : 11 " Principe " e il " Giotin 
riynen." A. Bassermann: Catena o Crotonai Ras- 
segna Bibliograh'ca. L. Biadene : Indice delle canzoni 
italiane del secolo XIII. (A. Foresti). G. Melodia : Difesa 
di Francesco Petrarca (N. Scarano). Giosue Carducci : 
Sit VAminta di T. Tasso (V. Rossi). F. Pometti : / (B. Croce). V. Reforgiato : L'umorismo nei 
' I'l-iiiHfusi 8/jo^i' di A. Manzani (P. Bellezza). Bollet- 
tino Bibliografico. F. C. Cesis : Giueauui Pico delta 
Mirandola delta la fenice dfgli ingegni ; Le"on Dorez et 
Louis Thuasne : Pic de la Mirandole en France (R.). 
Isidore del Lungo : Florentia. Uomini e cose del Quattro- 
cento (V. R.). G. B. Gerini : OH scrittori pedagogici 
italian! del secolo decimosesto (R.). E. Calzini : Urbino e 
tuoi monumenti (R.). G. Scotti : Bergamo nel Seicento 
(G. B. M.). V. Brocchi : Un novelliere del secolo XVII.; 
Gero/amo Brusoni (An. B.). G. C. Bufardeci : La 
reazione contra il seicento ntlle satire di Salvator Jiosa e 
Benedetto Menzini (An. B.). M. Menghini : Scritti 
scelti di Giuseppe Baretti (Em. B.). E. Mandarini : / 
codici manoscritti del/a Biblioteca Oratoriana di Napoli 
illustrati (B. Cr.). Annunzi Analitici. L. M. Capelli : 
Primi studi mile enciclopedie medioevali, i. Le fonti 
delle enciclopedie latine del XII. secolo. F. Scandone : 
Appunti liini/i-iijici .mi due rimatori della scuola sicitiana 
Rinaldv e Jacopo di casa d'A'juino. L. O. Kuhns : The 
treatment of nature in Dante's Divina Commedia. F. 
Vatielli : Focara. Nola dantesca. R. Brambilla : 
Dante e i fatli d'arme di Campaldino e di Caprona. R. 
Brambilla : Un important! episodio della rite di G. 
Pontano. P. Chiationi : L'Ktica Niwmachea nel Convivio 
di Dante. T. W. Koch : Dante in America, a historical 
and bibliographical study. C. Chiarini : Delle norelle. di 
Canterbury di G. Chaucer, sagr/io d'una prima traduzione 
italiana. V. Reforgiato : tl mondo politico-morale di 
Ludovico Arioslo. L. Furnari : Simon P'urnan da 
Kheynio primo spositore dell' Orlando Furioso nel 1549. 
R. Mazzone : I ittoria Colonna marchesa di Pescara e il 
xuocanzoniere. V. P. Spampanato: La Mundragoladi N. 
Machiavelli nelle commedie e nella vita italiana del cinque- 
cento. U. G. Mondolfo : La genesi della Mandragola e il 
suo contenuto estetico e morale. F. Beneducei : II giraldi 
e Vepica nel Cinquecento. G. Bianchini : II pensiero 
jilouifico di Tnrquato Tasso. U. Tria : D. Antonio 
Muscettola duca di Spezzano ed il P. Angelica Aprosio 
da Ventimiglia. F.>Corridore : Giuliano Cassiani. B. 
Cotronei : II Caw Gracco di Vicenzo Monti. V. Refor- 
giato : 11 classicismo nelle jtoesie di Vicenzo Monti e di 
I '</< FoKolo. G. G. Bertazzi : Lionardo Vigo e i suoi 
tempi. A. Bertoldi : Prose minor!, lettere inedite e 
s/xtrse, pensitri e sentenze^ di Alessandro Mamoni. P. 
Molmenti : Venezia ffuovi Stvdi di stnria e d'arte. D. 
Barella : Lo itrambotto piemontese. D. Barella : Una 
pastorella popolan raccol/a nel conlado di Alessandria. 
Publicazioni Nuziali. R. Renier : Appunti ml con- 
tratto fra la madre e la fyliuola bramosa di marito. 
C. Cipolla : Bricio/e di storia Scaligera. G. Volpi : 
Un vocabolarietto di lingua furbesca. A. Luzio : Un 
atticolo cestinato di yiacomo Leopardi. V. Cian : Giochi 
di iorte versificati del sec. X VI. F. Foffano : Un 
capitolo inedito d'uno slttdente pavese del cinq^tecento. 
G. Mazzoni : II primo accenno alia Dirina Commedia I 
C. Merkel: / Ijeni delta famiglia di Puccio Pucci; 
inrentario del sec. XV. illustrate. V. De Bartholo- 
maeis: Antica leggenda versegyiata di S. Francesco 
d'Assifi. M. Barbi : Due airwsita quattrocenlisticke. 
A. Moschetti : Giuseppe Baretti nel suo nascondiglio. 
A. Medin: Vanto della fortuna. V. Lazzarini: Un 
n'matore padwano del trecento. G. Rua : Poesie contra 
gli rpagnuoli e in loro favore. 0. Bacci : Attorno al 
Farinata danletw. E. Sicardi : L'aittore dell' antica 

" Vita di Pietro Aretino." M. Pelaez : Per la storia 
degli studi proven-ali. E. Lovarini : Canli popolan 
tarantini. E. G. Parodi : Etimologie. G. Fraccaroli : 
Le died bolgie e la graduatoria delle colpe e delle pens 
nella Divina Commedia. E. Gorra : Di un poemetto 
francese inedito del sec. X V. F. Flamini : Ballate e 
terzine di Antonio da Montalcino rimatore del sec. XV. 
C. Salvioni : Qiristjuiglie etimologidie. F. Pellegrini : 
A Icune rime inedite del secolo XIII. P. Novati : Due 
sonetti alia burchiellesca di Liiigi Pulci. P. Papa : La 
leggenda di Santa Caterina d' Alessandria in dtcima 
rnna. L. G. Pelissier : Lettres inedites de Lucas 
Holstenius aux fibres Dupuy et d autres correspondants. 
M. Morici : Per gli epistolari di due discepoli e di un 
amico di Guarino Guarini. A. Chiti : Di Girolamo 
Baldinotti autore delta " Damigella Comica." G. 
Navone : La parabola di Lazzaro pimro. Communi- 
cazioni ed Appunti. R. Renier : Un poeta morto che 
si difende. G. Rossi : II codice dantesca dell' Univer- 
sitaria di Cagliari. C. Salvioni : Una rappresentazione 
del contrasto Ira la Quaresima e it Carnevafe. Cronaca. 
Periodici. Pubblicazioni Reoenti. 


Nuova Autologia. Gennaio-Marzo 1898. 

1 Gennaio : A nnunzio : La parabola dell'uomo ricco e 
del povero Lazaro. Farina : Capelli bianehi. Negri : 
Anatole France. Rapisardi : Amatea, vers'i. . . 
Oliva : I romanzi Italiani nel 1897. Baffico: Alfonso 

16 Gennaio : Mariotti : I ritratti di Leopardi. 
Farina: Capelli bianehi. . . Molmenti: Elisabetta B. 
Browning.. . F leres : Le " Rime novelle " di Panzacchi. 
Bollettino bibliografco : Capuana : II braccialetto, 
1898.. . 

1 Febbraio: Farina: Capelli bianehi. Ckiappelli : 

I poeti paesisti prima del nostro secolo. Itava : Maeter- 
linck poeta e filosofo. Segre : Un romanzo eristiano di 
Hall Caine ("The Christian," a story). Bollettino 
bibliografico : La Divina Commedia di Dante, ed. Ricci, 
1897. Placci : Mondo mondano, 1898. Marcheso : 
Storia della Novella italiana del sec. xvii. 1897. . . 

16 Febtraio: Farina : Capelli hianchi (fine). Graf: 
Venezia, impressioni e ricordi, versi. Molmenti: 
Tiepolo (pittore Veneziano, "Emulo di Paolo 
Veronese "). Zanlo : L. Uhland poeta. Panzacchi : 
Le musiche vecchie. Bollettino bibliograjico : Ganglia : 
Due anime, poesie, 1898. . . . Poemetti di Shelley, 
tradotti da Sanfelice. Qrassi- Bertazzi : L-Vigo e i 
suoi tempi, 1897. Rua : Le "Piacevoli Notti" di 

1 Marzo : Cehov : Contadini, novella Russa. 
Chiappelli : I poeti paesisti nel nostro secolo. Leo de 
Castelnoro (L. Pulle) : Intorno a una Commedia. 
Franchetti : Un romanzo militare ( : Le de"sastre, par 
P. et V. Margueritte). Segre : Cyrano di Bergerac 
(oommedie di Rostand). Bollettino bibliogi-afco : Pelle- 
grini: Aleune rime toscane del sec. xiii ; 1897. 
Borgognani : Scelta di scritti Danteschi ; 1897. Cochin : 
La C'hronologie du Canzoniere de Pe"trarque ; 1898. 

16 Marzo: Graf: Per la nostra cultura. Marconi: 
La Capponiera e la la Paneretta, storia. Gubernatis : 

II regno di una Borghese. Petrocchi: II 'Paris' di 
Zola.- Panzacchi: Fel. Cavalotti (II libro dei versi). 
. . Bollettino bibliografico : Jack La Bolina : Ricordi 
di fanciullezza ; 1897. Elegie romane di G. d'Annunzio 
tradotte in latino da Tenneroni. Sam. Butler: The 
authoress of the Odyssey; 1898. ("Opera degna di 
discussione e di lode "). If. K. 

Itullettliio della Soricta Dnulcsra Ilaliana (diretto 
da M. Barbi). Nuova Serie. Vol. IV. 

Fascicoli 11-12. C. de Lollis: Vita e poetic di 
Kordello di Goito; F. Torraca : Sul "Sorddlo" 
di C. de Lollis ; P. E. Guarnerio : C. de Lollis, 
fiordello ; F. Torraca : A proposito di Sordello ; P. 
E. Guarnerio : A prnposito di Sordello ; V. Crescini : 
Sordello, conferenza ; C. de Lollis : Pro Sordello de 
Godio, milite (E. G. Parodi). S. Ignudi : II canto di 
Dante a S. Francesco (0. Bacci). P. Tommasini 
Mattiucei : Nerio Moscoli da Cittd di Castello (F. 
Pellegrini). Annunzi bibliografici : Pubblicnzioni di 


M. Scherillo (Dante e Tito Lino), C. T. Aragona (Note 
intorno alia Commedia di Dante: Matelda, Brunette 
latini, Per una traduzione, Dido), G. Pannella (Uii' 
anfibologia valuta nella D.C.; La contradizione del 
V. canto dell' Inferno; Ritorno a' primi commentatori 
della D.C.), A. Bartolini (S. Domenico nella D.C.; 
vn Commento popolare della. D.C.), F. di Donato 
(Vitione dantesai), P. Bellezza (Di alcuni notevoli 
coincidenze tra la D. G. e la Visione di Pietro Varatore), 
G. Federzoni (OH aiigeli nell' Inferno), P. Bacci (Due 
ilocumenti inediti del MCCXCV. su Vanni Fucci ed 
alti-i banditi dal Comune di Pistoia), G. Pascoli (// 
messo del cielo; II cmile Ugolino), E. Brambilla 
(Rubrica dantesca. Par. ix. 61-2), F. Novati (Episto- 
lario di Coluccio Salutati). Indice degli autori e delle 

Vol. V. Fasciculi 1-2. E. Moore : Studies in Dante. 
First Series. Scripture and classical authors in Dante 
(E. Rostagno). E. Coli : 11 paradise temstre dantesco 

(U.S.A.) Dante Society (F. Pellegrini). Annunzi 
bibliografici : Giornale Storico della Letteratnra Italiana 
(xxvii.-xxx.), e pubblicazioni di F. D'Ovidio (Fonti 
dantesche. 1. Dante e san Paolo), G. Del Noce (L'ltltimo 
eiaggio d' Ulisse), D. Marzi (La quistione della riforma 
del Calendario nel quinto Concilio Lateranense, 1512- 
1517), L. Zdekauer (La rita pubblica dei Senesi nel 

Kevue Hlspaiilqiic, C(l. I .,11 1, IK -li-l IHIM-. 

No. 12: Leile de Vasconce/los^: Notas pbilologicas. 
Foulche- Delbosc et Fiizmaitrue - Kelly : Une pre- 
tendue edition de Don Quixotte anterieure k 1605. 
Foulche- Del base : Un opuscule faussement attribue' au 
P. Sarmiento. . . . Poesias e Cartas de J. Meleiidez 
Valdes ed. Serrano y Sanz. . . . 

Cmnples rendus : Lionnet : Le theatre en Espagne, 
1897. (Peseux Richard: " Les grands dramaturges 
espagnols Calde'ron et Lope sont plus apprecies et 

f [jute's aujourd'hui en Allemagne et en France qu'en 
spagne " ! ?). . . . Lazarillo de Tormes, ed. H. B. 
.Clarke, 1897. 

Chrouiqiie: Paseual de Gayangos (1809-1897: Obituary 
by Fitzmaurice-Kelly : ' ' The great bulk of Gayango's 
writings should survive the scrutiny of a judge as 
difficult as the Cura who purged Don Quixote's 
library "). 

Nos. 13-14. (Premier et deuxieme trimestre 1898.) 
Farinelli : Guillaume de Humbold et 1'Espagne ; Ap- 
pendice : Goethe et 1'Espagne (250 pages). Foulche- 
Delbosc : Un romance retrouve. ("A cazar va don 
Rodrigo, " texte de ce romance public par R. M. Pidal 
dans son e*tude sur " La Leyenda de los Infantes de 
Lara, Madr. 1896). Las Coplas del Provincial. 7f. K. 

LaEspaiia Morterna. Jan. -March 1898. 

Enero : Lemonier : Juicios criticos de varios escri- 
tores. La Carniceria', novela. Pardo-Bazdn : Ed. Rod 
como novelista. Menendez y Pelaj/o : La leyenda de 
los Infantes de Lara. . . Gomez de Bayuero : Literatura 
y regionalismo. Ceard : Alf . Daudet. Caslelar : 

Febrero: Lemonnier : La Carniceria (SediJn), ii. . . 
Cronica literaria : Gomez de Baquero : El abuelo, por 
Perez Gald6s. Antonio y Shakespeare, por 
Belle's. La duquesa de Uzes, por Misnie. Un opusculo 
de LittrS, por Breal. Un retrato de Beaumarchais, por 
Faguet. Cr6nica internacional, por Castelar. Notas 
bibliogrSficas, por Dorado, Palacios y Posada. 

Marzo : Lemonnier : La Carniceria (Seda"n) iii. 
Cronica literaria, por Gomez de Baquero : Novelas : 
Reyes : El lagar de la Vifluela. Campi6n : Blancos y 
Negros. Queral : La ley del embudo. Xuleta : Tierra 
virgen. Cronica internacional, por G'astelar. //. K. 
Paul iiiul Rramie's RrKriige, etl. Sieve rs. XXIII. 1 
(Februar 1898). 

Saran : Hartmann von Aue. Cosijn : Anglosaxonica, 
iv. Ritzert : Dehnung der mhd. kurzen stammsilben- 
vocale in den volksmundarten. . . . Liebich : Zur 

deutschen wortforsohung. Helten : Zur altwestfries- 
ischen lexikologie. Harczyt: : Zur altdeutschen wort- 
stellung. Qoetze: Zum Narrenschiff. Braune: Brun- 
hildenbett. Horn : Aprikose. Siebs : Zu den labia- 
lisierten gutturalen. If. K. 

Zeltschrirt tUr dentsrbea Altertum mid 
deutgche Lllteralnr, xlii. 2 : Si-hunbach, Uber das 
' Carmen ad Deum ' ; Hat Otf rid ein ' lectionar ' 
verfasst? Diimmler, Zum Rhythmus von Jacob und 
Joseph ; Meissner, Zum Hildebrandsliede ; Jf-iese, Zur 
Geschichte der Keltischen Wandrungen ; Schriidfr, 
Ein hb'flsches Minnelied des 14 jhs ; Much, Etymo- 
logisches ; Joseph, Die Composition des Muspilli ; Zim- 
merman*, and Ztrierzina, S. Margareta und Daniel ; 
I'. Grienberger, Der altdeutsche Heilspruch gegen die 
fallende Sucht ; Henning, Die Alaisiagen ; Martin, 
Katzengebet ; Schroder, Luckenbusser : Uber Eilard 
von Oberg und seine Familie ; Eine illustrierte 
Wigalois-hs. ANXEIGER : Schubart, Die Glocken im 
Herzogtum Anhalt (V. Drach) ; Bugye, Helge-digtene 
i den ffildre Edda (Detter) ; Verdam, G.v.d. Schuerens 
Teuthonista (Franck) ; Mayer and Rietsch, Die Mondsee- 
Wiener liederhs. und der M (inch von Salzburg (Wil- 
manns) ; Rnnge, Die Sangesweisen der Colmarer h. 
und der Liederhs. von Donaueschingen (Rietsch) ; Sclieel, 
Die deutsche Grammatik des Albert Olinger (Martin) ; 
A'. Fischer, Goethes Sonettenkranz (Pniower) ; At Si lei; 
Studien zu ' Don Karlos ' (Elster) ; Leit:mann, Brief- 
wechsel zwischen Karoline v. Humboldt, Rahel und 
Varnhagen (Walzel). LlTTEUATUHNOTIilEN. K. K. 

Amcrlutiin Venuuiilca. A quarterly devoted to 
the comparative study of the literary, linguistic and 
other cultured relations of Germany and America. 
1. 4 : D. B. Shumway, The verb in Thomas Murner 
(conclusion) ; K. Francke, Further documents concern- 
ing Cotton Mather and August Hermann Francke; 
M. D. Learned, From Pastorius Bee-Hive or Bee- 
Stock. Reviews and Miscellaneous : H. Friihlich, 
Jacob Baechtold ; M. D. Learned, B. J. Vos : Diction 
and Rime-Technic in the works of Hartman von Aue ; 
Newly -acquired German-Americana : The Karl Knortz 
and other acquisitions. K. B. 

Journal of <iernianlc Philology. I. 1 : Horatio 
S. White, The Home of Walther von der Vogelweide ; 
George Hempl, Middle English wiji-, -wo- ; Edward P. 
Af oi-ton, Shakespere in the seventeenth century ; George 
A. Ueiult, The voiced spirants in Gothic; Otto B. 
ScJtltMer, On Old English glosses ; H. Schmidt- Wartni- 
berif, Phonetical Notes; F. A. Blackburn, Teutonic 
' Eleven ' and ' Twelve ' ; Gnstaf E. Karsten, On the 
Hildebrandslied. REVIEWS : ' Bates and Godfrey, 
English Drama (Albert S. Cook); F. H. Chase, A 
bibliographical guide to Old English Syntax (F. J. 
Mather); Reviews of periodicals: 'Anglia' (O. F. 
Emerson) ; ' Englische Studien ' (E. Woodbridge) ; 
Euphorion ' (H. S. White) ; ' Indogermanische, 
Forschungen' (H. Oertel). A'. B. 

1 iiorariM In - Ceiitralblalt. Jamtar-Marz, 1898. 

No. 1 : Patzold : Trobadors im Minnelied, 1897 (deals 
with 9 select Troubadours, a valuable contribution). 
Ames: The Mirror of the sinful soul, 1897 (Facsimile 
Reprint of Queen Elizabeth's Translation of Margarethe 
de Navarre's Miroir de 1'ame pecheresse, made by Eliza- 
beth in 1544). I 'ogt und Koch : Geschichte der deutschen 
Literatur ; 1897 (772 pages ; belongs to the Series of 
illustrated Histories of Literature like Walker's Engl. 
Lit. of the same date ; " ein sicherer Fiihrer von hohem 
wissenschaftlichem und kunstlerischem Werth"). 
Hesseling : Cbaros, 1897 (Charos, the symbol and son of 
death, according to Modern-Greek folk-lore). 

No. 2 : Michaelis et Passy : Dictionnaire phoneti'que 
de la langue franchise. (An excellent pronouncing 
diet, of spoken French highly recommended for its 
practical use by Gaston Paris). Schroder : Johann 
Jakob Engel ; 1897. (" Belletrist des vorigen Jalu- 
hunderts, besonders bekannt als Verfasser des " Philo- 
sophen fiir die Welt," a brief sketch of his life and 
character) Bartels : Die Dithmarscher, histor. Roman, 
1898 (" Wohlgelungene Schilderung des Landes und der 



Leute"). Grosse: Das Volkranislied, 1898 (an epic 
song on the national reunion of Germany, flrst publ. in 
1889). Manna: (Pseudon:=C. v. Lemeke) : Jugend- 
genossen, Roman, 1898 (full of action and life, written 
" mit echtem Humor "). Stern : Ansgewiihlte Novellen, 
1898. (Stern may be called the predecessor of Konrad 
Ferdinand Meyer as an historical novelist. ) These nine 
select novels " tragen dte Burgschaft der Dauer in 

No. 3 : Paul : Die Bedeutnng der deutschen Philo- 
logie, 1897. A venarius : Gediehte, 1898. (" Avenarius 
verdient einen Plata unter den besten deutschen 
Lyrikern der Gegensvart."). Salus : Gedichte, 1898: 
(" reif an Gehalt und formerollondet "). 

No. 4 : Paid : Deutsches Wilrterbuch, 1897 (584 pages; 
Ungeaehtet seines geriugen Umfanges das beste Hand- 
wcirterbuch liber den Wortgebrauch und die logische 
Aufeinanderfolge der Bedeutungen). Kernays : Zur 
neueren Literaturgeschichte, Band 2 ; 1898 (deals, among 
other Essays, with Friedr. Schlegel, and Jakob 

No. 5 : Salger Gebiny : Die Brlider Schlegel und die 
bildende Kunst, 1897. Nagel : Geschichte der Musik 
in England, ii. , 1897 (an excellent guide. It may be 
regretted that this work stops with Purcell and does 
not bring down the history to the present time). Storm: 
Sammtliche Werke, 8 Bande, 1897-98 (Theodor Storm, 
ein Haus-und Familienpoet, einer der 6 oder 7 grossen 
Lyriker nach ' ' Goethe, und nach Keller der beste Novel- 
list"). Krliijer: Die Wohnung des Gliicks, 1897 (Ein 
durch treue Schilderung der Landschaft und Leute 
Schleswig-Holstein's unschatzbares Werk). Zobeltitz : 
Antje Bergholm, Roman, 1897. (The sceneand the people 
of this story are along the new Nordostsee-Kanal which 
joins the Baltic and German ocean. ). Strut:: Der weisse 
Tod, Roman ans der Gletscherwelt, 1897 (Description of 
the joys and tejrors of Alpine sports). 

No. 6 : Penniman : The war of the theatres ; Boston 

1897 (deals with the dispute between Ben Jonson and 
Marstonc. 1600 : No allusion to Shakespeare). Uhland's 
Tagebuch 1810-1820, ed. Hartmann, 1898. State* and 
Wmdixk: Irische Texte, iii., 2; 1897. fensen: Von 
Morgen zum Abend, Gedichte, 1897 (Jensen's Lyrik 
steht ctwa in der Mitte zwischen derjenigen Storm's und 
Geibel's). Wilhmndt : Schleichendes Gift, Roman; 

1898 (" Ein Wiener Roman, vortrefflich in der Charakter- 
istik, ohne in das naturalistische Extrem zu verfallen "). 

Verbeck : Der erste Beste, eine Erzahlung 1897 (Eine 
passende Erzahlung fur Madehen. Verbeck zeigt die 
Vorzuge der Marlitt und ist f rei von ihren Schwachen "). 

Bartelt : Aus dem Sonnenflimmern, Novellen; 1898 
(Humorvolle Skizzen, die meist in Holland spielen, 
manche darunter wie z. B. " Die Unruhe anch von rein 
poetischer Stimmung getragen"). 

No. 7 : Raoul von Houdenc ; Merangis . . . altfranzo- 
sischer Roman, ed. Friedwauner, 1897. (An accurate 
critical edition superior to Michelant's publication of 
1869). Lessing's Schriften, edd. Lachmann und 
Muncker, Bd. 9-13 ; 1897. ffitdermann ; Johannes, 
Tragiidie, 1898. ("S's Johannes ist kein tragischer 
Held. Der Dichter ist an einem grossen historischen 
Stoff gescheitert "). Pataky : Lexikon deutscher Frauen 
der Feder seit 1840, Bd. i. A-L., 1898 ("Ein sehr 
nutzliches Untemehmen, wofiir der Herausgeberin 
allseitage Anerkennung und Dank gebiihrt"). 

No. 8: Stromer: Spanisch - deutsches Wijrterbuch, 
1897. (839 pages, carefully selected and practical). 
Voeltel : Litauisehes Elementarbuch, 1898 ("fur die 
Erlernung des Litauischen geeigneter als Wiedemanna 
Handbuch "). 

No. 9 : Gntzmcmn : Sprach-physiologie beim ersten 
Leseunterricht (empfiehlt den sprachphysiologischen 
spunkt, um das Stottern der Schulkinder zu verhiiten). 

Vietor : Einfuhrung in das Studium der englischen 
Philologie ; 2^ umgearbeitete Auflage, 1897 ( "verdiinst- 
voll"). Schmnger : Nicolai's Roman " Sebaldus No- 
thanker," 1 Beitrag zur Geschichte der Aufklarung ; 
1897 (Nicolai, 1 Vorlaufer Lessings als Freidenker). 
I'folisi : Deutsche Rodelehre, 1897. (Ein lohrreiches 
und klargeschriebenes Biichlein in 3 Teilen : (1) Der 
Ausdruck, (2) der Inhalt, (3) Muster deutscher Prosa). 

Enumlt : Glossaire moyenbreton ; 2 eel., 1895-96 
(werthvoll). Bolime : Deutsches Kinderlied und Kinder- 
spiel, 1897 ("ungemein wichtig fiir denVolks unterricht 
und die Volkskunde "). Hahn-Hakn : Maria Regina, 
eine Erzahlung, 1898. (Anew edition, 40 years after its 
first appearance. The famous authoress gives her reasons 
why she was converted to the Roman Catholic Church 
in this novel). Lazanrs : Ich suchte Dich, biographiecho 
Erzahlung, 1898 (How a Christian woman came back to 
the Jewish religion). Janitschek : Gelaudet, Roman, 
1897. (Glorifies the European-Buddhistic Sect of The- 
osophists, a rather weak novel). Mackmuon : Leisure 
hours in the Study, 1897. (Pleasantly written essays on 
various subjects). 

No. 10 : Gorra : Lingua e letteratura spagnuola . . , 
1898 (Useful compilation, 447 pages). Deutsche Erzahlor 
des 18. Jahrhunderts, ed. Fiirst, 1897 (deals with some 
predecessors of the modern novelists during the last 
cent., as Sturz, a humorist, Wall, Meissner, etc.). 
Gottsehall : Gutenberg, Drama, 1898 (This drama was 
already successfully performed at Leipzig in 1893). 
Bulthaupt : Die Malteser, Tragb'die ; 2 te Aufiage (based 
upon Schiller's Entwurf. This tragedy was performed 
at several German theatres and met with applause). 
Baseler : Gudrun, Schauspiel, 1898 (a realistic drama, 
well received at Oldenburg). Brec/d : Wolfram, drama- 
tisehes Gedicht, 1898 (" An attempt at imitating and 
surpassing the ideal of Goethe's Faust "), 

No. 11 : Nelle : Tersteegen's Geistliche Lieder, 1897. 
Bettelheitn : Biographisches Jahrbuch, i., 1897. Jan- 
naris : Historical Greek grammar down to the present 
time, 1897. Wordsirnrth : Poems, ed. Hutchinson. 
Holz : Laurin und der kleine Rosengarten, 1897. 
Steiner : Goethe's Weltanschauung, 1897. 

No. 12 : Doss : Die Trompete des Nordlandes, 
Gedicbte aus dem Norwegischen iibertragen von Pas- 
sarge. Morris: Goethe-Studien, 1897. Meyer (El. 
Hugo) ; Deutsche Volkskunde, 1898. Biese : Deutsohes 
Lesebuch filr die Obersecunda, 1897. Baumbach : 
Gedichte, 1897. Katsch : Pereat tristitia Studenten- 
Lieder, 1898. Riehl : Ein gauzer Mann, Roman, 1898. 
(" Schon und gut erzahlte Geschichte "). 

Eupliorlon. Zeitschrift filr Litteraturgeschichte, 
V. 1 : R. M. Meyer, Die Formen des Refrains; A. 
Hauffen, Fischartstudien, IV. A. Schmidt, Zur Ge- 
schichte der Strassburger Schulkomodie ; J. Bolte, 
Komudianten auf der Schneekoppe ; M. Heyne, 
Ungedrucktes von Abraham Gotthelf Kastner ; B. 
Seicffert, Wielands Hymne auf die Sonne ; Ulrich, Karl 
Philipp Moritz in Hannover. Eine Kritik des " Anton 
Reiser." MISOELLEN: H. Fitnck, Zu Goethe-Jahrbuch, 
XV. 236 ; R. Rosenbaum, Zu Lessings "Emilia Galotti" ; 
R. Jtosenbaum, Zur Romanze vom Grafen Alarcos ; G. 
Kllmger, Zu E. T. A. Hoffmann. RECENSIONEN UND 
REFE'RATE : F. Hotlenrotk, Handbuch der deutschen 
Tracht (A. Hauffen); //. Grasberner, Die Naturge- 
schichte des Schnaderhiipfels (J. W. Nagl) ; L, Honnan, 
Biographisch-kritische Beitrage zur osterreichischen 
Dialektlitteratur (J. W. Nagl) ; J. Bolte, Das Danziger 
Theater im 16. und 17. Jahrhundert (R. Schlosser). 
J. Rentsch, Lucianstudien (R. Rosenbaum) ; G. E. V. 
Ifatzmer, Die Jugend Zinzendorfs im Lichte ganz neuer 
Quellen (R. Fiirst) ; ./. Barnxtorff, Youngs Nachtge- 
danken und ihr Einfluss auf die deutsche Litteratur, 
mit einem Vorwort von Franz Muncker (Wukadinovic) ; 
K. Schiiddekopf, Briefwechsel zwischen Gleim und 
Heinse (R. Senlb'sser) ; J. Legras, Henri Heine poete 
(0. F. Walzel) ; G. G. Gereinus' Leben, Von ihm selbst 
(R. F. Arnold) ; 0. KHmmel, Christian Weise (B.S.). 
BIBLIOQRAPHIE (pp. 168-216). K. B. 

Zcltftclirlft nil- Vcrglelclicnile Llttcraturge- 
ftchlclite, ed. Koch. XI. 5-6, 1897. 

A bkandlungen Wiiiutche : Die Pflanzenf abel in der 
mittelalterlichen deutschen Litteratur. Kiilbing: Chris- 
tian von Troyes Yvain u. die Brandamslegende. 
llorner : Die ewige Liebe, ... Wlislocki : Zur Leno- 
rensage. Distel : Milliner u. Saphir. Warnatsch : Des 
Knaben Wunderhorn u. der lai du corn. Arnold: 
Saiffert und sein " deutscher Laufbericht." 

Besprecliunyen. Rabany : Goldoni, le theatre et la 
vie en Italie au S" siecle. 


XII. 1, 2, 1898 : 

Kuchler : Zur Geschichte tier islandischen Dramatik. 
Knaack : Demogorgon, zur Ariosterklarung. Heine : 
Unterricht von der deutschen Poesio. Markyruf : Anit- 
liche Bchreibcn Lessings, 1761-64. Ki-ans : Faustiana 
aus Bcihmen. Jonas : Zu Schiller's Gedichten. Meyrr . 
Forteguerri, 1 Novellist des Cinquecento. 

Besm'edmngen. Meyer : Niirnberger Faustgeschich- 
ten. //. K. 

llrulM he Knmlsc-liaii. Jan. -Mill" 1898. 

Jaiiuar : Siegfried : Um der Heimat willen v-x. 
ISiilsc/te : Herman Grimm. H "offer : Annette von Droste 
= Hulshoff, i/ii. Kodenlterg : Erinnemngen aus der 
Jugendzeit. Krebs: Max Bruch. Schlentlte r : Der 
Histrio Zacconi. . . . Neuere Belletrixtik : Jtlmer 
Kschenlmch : Alte Schule, Erzahlungen ; 1897. Spid- 
hagen: Faustulus ; 1898. Hillerti: 's Reis am Weg, 1897. 
Schubin : Wenn's nur schon Winter war !, Roman. 
Much : Erzahlungen ; 1897. 

Februar : Siegfried: Um der Heimat willen (xi, xii). 
Hiiffer : Annette von Droste = Hulshoff (iii/v.). 
Hodenbtrg : Erinnemngen aus der Jugendzeit. Blen- 
nerhasset : Ein italienischer Romandichter ; Gabriele 
d'Annunzio. Planchv.t : Schloss Nohant und seine 
Marionetten. Herman Grimm : Clemens Brentano's 
neuester Illustrator. Sunsen: Lydia'sldeale. Schmidt: 
Schlentlier's Buch iiber Gerhart Hauptmann. liulle: 
Ovid's Verwandlungen iibersetzt, 1898. 

Mtirz : ffalbe : Ein Meteor. Neumann : Jacob Burk- 
hardt. Rodenlterg : Erinnemngen an Freiligrath, i. 
Diets : Maupertuis und Friedrich der Grosse, Fes- 
trede. Das Jubilaum der " Allgemeinen Zeitung." 
Aeuere Belldristik : Wildenbruch : Tiefe Wasser, 5 
Erzahlungen, 1898. Ebers: Arachne, historischer 
Roman, 1898. //. K. 

Museum (Dutch Monthly), Jan.-March 1898. 

JantMri: Breal : Essai de S^mantiquc (Kluywer).-- 
Wrangel : Sveriges litterara fiirbindelser med Holland 

(Beets). Gottinger Musenalmanach auf 1772, ed Redlich 
(Kossmann). Hooyv/iet : Hot verbum in net heden- 
daagsche Fransch (Salverda de Grave). 

Februari : Kindermami : De Aeneassage en de 
Aeneis (Margadant). Zwei Islander Geschichten, ed. 
flensler (Boer). 

Maart : Boekenoogen : De Zaansche volkstaal 
(Verdam). Joseph: Die Friihzeit des deutschen Min- 
nefangs (Frantzen). The Countess of Pembroke's 
Antonie, ed. Luce (Logeman). Beyer: Franzosische 
Phonetik (Salverda de Grave). 1'itit, Lefmcen : Ger- 
mansche Godenleer (Boer). H. K. 

Arklv fur Nordlsk Fllologi, ptl. Kock : XIV.. 3. 

Lund. 1898. 

Koci' : Studier i de nordiska sprakens historia i.-v. 
Kraut: Der Modusgebrauch in temporal-siitzen, welehe 
mit ustr(en) nud fyrr en eingeleitet wurden. 

SchSfk : Anmalan av " Helge-Digtene i den celdre 
Edda, af Bugge." 

Larsmii : Anmalan av " Hauksbok, ed. Nordiske 

Boliery : Anmalan av ' ' Dahlerup, Det danske sprogs 
historie. " 

Lind : Bibliografi fiir ar 1896.- 

//. A'. 

Archlv fiir Slavlschc I'hllologlr, ed. Jayic. xx. 1. 

Jfii/!f: Streitfragen. Vondrak: Die Imperative 
dazdl, vezdi, u.s.w. . . . Nmakovic: Gitsa-Giga. 
I'astrnet : Mahrische Dialecte. Soertnsen : Zur 
Entwickelung der serbischeu Heldendichtung 

Kritischer Anzelger : JUlletii : Die Siebenburger Bui- 
garen (Jire&k). 

<f'/".s-tr : Slovenische Literaturgeschichte (Vidic). 
Goetz : Geschichte der Slaven-apostel (Nachtigall). 
. . . Berneker : Die preussische Sprache (Mikkola). 
Solx>t?r*kli : Grossrussische Volkslieder (Jagic). Oltlak : 
Zur Eatharina Legende in der kroatischen Litera- 
tur. 11. K. 

Modern Language Teaching 


THE following is an abstract of the public 
University Lectures on Medieval and Modern 
Languages which were and are being de- 
livered at Cambridge during the academical 
year 1897-98 (October 1897 June 1898) for 
Honours men reading for the Modern Lan- 
guage Tripos. 

I. Lectures intended for the higher study 
of English (sections A and B of the 
Tripos) : 

Professor SKEAT lectured on Sweet's 
Anglo-Saxon Primer and on English Philol- 
ogy (with special reference to Sweet's Anglo- 
Saxon Reader and Sievers' Old English 
Grammar) twice a week during two terms. 

He also explained Alfred's Orosius and 
Cynewulfs Elene twice a week during two 

Mr GOLLANCZ lectured on English dram- 
atic literature, with special reference to 
Shakespeare, once a week during three 

In another course he explained Middle 
English Poetry, Gawain and the Greene 
Knight, etc., twice a week for three terms. 

He also held a class for students of Section 
A (chiefly modern and literary English) in 
which exercises and papers were set and dis- 
cussed (once a week for three terms). 

Mr WYATT gave an Introduction to the 
study of English with regard to what to 
read (once a week in the Michaelmas term). 
He also gave a general course of English 
literature once a week during three terms. 

Mr MAGNUSSON lectured for two terms 
(once a week) on the Older Edda. 

Mr CHADWICK lectured on Anglo-Saxon, 
Early and Dialectic texts, with historical 
grammar, in the Michaelmas term (twice a 

II. Lectures intended for honours students 
of French and Romance (Sections C 
and D of the Tripos) : 
Mr BRAUNHOLTZ lectured on " La Satire 
M6nippee " twice a week in one term. 

He also lectured on "Aymeri de Nar- 
bonne " twice a week in the two following 

He gave a course on Historical French 
Grammar twice a week for three terms. 

A course on Romance Philology was given 
twice a week for two terms. 

Mr TILLEY is lecturing on Moliere twice a 
week this term. 

Mr OELSNER lectured on Corneille (Intro- 
duction, " Discours," and Set Plays) twice 
a week last term. 

He lectured on Dante ("Vita Nuova," 
with interpretation, for beginners) twice a 
week last term, and is lecturing on Petrarca's 
Poems twice a week this term. 

He also takes translation of Unseen Pas- 
sages in old French and Italian (with papers) 
twice a week this term. 

Mr COMBER proposed lectures on Spanish : 
Calderon, Life and Works, with special refer- 
ence to selected passages from " La Vida es 
Sueno," fortnightly for three terms. 

Mr BOQUEL held a class on French Com- 
position. (Medium and hard papers.) 
French is spoken at these classes. Once a 
week in three terms. 

Mr WYATT held a class on French Un- 
prepared Translation (papers with model 
versions) once a week for three terms. 

III. Lectures intended for Honours stu- 
dents of German and Germanic 
(Section E and F of the Tripos) : 

Dr BREUL gave a course of lectures on 
Modern German Literature I. (1748-1832), 
twice a week for three terms. 

He lectured on Goethe's more difficult 
poems and on the second part of Faust twice 
a week during three terms. Lectures on 
the First Part of Faust had been delivered 
in 1896-97. These lectures on Goethe's 
poetry were delivered in German. 

He also held Philological Exercises in Ger- 
manic Philology once a week for two terms. 

Mr WOLSTENHOLME held classes on Ger- 
man Composition (once a week for three 
terms), and Advanced and Original Com- 
position (once a week for three terms). 

He also held a class on Translation from 
German Set Books, with ' unseen ' translation, 
once a week in three terms. 


For the less advanced, " Special Examina- 
tion in Modern Languages," lectures and 
classes are held by Messrs Wolstenholme, 
Wyatt, Morier-Hinde and Comber. The 
same gentlemen prepare students in public 
lectures and classes for the " Previous Ex- 
amination " (" Little Go "), in which French 
and German papers may be taken from the 
" Additional Subjects." " 

A great deal of the higher and highest in- 
struction in Medieval and Modern Languages 
is given to classes and to individual students 

in the Colleges by University and College 
lecturers, who also undertake a good deal of 
private tuition. Much Modern Language 
teaching, partly of an advanced character, 
has been given since 1884 at Girton and 
Newnham Colleges. 

The Clark Lecturer in English Literature 
at Trinity College (Mr TOVEY) gave a course 
of three lectures during the Lent term on 
Hamlet (1 and 2), and on the text of Shake- 
speare (No. 3). This term he is delivering 
a course of five lectures on ' Some English 
Historical Plays of Shakespeare.' 




OF methods of teaching at Eton one is 
tempted to say what the American said of 
the manners of himself and his compatriots : 
"We haven't any"; and perhaps also to 
add, that such a state of things is not alto- 
gether an unmixed evil in these days of all- 
prevailing dull uniformity. The spirit of 
the German drill sergeant is gaining influ- 
ence, and it is well for the public schools to 
make some stand for the free development 
of character and individuality. But while 
allowing ourselves much freedom in the 
matter of methods, our constant aim in all 
our teaching is to try to make each boy think 
for himself; and, further, in dealing with 
French, we are guided by the principle that 
the relationship between Latin, French and 
English should be used to increase and 
strengthen the knowledge of these three 

Times have changed since the single 
teacher of French at Eton described him- 
self to the Public Schools Commission of 
1864 as "a mere objet de luxe." At that 
time, "the study of French . . . being 
optional at Eton was taken up and dropped 
irregularly." But even in those dark ages, 
and still earlier, French was not wholly 
neglected by the boys themselves, as may be 
gathered from the following extract from 
Lord Metcalfe's Diary, written at Eton in 
1800 : 

Thursday 13th. Play at four. Read some of Lucan 
and Cicero. Drew. Read Vol- 
taire's Charles XII. 

Friday Uth. Whole school day. Drank tea with 
Harvey after six. We have con- 
quered, and my tutor, not find- 
ing an argument against us, was 
obliged to consent. Read Gib- 
bon. Finished Charles XII. 

Since 1864, French has formed part of the 
compulsory school work. Dr Hornby al- 
lotted two hours weekly to the subject 
throughout the school. The present head- 
master, Dr Warre, has doubled the number 
of French lessons for the majority of the 
boys, and has increased the French staff. 
In Fourth Form he has generously given 
five hours a week to the French teachers, 
some of whom are the classical masters in 
this part of the school. Further, in the 
Remove and Fifth Form he has introduced 
the principle of utilizing, as far as possible, 
a knowledge of Latin as a help in acquiring 
a knowledge of French, Two of the four 
French hours are taken by the Classical 
master in form for translation from the 
French, and at these hours much attention 
is given to making clear the intimate con- 
nection between Latin and French by means 
of questions on etymology and grammar. 
The remaining schools are taken by French- 
men, one of whom has, in each large division 
of the school, a special set of picked boys. 
The best of these picked boys compete 
annually for the French prize founded by 
the late Prince Consort. In the Army Class, 
five hours a week are given to French ; and 
in this part of the school, grammar and 
translation are mainly in the hands of 
Englishmen, while their French colleagues 
take charge of the composition, dictation, 
and conversation of the upper boys. 

A considerable number of boys come to 
Eton with some colloquial knowledge of 
French (I might add that careful teaching at 
many of the preparatory schools is now a 
welcome cause of a considerably increased 
knowledge of grammar and vocabulary at 
entrance), a circumstance which tends, in 
conjunction with the presence of French 


colleagues, to keep English teachers of 
French continually on the alert. It is un- 
fortunate for teachers of the ancient classics 
that no critical inhabitant of ancient Rome 
or Athens is ever at hand to correct a mis- 
placed word or an imperfectly polished sen- 
tence. It would be hazardous, even if 
possible, for a teacher of French or German 
to give as the translation of " a maiden's 
flowing locks," a word which meant either 
" the incipient down on a young man's 
chin," or " the tuft of hair at the end of 
an elephant's tail," a feat which was recently 
attempted in a copy of Greek iambics by an 
accomplished scholar at one of our leading 

The proportion of boys at Eton who learn 
German is about 12 per cent., the majority 
of whom belong to the Army Class. This 
subject may be substituted for Greek at 
entrance into Fifth Form from Remove 
a timely concession granted by the present 
headmaster and there are signs of growing 
vigour in this latest addition to the school 
curriculum. Five hours weekly are given 
to German. In teaching this subject the 
previous mental training of boys in Latin 
and French is found to be invaluable. 

We are continually warned nowadays 
of the superiority of everything made in 
Germany to our home " products, and the 
timid amongst us fear that the British boy 
will soon be hopelessly distanced by his 
Teutonic rival. It was accordingly quite 
re-assuring to the present writer to hear a 
distinguished practical German teacher of 
English remark with a sigh, at the close of 
a French lesson, that he bad found in the 
public schools he had visited in this country 
a better knowledge of French than German 
boys possest. This may be due, to some 
extent, to the intimate connection between 
Latin, French, and English, and to the use 
made of this connection by teachers in public 

And perhaps it is wise for us to teach 
modern languages, as far as possible, on the 
same classical lines on which our boys have 
been trained to think, while gradually adopt- 
ing what has been found best in more modern 

systems, and taking full advantage of the 
vivifying help of Frenchmen and Germans 
in those branches of the teaching with which 
they are best qualified to deal. At any rate, 
we cannot, even if we would, get rid of old 
traditions, and it is not dignified to be like 
the cat who was angry with the ugly duck- 
ling because it couldn't purr. 

The art of writing English is taught in- 
directly at Eton through the medium of 
translations, and more directly by written 
answers to weekly History and Scripture 
questions. Special provision is made for 
English essays in the highest forms and 
in the Army Class. 

Before laying down my pen may I put in 
a plea for fewer subjects and greater thorough- 
ness in preparatory schools and the lower 
forms of public schools I would fain add, 
in Board and Voluntary schools also. We 
schoolmasters profess to treat a child's brain 
as a thought-producing machine which it is 
our duty to prepare for its work in life, and 
yet, while we feebly protest, we are forced 
by the competition between subjects to make 
it a clogged receptacle for miscellaneous and 
undigested information. Why should we 
not begin by trying to ground all our children 
thoroughly in the elements of four subjects 
English, Latin, French, Mathematics, 
with enough science teaching to cultivate 
powers of observation ? We might then hope 
to teach young brains to think, and not merely 
to struggle to remember. Modern sides a 
source of weakness to our schools might be 
dispensed with, and much energy saved by 
the greater harmony introduced between the 
teaching at preparatory and at public schools. 
Greek or German or Science (more advanced) 
would eventually be gainers, for they would 
be taken up by boys on entering Fifth Form 
who would have obtained a firm grasp of 
elementary principles, which they would 
apply to the new subjects. L'art d' Education 
est avant tout de faire des Tummies. The British 
race has many pressing world-problems to 
solve in the near future. It behoves us then, 
before all things, to teach our children to 



Longm/m's Mngazine for June contains an 
interesting article on Modern Language 
Teaching, in which Mrs Lecky speaks 
strongly about our neglect of modern lan- 
guages, and attacks what may briefly be 
called the "dead" method of teaching them. 

based as it is on the methods in vogue for 
teaching languages no longer living. While 
agreeing with Mrs Lecky in many of her 
remarks, there are certain points on which 
we dissent most strongly. 

Dr Jowett is quoted with approval for 


maintaining that the older you are, the more 
hard it is to learn a new language, and that 
modern languages should be learned from 
native teachers (i.e. foreigners). The first 
statement is frequently heard, and has done 
incalculable harm, deterring many from the 
study of a new language which would have 
been of great service ; it rests on a very 
slender basis of fact. As for the native 
teacher, especially the nursery governess, 
we recognise that in some cases the results 
are satisfactory ; but how often does the 
poor child acquire no more than a vocabu- 
lary of a few hundred words and a few 
score phrases, and a pronunciation which 
quite obviously combines the peculiarities 
of English and of some French, Swiss or 
German dialect. And, after all, we cannot 
take into consideration the minority, those 
who can afford to keep such a governess for 
their children. 

The suggestion that French should be 
"for a great part of the time the medium 
of kindergarten teaching" seems to us most 
unfortunate. It cannot be impressed too 
strongly on modern language teachers that 
it is of supreme interest to them that the 
teaching of English should receive more 
attention, and not less than at present if, 
indeed, that be possible. In the case of 
the English child entering upon the great 
epoch when its character is moulded and its 
knowledge acquired as a preparation for life, 
English should for some time be the centre 
of instruction around which all else can 
easily be grouped. Then, if the modern 
language teacher could rely on a sound 
foundation, his part of the building could 
be done steadily and surely. He should 
join hands with the growing band of those 
who insist on the importance of the mother- 
tongue during the first years of school life. 
The premature introduction of French is on 
this account to be deprecated. 

Mrs Lecky would entrust the elementary 
teaching of French to a Frenchman, and the 
advanced teaching to an Englishman. The 
majority of those who have given attention 
to the matter will undoubtedly agree with 
the opposite view, expressed by Mr Welldon 
at the last meeting of the Modern Language 
Association, or will hold that at every stage 
a competent English teacher is best. True, 
there is a lamentable lack of such teachers, 
in boys' schools more than in girls' schools ; 
but their number is fortunately increasing. 
It would be a waste of time to reopen this 
question, which was discussed at length some 
years ago. 

The Gouin system is then held up as a 

model, and receives credit for "drawing 
attention to the fact that modern languages 
can only be learned well by oral practice." 
Well, it certainly was " pushed " by Mr 
Stead for all it was worth, and we do not 
wish to deny that the system has done some 
good ; but the importance of oral practice 
had been recognised while M. Gouin was 
still learning the dictionary by heart. Mrs 
Lecky makes little or no allusion to the 
work that has been done in America (the 
" natural " method), in Germany (Franke, 
Victor, Walter, etc.), in Switzerland (Alge, 
etc.), and in France (Carre, etc.), the results 
of which are much more important than 
what has been achieved by the " series " 

In the attack on the examination craze, 
and on the influence exerted by examina- 
tions on school teaching, we fully agree. 
Teachers are seriously hampered in their 
task if mere beginners have to go in for 
examinations that require candidates to 
have learnt lists of exceptions and far- 
fetched verb forms, which should naturally 
be reserved for a time when the child has 
acquired a firm grasp of what is simple 
and straightforward in the foreign lan- 
guage. What Mrs Lecky says on this 
point is forcibly expressed, and should be 
seriously considered by those responsible for 
directing our examinations. 

On the other hand, we have read with 
regret what is said about the use of 
phonetics. Every sentence shows that the 
wr-iter has not had the slightest practical 
experience in the matter. The one state- 
ment that the use of a phonetic alphabet 
leads to confusion later on when the con- 
ventional spelling is learnt is sufficient to 
show this ; for every teacher who has made 
the experiment testifies to the fact that the 
children spell better than those taught in 
the usual way. For this and other points 
connected with phonetics it is enough to 
refer to the preliminary report of the 
Modern Languages Association Sub-Com- 
mittee (Phonetics), printed in another 

It is curious to read that " an acquaint- 
ance with Latin must necessarily facilitate 
the study of German syntax " ; if "French " 
were substituted for " German," we could 
understand it. When a German writer 
goes wrong, it is very often just because 
he is influenced by his knowledge of Latin 

That the masterpieces of literature should 
not be used " as vehicles for learning the 
language " is very true. Teach common 



words and familiar things first, help the 
pupils to a good vocabulary of, say, 3000 
words, and they will be able to appreciate 
classical French or German literature in 
much the same way as French or German 
boys or girls, who also do not start with a 
complet edictionary in their head. 

Finally, we are asked to put pressure on 
the University authorities, in order that the 
status of modern languages there may be 
raised. The Oxford and Cambridge replies 
to a circular of the Modern Languages 
Association, which were printed in our 
last issue, show on what support we can 
reckon. Some good work has been done 

at Cambridge, and Dr Breul's name may be 
singled out as that of a keen and enthusi- 
astic worker in our cause. But the number, 
and, in many cases, the calibre, of the men 
who take up modern languages at the Uni- 
versities are alike unsatisfactory. The boys' 
schools are only slowly waking up to the 
need of more time for modern languages, 
and time better employed. Reforms in 
modern language teaching at present have 
a good chance of being adopted in the 
girls' schools and in schools where there 
are trained teachers. Elsewhere progress 
will be slow but it will surely come. 




A PERSON is said to know a foreign language 
when he is able to speak and write it cor- 
rectly, and to understand it when spoken or 
written. To give our pupils this power is, 
or should be, the primary end of modern 
language instruction, and in testing the re- 
sults of our work in the class-room it seems 
to me that our examiners ought to confine 
themselves to finding out whether this end 
has been achieved. The papers set by Oxford, 
Cambridge, and other examining bodies will 
show that it is with the means by which the 
end is achieved, and not with the end itself, 
that they are mainly concerned. 

Candidates for these examinations are 
required to prove that they have a satisfac- 
tory knowledge of grammar and some skill 
in translation. Now, grammar is not an 
end in itself, but a means. A boy may be 
crammed with enough accidence and syntax 
to enable him to baffle the most ingenious 
examiner that ever set a grammar paper, 
but, as practical teachers are well aware, it 
does not follow that the boy can either speak 
or write the language correctly. It is not 
with the candidate's knowledge of grammati- 
cal rules that the examiner is concerned, but 
with his ability to apply them. With gram- 
mar itself he has surely nothing whatever to 

Translation again may or may not be a 
good means of acquiring ultimately skill in 
expressing one's thoughts directly in a foreign 
tongue, but insomuch as we are, when trans- 
lating, substituting a foreign phrase for an 
English phrase, or vice versa, it is not an end 
in itself. The business of the examiner is 
to find out whether the candidate can ex- 


press in the foreign tongue his ovioi ideas, 
or ideas gathered from his books and his 
teachers, and not whether he can turn 
Macaulay's ideas into French, or Hugo's ideas 
into English. Both translation and gram- 
mar are the concern of the teacher alone, 
and he should be left entirely free to utilise 
them to the extent he thinks fit. Under the 
existing system he is not free ; he is obliged 
for examination purposes to make knowledge 
of grammar and skill in translation the end 
of his instruction, and to teach by a faulty 
method imposed upon him from without. 
The result is that his pupils, though they 
win certificates, quit school unable to do 
much more than interpret the sense of an 
easy foreign author. This can hardly be 
called a satisfactory result of six or seven 
years' study. 

It is clear to most people that our present 
linguistic methods leave much to be desired ; 
it is equally clear, if serious progress is to 
be made, that we must be left free to search 
for methods that will give better results. 
This can only be done if teacher and ex- 
aminer agree as to what should be the end 
of foreign language instruction ; the business 
of the teacher then being to find, by patient 
research, the best means of achieving this 
end, and that of the examiner being simply 
and purely to test the results of the teacher's 
work, while leaving him as much freedom as 
possible in the choice of his methods. Taking 
it for granted that the aim of instruction in 
the formal language is to give our pupils the 
power to express their thoughts directly in 
the foreign tongue, and to understand the 
ideas expressed by one writing and speaking 


the same, I venture, for the sake of argu- 
ment, to suggest the following direct tests : 

1. Written questions set and answered in 
the foreign tongue. 

2. Oral questions asked and answered in 
the foreign tongue. 

3. A choice of subjects for an essay in the 
foreign tongue. 

There can be little doubt that these tests 
would enable the examiner to form a just 
estimate of a candidate's ability to speak, 
write and understand a foreign language. 
Whether they are practicable is another 
question. Such an examination would not 
be practicable, if questions were asked on 
matter which the candidates had not pre- 
pared, for they would not have, and could 
not be expected to have, a sufficiently large 
vocabulary at their disposal to enable them 
to express ideas on a wide range of subjects. 
As our object in teaching a foreign language 
is to give our pupils not only something that 
may be of practical value to them, but also 
the means of making themselves acquainted 
with what is best worth knowing of the 
foreign country and its people, the subjects 
for examination that naturally suggest them- 
selves are geography, history and literature. 
The examination would therefore comprise 
(1) questions on the geography of the 
foreign country ; (2) questions on its his- 
tory ; (3) an essay on a literary or historical 
subject ; (4) an oral examination on the 
same subjects. What standard of knowledge 
ought to be exacted time and experience 
alone can decide. 

In order to show how far it is possible to 
prepare candidates for an examination held 
on the above lines after a term's work (three 
and a half hours a week), I reprint below a 
paper which was set to a class of fifteen boys 
(ages fifteen to sixteen) on the elementary 
geography of France and the local geography 
of Radley College : 


1. Quel jour est-ce aujourd'hui ? 
Le combien est-ce aujourd'hui ? 

2. Ecrivez les bornes de la France. 

3. Ecrivez le nom d'un dttroit, canal, pays, fleure, 

4. De'crivez la position des pays et des montagnes 
qui entourent le lac de Geneve. Quel grand fleuve 
debouehe dans ce lac ? 

5. Expliquez les mots colline,, vallon. 

6. De'crivez une jour-ne'e scolaire a Radley. 

7. De'crivez les environs du lycee a 1'ouest et a 
1'est. , 

8. Ecrivez ce que vous savez des animaux qu'on 
trouve aux Pyrenees. 

9. Quels sont les pays qui entourent la France, et 
quelles sont les bornes qui les separent de la France ? 

10. De'crivez les environs de votre maison pater- 

The results of this experiment were suffi- 
ciently promising to encourage me in the 
belief that any class after a six years' course 
would be competent to do justice to a much 
more difficult paper than the above. I append 
exact copies of answers to questions 7, 8, and 
2. These answers, given by boys of average 
ability, will best show the results that can 
be obtained after a term's work, and that 
may be expected after several terms' work. 

7. A 1'ouest du lyci'e s'etend le pare, dans lequel 
so trouve uu t'tang. Dans 1'ftang di'bouche le ruis- 
seau KisJioii. Pros de IV-tang on voit le clu'ne dc 
Radley. Dans le pare il y a des chevaux, des vaches 
et des moutons et sur 1'etang il y a des oies et des 
canards. A 1'est se trouve la maison de M. B , qui 
est entouree d'un jardin. Derriere cette maison on 
a bati I'innrmerie. A Test de I'infirmerie il y a un 
bois dans lequel se trouvent 1'usine a gaz et 1'ecurie. 
En traversant le bois on entre dans le jardin potager. 
Les terrains du lycee sont bornes de ce cote par le 
chemin qui va d'Abingdon a Oxford. De 1'autre cOtii 
du chemin il y a une ancienne eglise, la maison du 
cure, la poste et la forge. 

7. A 1'ouest du lycue s'etend un pare dans lequel 
se trouve un e'tang, le fleuve (!) ou ruisseau Kl.ihu 
di'bouche dans cet i ; tang. Au nord de cet e'tang se 
trouve le chene de Radley. Dans ce pare on trouve 
des chevaux, des vaches et des moutons. Sur 1'etang 
nagent des oies et des canards. A 1'est du lycee se 
dresse la maison de M. B qui est entouree d'un 
jardin, deriere cette maison on a bati 1'innrmerie. A 
1'est de I'mfirmerie est un petit bois dans lequel se 
trouve 1'usine a gaz et I'&urie ; en traversant ce bois 
on entre le jardin potager. Tons les terrains du 
lycee de cette cott 1 sont bornees par le chemin qui 
va d'Abingdon ii Oxford. Do 1'autre cote de ce 
chemin on trouve nne ancieune oglise, la maison 
du curt', la poste et la forge. 

8. D'abord il y a 1'ours qui est un animal solitaire, 
c'est a dire, qui aime a vivre seul. II fait sa maison 
dans les arbres creux. On le chasse pour avoir sa 
fourrure. Puis il y a 1'isard qui est une espfoe de 
chamois. II habite dans la region des glaciers. On 
le chasse parqu'il est bon a manger. On voit aussi 
des troupeaux de chevres, il y a quelquefois plus de 
mille chevres dans un troupeau. Les chevres sont 
accompagnees d'un patre, suivi de son chien. Le 
chevre a de petites comes, des yeux jaunes, une 
grande barbe, de longs poils, une petite queue et des 
pieds de corne. Puis il y a des cochons qui ne sont 
pas sales. Au contraire ils sont propres, roses et 
noirs. Enfin on voit des milliers de lizards qui 
nichent dans les fentes des roehers. Ils aiment le 
soleil et la compagnie. Ils se battent souvent et 
dans ces combats ils perdent quelquefois la queue. 
Alors ils ont honte et ils se cachent. Ils sont 
toujours aux aguets et ils dt'taleut au moindre bruit. 

8. D'abord il y a 1'ours, qui est un animal soli- 
taire ; qui aime a vivre seul. II fait sa maison dans 
un arbre creux. On le chasse pour avoir sa fourrure. 
Et il y a 1'isard qui est une espece de chamois et vive 
dans les regeons des glaciers. 

Et puis ou voit des troupeaux de chevres Quel- 
quefois on voit une centaine de chevres dans un 
troupeau. Les chevres sont accompagnees d'un 
patre et de son chien. La chevre a deux comes, des 
yeux jaunes, de longs poils, une petite queue, une 
grande barbe et pieds de corne. Aussi vous voycz 
des cochons qui ne sont pas sales ; au contraire 
propres, roses et noirs. Et il y a des milliers de 


luzards qui nichent dans les fentes des rochers. Ils 
aiment la conipagnie et le soleil. Ils se batteiit 
souvent et quelquefois ils pcrdent les queues ; alors 
ils out honte et se cachent. Ils soiit toujours aux 
aguets (sur le qui-vive) et ils cK'campent (s'enfuient, 
detalent) au moiudre bruit. 

For the sake of brevity and variety, 
only parts of the answers to question 2 are 
given : 

2. Les homes de la France au sud sont les Pyre- 
nees, une chaine de montagnes, qui se dressent entre 
la France et 1'Espagne, et la jner Mediterranee, qui 
s'.'teiul entre ee pays et 1'Afrique. ... La France 
est bornee a Test par les Alpes, le Jura et les 
Vosges qui sont des chalnes de montagnes, et par 
une frontiers artificielle qui se trouve entre ce pays 
et la Belgique. 

2. Au sud elle est bornee par les Pyrenees qui se 
dressent entre la France et 1'Espagne et aussi par la 
mer Mediteranee. Au nord-est elle est bornee par 
une frontier artificielle qui se trouve entre la France 
et la Belgique. A 1'est la France est bonu : e par les 
Vosges, une chane de montagnes, qui se dressent 
entre la France et la Suisse : et aussi entre la France 
et 1'Italie se dressc uno autre chene de montagnes le 
nom de laquelle je ne sais pas. 

2. La France est bornee au sud par les Pyrenees 

qui se dressent entre la France et 1'Espagne et par la 
mer Mediterranuee. A 1'est la France est borniSe 
par des montagnes, le Jura, les Vosges et les Alpes 
et au nord-est paru ne frontiere artificielle. 

It will be seen from the above questions 
and answers that a geography examination 
can be conducted in French in much the 
same manner as we conduct such examina- 
tions in English. Whether we shall be justi- 
fied in requiring boys leaving school to do 
original composition in the foreign tongue is 
a question that has still to be answered. If 
answered in the affirmative, the practicability 
of the examination suggested will be evident. 
Meanwhile the examiners might set before 
the teacher an ideal to be realised. Satis- 
factory results would no doubt be slow in 
coming ; but, on the other hand, the neces- 
sity of solving a difficult problem would 
make our work none the less interesting, 
and it is a problem worth solving even at 
the cost of many failures and disappoint- 



WE print below some criticisms suggested 
by the papers in English, French, German, 
Spanish, and Welsh set at this Examination. 
We intend to pass in review many of the 
more important examinations, as was stated 
in the leading article of our first number. 
The growing popularity of the ' Cambridge 
Locals,' l and its consequent influence on the 
teaching in our schools sufficiently justify us 
in choosing this examination to open what 
we hope will prove a valuable series of 


On the whole it may be said that the 
papers for Senior Students are better than 
those for the Juniors. There is no cause for 
surprise in this ; for very little advance has 
yet been made in this country towards solv- 
ing the apparently difficult question of the 
teaching of English in schools, and more 
especially in the lower forms. 

The proper relation of Parsing to Analysis 
is a case in point. In the Senior papers a 
passage is given for analysis, and certain 
words are selected from this passage for pars- 

1 4274 candidates were entered for the Preliminary 
Examination, 8416 as Juniors, 2191 as Seniors ; 
14,881 in all, of whom 8840 were boys and 6041 

ing, the candidate being encouraged to do 
the analysis first. In the Junior paper the 
first question in the paper is devoted to pars- 
ing certain words in a passage from Shelley, 
whilst the analysis of another sentence is 
given in the second section of the paper. 
This may not be of serious detriment to the 
Candidate, but no Examiner who realised 
that Parsing should follow Analysis, or at 
least proceed pari pussu with it, would set his 
questions in this manner, and force the 
younger child, who writes more slowly, to 
study two passages while the older need 
only master one. 

More positively harmful and equally in- 
dicative of false educational notions are the 
questions on etymology which find their way 
into the Junior Grammar paper. 'Write 
short notes on the words vixen, drake, children, 
riches, wearer,' demands Don Armado of the 
poor Junior Candidate. Heavens ! one feels 
inclined to exclaim. I wonder what percent- 
age of marks Don Armado would gain if he 
submitted his own short notes on these words 
to any competent philologist. It is no defence 
to say that short notes on these words are to be 
found in the current text-books on Historical 
Grammar. The notes are incomplete and 
often quite wrong, and the books should 
never find their way within the walls oi a 


school. They could not, were the teaching 
of English put upon a scientific basis. ' What 
is meant by saying that the word bicycle is a 
hybrid ? ' the same pedantic amateur asks in 
another part of the same paper. No ex- 
perienced and successful teacher would put a 
question in that form to children he bad not 
taught himself. It may perhaps be fairly 
required of a boy or a girl at this stage that 
they should know what is meant by a 
hybrid, but an examiner has no right 
to demand in an English paper sufficient 
knowledge of Latin and Greek to enable a 
child, who has not been taught the etymology 
of bicycle, to criticise its form. The question 
should have run : " What is meant by saying 
that a word is a hybrid ? Give an example 
if you can." 

There are no questions so bad as these in 
the Senior Grammar paper. There is no in- 
ducement to take pot-shots, and the two 
following questions, though perhaps unduly 
difficult in some of the examples chosen, are 
much fairer, because they deal with main 
principles for the most part, and most of the 
special examples are words no competent 
teacher would be likely to pass by without 

"B. 3. Give examples of English Past 
Participles which are formed by ob- 
solete processes. 

" Comment on the forms of the Past Par- 
ticiples done, drunk, beaten, made, 
wrought, bereft." 

" B. 4. To what class would you assign 
each of the following pronouns ? my- 
self, his, hers, every, which. 

" Write notes on the history of these words, 
and state the conditions under which 
the last two are now used." 

Nothing, however, reflects more plainly 
the shortcomings of the school teaching of 
English than the omissions these papers 
show. In neither junior nor senior paper is 
there a single question upon the sounds of 
our language, nothing that requires a know- 
ledge of the meaning of Consonant, Vowel, 
Diphthong, or their classification, nothing to 
elicit the candidate's recognition of the dis- 
tinction between a letter and the sound it is 
made to represent. Yet these are funda- 
mental facts which every boy and girl ought 
to know, and of which they are, as a rule, 
quite ignorant. Neither is there a single 
question in either paper upon the broad out- 
lines of the history of the language. The 
candidate is freely examined upon the history 
of individual words which he may or may 
not have come across, but nothing is said of 

the large social and political influences which 
have moulded and modified our tongue since 
the days when it was first spoken in this 
land pure and undefiled. 

Turning to the literature papers, the same 
kind of fault is noticeable too much insist- 
ence on detail, too little attempt to lay stress 
on the aspects of the book in question, which 
have made it into a classic ; too much gram- 
mar and philological pedantry ; too little en- 
couragement given to independent thought 
and taste. Here again the senior papers are 
better than the junior ones, and naturally, 
for they are easier to set. It is well to say 
at once that neither the ' Tempest ' nor 
' Samson Agonistes ' are works which can 
very usefully be put into the hands of a 
junior class, and the unsatisfactory nature of 
the papers set is in some measure a proof of 
this. How can the average boy or girl of 
fifteen and sixteen take any real interest in 
the unities of Time, Place, and Action, or 
understand the value of Tragic Irony, when 
he has never read a Greek play or learnt to 
know the difference between the material 
used by the ancient and that used by the 
modern dramatist ? Yet two questions are 
devoted to these topics in the junior papers. 

Both classes of candidate are asked to 
paraphrase passages from the books that 
have been prescribed, and this kind of ques- 
tion has evident advantages. But it tends 
to destroy a child's taste for literature, and 
it would be a much better way of reaching 
the same end to italicise difficult phrases and 
clauses in a fairly long passage, and ask for 
an explanation of these. 

The following questions can, on the other 
hand, find no kind of justification unless they 
are made alternative with others. They 
could never be good in any circumstances. 

9. Give the meaning and derivations of 

the following words : assay (verb), 
bait (verb), connive, nerve, score 

10. Write out one only of the following 
passages : 

Either that beginning, "All otherwise 

to me," and ending, " with them 

that rest " ; 
Or that beginning, " Let me approach," 

and ending, " so farewell " ; 
Or that beginning, " The worst indeed," 

and ending, " crown or shame." 

Yet two questions of this type occur in 
every literature paper set this year. 

But our criticism must not be one-sided. 
Both juniors and seniors have to write an 
essay on a subject selected out of several 


given by the examiners, and, wherever 
possible, questions are set dealing with 
metre. This would be better still could one 
feel any assurance that examiners would 
refuse to give a single mark to answers 
which use the same terminology as that 
employed for Greek and Latin without a 
word of recognition that the terms have or 
should have fundamentally different mean- 
ings for English. Experience goes to show 
that in this matter candidates and examiners 
are usually more on a par than in most, and 
while this state of things continues the value 
of setting questions on metric remains doubt- 


As a whole the paper is simple, and well 
adapted to the requirements of the examina- 
tion. There is not a point in the paper that 
a Welsh-speaking boy should miss. The 
vocabulary of the candidate is not at all 
seriously tested in the pieces set for trans- 
lation, but the test of course is rather 
the correctness and idiom of the English 

Any boy who has been studying Welsh 
for one or two terms should be able to pass 
on this paper with ease. 


These papers are good specimens of their 
kind. They have evidently been framed 
with care, and were probably thought to 
be ' nice ' papers by the majority of the 

When we regard them, however, with an 
eye to their effect on school teaching, they 
do not impress us quite so favourably. 
They presuppose and consequently require 
in the preparation for future examinations 
a considerable amount of ' exception '-cram- 
ming l and no practice in the free use of the 
foreign language. Now it should be a matter 
of principle that no ' exception ' should be 
set in a paper which the candidate may not 
fairly be expected to have met in his reading. 
Because the grammars wish to give complete 
lists, the unfortunate pupil is compelled to 
learn them in parrot-fashion ; a degrading 
process, encouraged by such questions as 
that quoted. They should be ruthlessly cut 
out, and should make way for others which 

1 "Seniors A 2 (a). How is the meaning of the 
following words affected by variation in gender or 
number : aigle, couple, crtpe, effet, fer, gage, lime, 
somme, trompelle, vaca-nce 1 " 

show a pupil's power of handling the foreign 
idiom. Simple questions might be asked, to 
be answered in French ; or he might be ex- 
pected to make up little sentences introducing 
certain words so as to show their construc- 
tion, etc. The pieces for translation into 
French * are no doubt very hard to select. 
Indeed that for the juniors looks as though 
it had been specially written. The senior 
piece is unsatisfactory : the language is too 

The choice of set books is an important 
matter. 2 We have nothing to say against 
Le Hoi des Montagnes ; it has long been re- 
cognised as a good text for schools. To be 
sure it is too long for a term's work ; and we 
think that for several reasons no book should 
be carried over into a second term. But we 
do object, and that very strongly, to Moliere 
for junior students ; and it is doubtful even 
whether senior students would not do better 
to read modern French. The questions on 
the set books are very meagre. The juniors 
take one text of the two, and have twenty 
lines of text and three phrases from it ; the 
seniors take both texts, and have ten lines of 
text and three phrases from each. If books 
are set at all, the candidates might well be 
expected to answer some questions on the 
subject matter. If detached phrases are 
given, a choice of, say, three out of five 
should be allowed ; this applies still more 
strongly in the case of the phrases appended 
to the passages from ' not set books.' These 
pieces are well chosen ; only that from 
Alphonse Karr in the junior paper seems 
too easy. 


The German papers are set on similar lines 
to the French ; and many of the remarks 
made above apply here also. There is less 
demand for ' exceptions ' than in the French 
papers ; but as little encouragement to a free 
use of the foreign language. The unpre- 
pared passages are judiciously selected, and 
the pieces for translation into German are 
satisfactory, especially the one for the 
juniors. On the other hand, the choice of 
set books for the juniors was between 
Grimm's Fairy Tales undWilhelm Tell! 

1 A candidate can pass but not obtain distinction 
without ' satisfying the examiners ' in this. 

" It is true that unseen translation may be substi- 
tuted. But there are always many teachers so 
indolent as to prefer a set book, just because it saves 
them the trouble of looking out for some suitable 
text, and because there are usually several editions 
with copious notes in the market as soon as the book 
set is announced. 


We do not know what proportion of the 
candidates chose the tragedy ; surely it is 
utterly unsuitable for juniors, unless this 
term is meaningless. 

The ' setting ' of books in French and 
German examinations is a matter deserving 
of serious consideration. Many thoughtful 
teachers have strongly expressed their dis- 
approval of the practice. We shall be glad 
if some of our readers will send us letters 
embodying argument for or against the 
retention of set books. 


The Spanish papers are extremely well 
set, the unseen passages and the short 
pieces for composition being selected with 
great care. The only objection we have to 
raise is on the score of syntax. The juniors 
were not asked a single question dealing 
with this all-important section of grammar, 
while the one that was set the seniors was 
not particularly well chosen. We fancy it 
would puzzle many very advanced students 
of the language to give a satisfactory answer 
to the question : " When is the subjunctive 
used in Spanish ? " EDITOR. 


SIR, I have observed an increasing tendency among 
examiners in French to set passages for translation into 
English in which the main, if not the sole, difficulty lies 
in the vocabulary. The reason given for this practice 
is the extreme lucidity of the French language. Other- 
wise, it is said, it is impossible to find passages suffi- 
ciently difficult to be a real test of the knowledge of 
the candidates. To this view, sir, I venture to demur. 
Because a piece of writing is lucid it does not neces- 
sarily follow that it is easy to understand. A mathe- 
matical theorem may be stated with perfect lucidity, but 
everybody will not understand it. Plato is a most lucid 
writer, but he is not always easy to construe. Further, 
if a language is lucid, it lends itself to subtle shades of 
meaning, and to reproduce these in a translation is a 
delicate and therefore a difficult task. Renan seems 
easy enough as you read him, but to turn him into 
idiomatic English is another matter. 

Experience, too, leads me to believe that the difficulty 
of finding suitable passages which do not bristle with 
strange words is exaggerated. Montaigne, Pascal, 
Saint Simon, Sainte Beuve, Renan, Taine (in prose) 
Moliere, La Fontaine, Victor Hugo, Vigny (in verse) 
to name only some of the more obvious are all writers 
in whose works you can find, with a little trouble, 
passages without a single out-of-the-way word, capable 
of providing many pitfalls for the unwary or the incom- 
petent. Further, it must be remembered that to turn 
even an easy passage of French into good English is not 

so simple as it seems. Indeed, I sometimes wonder 
whether in modern language examinations enough 
attention is paid to the quality of the English. For 
passages in which the most obvious difficulties are those 
of vocabulary must tend to divert examiners from this 
important point. It is so much easier to take off a 
mark here and a mark there for ignorance of a word 
than to weigh each sentence carefully in the critical 
balance. And life is short, and the tale of papers is 

But I have no wish to rule out of court altogether 
passages with difficult words. I quite admit the import- 
ance of vocabulary within reasonable limits. Set, by 
all means, passages which test candidates in this respect, 
but do not make them the staple of your paper. And 
do not set obscure decadents who cull words from the 
gutter, nor pedants who ransack technical dictionaries, 
even though the pedant be called Josfi-Maria de 
He"re"dia. For after all no one can seriously maintain 
that rare words are so good a test of a candidate's 
knowledge of a language to say nothing of his general 
intelligence as carefully constructed sentences preg- 
nant with thought and innuendo. 

Finally, let me disclaim any intention of dogmatis- 
ing. My experience, compared with that of many 
examiners, is but small. Having stated my own views 
I am ready to listen with, I hope, an open mind to those 
of others. 



IN the last Quarterly the name of Dr Sweet 
appeared as one of the members of this sub- 
committee. Unfortunately pressure of work 
rendered it impossible for Dr Sweet to serve. 
Dr R. J. Lloyd, Honorary Reader in Phon- 
etics at University College, Liverpool, has 
consented to serve on the Sub-Committee. 

The Sub-Committee has issued a circular 
as follows : 

" ENGLAND, March 1898. 

" Dear Sir, A Sub-Committee of the Modem Lan- 
guage Association of England has been appointed to 

consider the question of a Phonetic Alphabet suited 
to the requirements of English pupils, and of the use 
of Phonetics generally in Modern Language teaching. 

"Certain Phonetic Alphabets are considered by 
some teachers unsuited for young pupils owing to 
the use in them of signs identical in form but differ- 
ing in value according as they appear in the Phonetic, 
in the orthographic English, or in the orthographic 
foreign alphabets. 

"Other teachers object to the use made in some 
Phonetic Alphabets of double signs to represent 
simple sounds. As these questions must equally 
affect all English-speaking countries, and in a greater 
or less degree foreign countries as well, and as it 
is desirable to obtain agreement upon some Phonetic 
Alphabet as soon as possible, this Committee is 
anxious to obtain information and suggestions from 



teachers who have had experience in the use of such 

"The Committee ventures, therefore, to ask you to 
be kind enough to answer the following questions, 
and to add any remarks that you think might be of 

" If you have not made any use of a Phonetic 
Alphabet, it would yet be of service if you would 
kindly return the form with your signature, as it 
will aid in forming an idea of the extent to whicli 
Phonetics are used ; such a census would be valuable. 

"An early reply would be esteemed a favour. I 
am, yours faithfully, HAROLD W. ATKINSON', Hon. 
Sec. Phonetic Sub-Cmnmittee." 

(1) What Phonetic Alphabet have you used ? 

If it is not one of the better known ones 
(e.g. Assoc. Phonetique, Sweet, Ameri- 
can Dialect Soc., Koschwitz), its lead- 
ing features or differences from any one 
of these might be noted. 

(2) Have you used or felt the need of any new 

signs or modifications of the usual ones em- 
ployed in the Alphabet you mention ? 

(3) Should compound signs be admitted in a 

Phonetic Alphabet as representing simple 
sounds, e.g., aa or sh 1 

(4) With pupils of what age have you used it ? 

(5) Uo the pupils experience much difficulty in 

the use of a Phonetic Alphabet ? 

(6) Docs it hinder their acquisition of the usual 

orthography ? 

(7) Does confusion arise owing to the use of 

signs identical in form but differing in 
value in' the Phonetic and various ortho- 
graphic scripts ? 

(8) Should the Phonetic Alphabet exclusively be 

used in the early stages, or concurrently 
with the orthographic ? 

(9) Should the pupils be taught to write as well 

as to read the Phonetic Alphabet ? 

(10) Should the Phonetic Alphabet be interna- 

tional or adapted to the mother tongue of 
the pupils ? 

(11) If you have not hitherto used a Phonetic 

Alphabet in teaching, or have tried one 
and given it up again, will you give your 
reasons ? 

Some 480 of these have been sent out, dis- 
tributed as follows : Members of the M.L. A., 
265 ; Members of the Assoc. Phonet. Inter- 
nal, in England, Canada and U.S.A., 86; in 
France, Germany, Sweden, Denmark, etc., 
50 ; Modern Language teachers in English 
schools public, private, preparatory, etc., 
60 ; and others. 

The answers, as they arrive, are separated 
into two groups, according as they come 
from those who have used a phonetic tran- 
script, or from such as have not. The re- 
plies from the former are to those from the 
latter in the proportion of about one to three. 

Without here giving details or figures, the 
answers of those who have used phonetics are 
as follows : 

Question 1. Chiefly Sweet and Assoc. Phon. 
2. New signs are wanted. 3. Compound 
signs should not be used. 4. Ages varying 
from five to fifty. 5. There is no difficulty. 
7. It does not hinder but rather aid the ac- 
quisition of the orthography. 7. Slight con- 
fusion arises in the commencement. 8. A 
Phonetic Alphabet should be exclusively 
used in the early stages. 9. The pupils 
should both read and write the Phonetic 
Alphabet. 10. The Alphabet should be In- 

The answers of those who have not used 
phonetics contain various reasons for not 
adopting them. The chief are these : " No 
time," " Does not pay in exams.," " Good 
results without them," " Probably increased 
difficulties," "Benefit not proved," "Imita- 
tion method best. " 

Hon. Sec. Phonetic Sub-Committee. 


MAY I preface these notes by expressing my 
special indebtedness to M. Passy. My first 
interest in the teaching of languages as a 
scientific problem was awakened at the Chel- 
tenham Conference in 1890, when M. Passy 
and Professor Vietor addressed one of the 
earliest gatherings of the Modern Language 
Association. This conference set me on the 
track of inquiries and experiment which ex- 
tended over seven years, and which I hope 
to have the opportunity of resuming in the 
near future. M. Passy's second visit at our 
meeting set me at work on a new line of 
thought, which I wish, briefly, to suggest for 
consideration. I make this acknowledg- 
ment with the more readiness because I am 

intending to preface my suggestion by cer- 
tain propositions which appear to me to be 
axiomatic, but which I know appear other- 
wise to the Phoneticians. 

1. 1. Phonetic reform is, essentially, spelling 
reform. There are many other reforms in 
teaching advocated by Phoneticians part 
passu with spelling reform (and these re- 
forms are also advocated by some teachers 
who are indifferent to phonetics), but when 
we speak of Phonetic Reform we properly 
mean, solely and simply, the use of a novel, 
scientifically planned set of written symbols. 

2. That being so, the ultimate aims of 
Phonetic reform are similar to those of the 
advocates of the Metric System they reach 


beyond the school, and affect society arid 
progress as a whole. Now the immediate 
business of the teacher is not to reform the 
practice of society, but to train his child to 
be fit for the ordinary avocations in life. 

So far, then, as Phoneticians desire to 
reform national spelling, they must address 
themselves in the first instance to the nation, 
and to teachers as citizens and men of cul- 
ture, not to teachers qua teachers. 

3. This difficulty has led the Phoneticians 
to appeal to teachers on the special ground 
that a phonetic spelling assists pronuncia- 
tion, and should therefore be acquired (even 
by the beginner ?), although it may serve no 
ulterior purpose in daily life. They there- 
fore propose to introduce a phonetic alpha- 
bet into schools side by side with the current 
mode of writing the mother-tongue. 

4. The objectors to this procedure refuse 
to make this introduction on two grounds : 
(a) that pronunciation is mainly acquired by 
auditory imitation, not by reading from 
symbols hence the labour would be thrown 

(6) That the phonetic alphabet, since it 
employs symbols resembling those of the 
ordinary alphabet, would create confusion in 
the beginner's mind and cause him to spell 
badly. Hence since (see 2 above) the first 
business of the teacher is to train his pupil 
for the ordinary relations of life, he must not 
sacrifice this immediate end for the sake of 
hastening a new era of reformed spelling in 
the remote future. 

II. Is there any mode of reconciliation 1 
That is to say, can a means be found by 
which these objections can be overcome 1 
Objection (a) of course is always valid, for it 
is a simple deduction from the psychology 
of habit. Neither children nor adults em- 
ploy reasoning processes to any large extent 
when reading aloud, in order to produce an 
utterance in accord with the forms of written 
symbols. But when once the habit of asso- 
ciating sound with phonetic symbol is 
started, we must admit that it grows. All 
adults who have mastered a phonetic system 
bear witness to this, though we may ques- 
tion if the game is always worth the candle. 
Objection (b) would obviously be removed if 
a set of symbols were employed which do 
not resemble those of the ordinary alphabet. 
Such symbol would be quite as useful, or 
useless, as those of La Societe Internationale 
for common purposes, but they would escape 
the objection as to confused association which 
the psychologist feels. 

The reader probably anticipates the direc- 
tion in which we should turn to find such 

symbols. Isaac Pitman and all the short- 
hand people have been at work on this line 
for a century. Unfortunately the shorthand 
people have usually been unscientific very 
often uneducated ; and they have excited pre- 
judice in the minds of teachers and scholars 
because of the low aims on which their 
methods have been advocated and exploited. 
On the other hand, we are constantly told of 
the benefit which professional men, doctors, 
lawyers, clergy, journalists, find from being 
able to put down their thoughts in a briefer 
form than is possible with our current 

Thus we have the problem : Is it possible 
to employ a set of artificial symbols which 
are phonetically correct, which are unlike 
our current longhand, and which may be 
adapted, when acquired, for the usual pur- 
poses of shorthand 1 

If so, I for one see my way towards the 
solution of two problems which meet us in 
the Modern Side of every Secondary School 
the teaching of Shorthand and the acquire- 
ment of Modern Languages. If M. Passy's 
set of phonetic symbols can be transcribed 
into a system of symbols which develop into 
a practical Shorthand, we can safely teach 
them at the same time that we begin a 
foreign language. 

As Mr Kirkman said at our meeting, a be- 
ginner will accept any written symbol you please 
as a representation of a new spoken symbol. 

By way of illustration (from Prof. Henry 
Sweet's Current Shorthand : Clarendon Press, 
1892, p. 129). If I want a German boy to 
write : 

With a heart for any fate 
phonetically, I would far rather teach him 

than let him write 

Widh a haat far eni feit. 

III. This is a line of thought, new at 
any rate to myself, which I submit for con- 
sideration. I have made some inquiries 
to see whether the Phoneticians are work- 
ing at all in that direction. M. Passy 
kindly answered my inquiries, although 
he mourns over my persistent heresy. He 
did not give me much encouragement, 
although he has paid some attention to Pit- 
man's system. One reason for objection is 
indicated in his belief that the International 
(longhand) Phonetic alphabet will soon be 
a necessary part of education in France, 



because phonetic literature is so much on the 
increase. I mention this opinion as bearing 
on my first proposition above. 

From Mr Sweet I had a much more en- 
couraging response. He referred me to his 
" Current Shorthand," which 1 had not pre- 
viously seen : and it is clear that he re- 
cognises the close connection between the 
teacher of Shorthand Phonetics and the 
teacher of Longhand Phonetics. 

I am not a Shorthand expert, and cannot 
judge how far his set of symbols are better 
than those of other shorthand schemes, but 
it is clear that his system, with a few small 
modifications, can be adapted to French or 

And this is also very clear (and very im- 
portant as a practical matter of teaching), 
that Mr Sweet's symbols can be acquired in 
the elementary stages without any contractions, 
just as longhand is acquired, each symbol 
standing for a separate sound. 

One other hint I picked up the other day 
on a visit to the Metropolitan School of 
Shorthand. It is possible for the staff of a 

school to employ Shorthand symbols for the 
ordinary written intercourse between one 
and another, just as we do longhand. If 
that is done among the staff, it is obvious 
that the acquirement of habit in using the 
symbols will be greatly facilitated through- 
out a school. The ordinary school does not 
need to aim at a high rate of speed for re- 
porting purposes, but at a familiar habit in 
using the symbols for the ordinary work of 
lessons. This, I propose, may be learned 
at the same time that the novel sounds of a 
foreign language are being also acquired. 

V. If the Modern Language Association 
is intending to appoint a Phonetics Com- 
mittee, would it not be well to invite one or 
two shorthand experts on to it also, who 
would advise as to the representation of any 
phonetic alphabet (when approved by the 
Committee) in symbols capable of use as 


Febnuiry 21, 1898. 


Holiday courses in Germany which have in 
recent years been held with so much success 
will be held again this summer at Greifs- 
wald, Marburg, and Jena, and we can 
warmly recommend them to English students 
and teachers of Modern Languages who are 
desirous of spending part of their holidays 
in a small German University town where 
everything will be done to facilitate and 
render interesting and fruitful their study of 
the German language, literature, and nation. 
Detailed programmes of these courses have 
been issued, and may be had on application. 
A tolerably full syllabus of the Marburg 
courses is given below. 

Greifswald (on the Baltic). There will be 
two courses, one of four weeks and the other 
of two weeks ; the former from July 4-29, 
and the latter from August 1-12. Each 
course is independent of the other ; one or 
the other or both may be taken. Ladies and 
gentlemen arriving at Greifswald in the 
middle of July may still be admitted to the 
earlier course. Special courses for foreigners 
have been provided which treat of a number 
of attractive subjects. The fees are very low 
(20 M. for the first course, 15 M. for the 
second, 30 M. for the two). Excursions to 
the Island of Riigen and other places of 
interest in the neighbourhood of Greifswald 

(Spielhagen's ' Griinwald ') will be under- 
taken. For a detailed programme of work 
apply to Professor Schmitt, Ph.D., 31 Lange- 
strasse, Greifswald. 

Jena. The courses on Modern Languages 
form a part of ' Allgemeine Fortbildungs- 
kurse fur Damen und Herrn.' They will be 
held from August 3-23. The Elementar- 
kursus in der deutschen Sprache will be held 
again by Rektor Scholz, while courses for 
more advanced foreign students will be held 
by Prof. Dr Erhardt. Several of the philo- 
sophical and pedagogic courses will likewise 
interest English Students and teachers, e.g., 
Dr Steinhausen's lectures on the chief phases 
of German civilisation. The fees vary ; they 
are low, but somewhat higher than those 
at Greifswald and Marburg. A complete 
language course (18 lessons and 6 excursions) 
is M. 30. Every student is charged a general 
fee of admission (M. 5). Excursions to 
Weimar, Eisenach, and Schwarzburg will 
probably also be arranged at moderate fees 
for students of the literature course. For 
larticulars apply to Herr Hugo Weinmann, 
4 Spitzweidenweg, Jena. 

The later dates of these German holiday 
courses will probably well suit most English 


teachers who are anxious to avail themselves 
of the opportunities thus offered. It is much 
to be regretted that the summer meeting 
arranged by the 'London Society for the 
Extension of University Teaching' will be 
held in London from May 30th to June lltb, 
at a time when no foreign teachers, students, 
or scholars will be able to attend them. 
German, Skandinaviaii, and other teachers 
had just begun to attend the Oxford and 
Cambridge summer meetings held in August, 
and they will be sorely disappointed to find 
that this year no English University will 
welcome them at a time at which it is pos- 
sible for them to visit England. It is much 
to be hoped that next year it will be found 
possible to have the meeting again in 

Mr F. F. Roget, lecturer on the English 
language and literature at the Univer- 
sity of Geneva, draws our attention to the 
holiday courses, and points out that special 
arrangements will be made for " Natives of 
Britain " (Mr Roget was French Lecturer at 
St Andrews from 1892-1896). He says : 

"They will be taught in separate classes, the 
numbers in each class being strictly limited. The 
requirements of schoolmasters and schoolmistresses 
will be particularly met. There will be two courses : 
the first, of six weeks, begins on the 16th of July ; 
the second, of three weeks, on the 1st of October. 
There are two lectures each day. The fees are 
1, 12s. for the first course, and 16s. for the second 
course. Certificates of attendance are delivered at 
the end of the courses. 

"Complete programmes will be sent on application 
to the Registrar of the University, Geneva, Switzer- 
land. " 

We gather from the programme that there 
will be eleven or twelve hours' teaching in 
the week, distributed as follows : 

Litterature franjaise contemporaine, l re serie, 2 
heures ; (2 me . serie, 2 heures). Lecture analytique 
d'auteurs franfais modernes, 1 do. ; (1 do.). Impro- 
visation et discussion, 1 do.; (1 do.). Stylistique, 2 
do.; (2 do.). Methodes d'enseignement du fran9ais, 
2 do. ; (2 do. ). Syntaxe franfaise ; gallicismes ; ques- 
tions d'usage, 1 do.; (2 do.). Diction et lecture 
expressive: prononciation, 2 do. ; (2 do.). 

Unfortunately the times are very incon- 
venient : the first course begins a fortnight 
before the end of our Summer Term, and 
the second is in the very middle of the 
Christmas Term. 

An attractive holiday course has also been 
arranged by the University of Grenoble, 
from the 1st to the 31st of August. This is 

the second series ; the first is from July 1st 
to 29th, not a convenient time for our 
teachers. The subjects of the lectures are : 

i. Langue franqaise : Grammaire historique et 
comparee du francais moderne (10 lefons) ; gram- 
maire pratique du francais (10 lefons) ; diction et 
lecture expressive (6 lecons) ; elocution et prononcia- 
tion courante (6 lecons) ; phonetique experimentalc 
et exercices pratique de rectification des prononcia- 
tions vicieuses (10 1090113). ii. Lifterature : Littera- 
ture francaise classique (8 lemons) ; litterature du dix- 
nciivii'me siecle (8 lecons). iii. Institutions ct arts dc 
la France : Institutions de la France (10 Ie9ons) ; 
Histoire de 1'art francais (10 visitcs collectives aux 
muse'es, monuments et ceuvres d'art de Paris et des 

These lectures are supplemented by ' con- 
ferences pratiques.' A full programme and 
all further particulars are to be obtained of 
L'Alliance Franchise, 45 rue de Grenelle, 

The number of holiday courses this year 
is unusually large ; and probably there will 
be members of the M.L.A. at every one of 
them. We shall be glad to have their 
experiences (clear and concise expressions of 
opinion), whether favourable or not, so that 
we may be able to give some guidance to our 
readers in future years. 

We shall here make only a brief reference 
to the scheme of international correspondence 
which has been pushed a good deal by the 
Review of lie-views. We refer to the April 
and May issues of our zealous contemporary, 
which show what progress has been made. 
In Germany much has already been done, 
mainly owing to the indefatigable energy of 
Dr K. A. M. Hartmann, who recently gave 
us his valuable "Eeiseeindriicke." In Eng- 
land the matter is being taken up, and will 
doubtless help our cause ; always presup- 
posing most careful surveillance on the part 
of the teacher. Dr Hartmann has written 
a spirited reply (Piidugogisclies JFbchenMatl, 
27th April 1898) to some hostile criticisms 
by J. Hengesbach. 

We reprint from our contemporary Educa- 
tion an account of certain changes which the 
Eev. W. H. Keeling, Headmaster of Bradford 
Grammar School, intends to introduce in the 
curriculum of that school. 

In the Senior School, modern side, boys will be 
allowed to devote additional time to modern lan- 
guages or science as soon as they have obtained the 
lower certificate of the Oxford and Cambridge Schools' 
Examination Board. Special classes will be formed 



for advanced language work. In the junior depart- 
ment Latin will be discontinued, except ill the case 
of boys who are proceeding to the classical side of the 
Senior School. Special arrangements may however 
be made for those who are proceeding to the modern 
side, if their parents still think it advisable that they 
should take Latin. In the two highest forms of the 
Junior School, in which alone Latin will be taken, a 
larger number of hours will be allotted to the study 
of this language than heretofore. This postponement 
of the stage at which Latin is begun will, Mr Keeling 
is sure, lead to very good results. The time gained 
in the lower forms will be given to English subjects 
and to French. In the teaching of French in the 
Junior School great stress will be laid on the spoken 
language. The new arrangements will, it is hoped, 
meet the wishes and suit the interests of all. More 
Latin will be taught for those who will require it ; 
while more time and attention will be devoted to that 
instruction in ' modern ' subjects which is considered 
in England and on the Continent to be an indispen- 
sable part of a good Secondary Education, especially 
in the case of boys destined for commercial and in- 
dustrial pursuits. 

This means an important step forward, 
which will be warmly welcomed by all who 
have at heart the full recognition of the im- 
portance of modern languages in our second- 
ary education. We look forward with great 
interest to an account of the methods of 
teaching them adopted at Bradford Grammar 
School; and pay a willing tribute to the 
enlightened spirit shown by Mr Keeling and 
the governing body, which is supporting him 
in his efforts. 

A meeting of teachers of modern languages 
in Intermediate Schools was held on the 2nd 
April, at the County School, Rhyl, Mr S. 
Edwards, M.A., Headmaster of Denbigh 
School, presiding. After prolonged discus- 
bion on methods of teaching, and on the 
position of modern languages in the school 
curricula, and in view of the urgent need of 
a supply of well-qualified modern language 
teachers, it was unanimously resolved: 1. 
To call the attention of Welsh headmasters 
and school governors generally to the scheme 
already initiated by the University College 
of North Wales, and to urge upon them the 
importance of extending financial support to 
the Bangor Fund, out of which a scholarship 
is. offered annually, tenable for one year at a 
French or German University, and open to 
graduate students who intend to become 
teachers of modern languages in any Second- 
ary School. 2. To urge upon Technical 
Education Committees of County Councils 
the propriety of devoting a portion of the 
funds at their disposal to the assistance of 
teachers who desire to qualify themselves in 
modern languages by a substantial period of 
residence in France or Germany. It was 

pointed out that English County Councils 
had already taken the lead in this matter, 
and that headmasters of large English schools 
were already seeking the services of teachers 
who had held the scholarships referred to in 
the first resolution. 

* * * 

Entrance Scholarships for students of 
Modern Languages are unfortunately, and 
to the very greatest detriment to Modern 
Language studies so far, but very scantily 
provided for at Cambridge. Still, King's 
and Gains Colleges form a praiseworthy ex- 
ception. Both colleges are prepared to 
grant entrance scholarships to candidates of 
sufficient promise, for whom an examination 
has been arranged beginning on November 
1. It is understood that at several public 
schools boys are preparing for this examina- 
tion, and it is by no means unlikely that 
before long some other colleges will join 
King's and Caius, and offer entrance scholar- 
ships to deserving boys. A knowledge of 
old French or old German will not be re- 
quired. For further information teachers 
should apply to the senior tutors of the re- 
spective colleges, and read the remarks on 
this subject in ' The Modern Language 
Quarterly ' I. (July 1897), page 36, and es- 
pecially in 'The Educational Times,' May 1, 
1894, pp. 228-229. Scholarships and Exhibi- 
tions are given by most Colleges on the 
result of the Intercollegiate Examination in 
Modern Languages which is annually held, 
in June, for students of first and second 
year standing. 

* * * 

For the first time, it is believed, since a 
visit of Klaus Groth, the author of the col- 
lection of Low German poems called ' Quick- 
born,' a public lecture in German has re- 
cently been delivered in Oxford by Pro- 
fessor G. Fiedler of Mason University 
College, Birmingham. The Master of 
Balliol presided. The lecturer treated his 
subject, the Swiss novelist Conrad Ferdi- 
nand Meyer, in a lucid and interesting 
manner, and gave great satisfaction to his 
audience. It is to be hoped that the next 
German lecture at the Taylorian Institution 
may be delivered at no distant date. At 
Cambridge regular courses on Modern Ger- 
man classics have been given by Dr Breul in 
the German language twice a week in every 
term ever since 1884. 

* * * 

As in another column we offer some criti- 
cisms on the English papers set at the last 


Cambridge Local Examination, it may in- 
terest our readers to learn the details of the 
following scheme adopted by the Joint 
Scholarships Board, instituted by the In- 
corporated Association of Headmasters, for 
the examination in English of candidates for 
Major Scholarships. The Editor, who is 
responsible for this syllabus, would be grate- 
ful for comments or suggestions from teachers 
of English. 

1. The Examination Papers set to consist of two 
parts A and B, and to cover the following ground : 

A. Grammar, Language, etc. : 

i. Questions on the history of the English 
Language, in accordance with the sylla- 
bus given below. 

ii. A passage for grammatical Analysis, 
iii. A long passage of modern Prose for 
abstract (precis), with definition of the 
meaning of selected words and phrases 

B. Set Books, treated from a literary rather than 
a grammatical standpoint : 

(Alternative books, if considered by tlie Committee to le 
of equivalent value, will be accepted.) 

i. Chaucer : Canterbury Tales, The Prologue, 
ii. Milton : Lycidas ; Paradise Lost, Book I., 

or an equivalent portion of Milton, 
iii. A play of Shakespeare, 
iv. Questions also on general literary knowledge 
alternative to one of the Sections i., ii., 
iii., will be set. 


1. The questions set will be designed to test a 
knowledge and understanding of broad principles 
rather than detailed information. 

2. No lists of words will be given of which the 
derivations will be required from Candidates. 

3. Detailed knowledge of comparative Grammar 
(e.g., Grimm's Law, &c.) will not be required. 


1. (A) The sounds of English and the method of 
their production simply treated : (a) Vowels, Diph- 
thongs, Triphthongs, Murmur - diphthongs, Semi- 
vowels, Open Vowels, Closed Vowels, &c. ; (ft) 
Consonants Voiced and Voiceless ; Gutturals, 
Linguals, Dentals, Labials, Stops, Continuants, 
Nasals, Sonants, &c. ; (7) The Classification of 
Vowels and Consonants ; (S) The Relation of the 
Sounds of Modern English to the Alphabet ; (e) The 
Imperfection and Redundancy of the Alphabet. 

(B) The meaning and causes of Dialect. 

2. The place of English among the Aryan lan- 
guages, and the nature of its relation to the more 
important cognate European tongues. 

The meaning of ' cognate ' and ' derived.' 

3. Sketch of the history of the English Language : 

i. The coming of the English : 

The main distinctions between Old English 

and Modern English treated generally. 
The nrea of the Old English dialects, and 

their relation to the Old English tribes. 
The Northumbrian power and literature. 

The growth of the West Saxon power, dia- 
lect, and literature. The causes which 
led to their downfall. 

Middle-English and its main characteristics 
treated generally, not in any detail. The 
area of the chief dialects. The causes 
which led to their multiplication. The 
importance of the Midland and London 

The growth of a standard literary language 
and its causes. 

ii. The native element in English : its nature 

and extent. 
The foreign elements in English : 

(a) Germanic Scandinavian, Dutch, Low 

German, High German. 
(|3) Classical Latin, Greek. 
(7) Romance French, Italian, Spanish, 


(S) Other Aryan languages, 
(e) Non-Aryan languages. 

(.Vote. This part of the subject to be treated Milorica/ly, not 
by means of mere lists. The additions to the vocabulary to 
be grouped under headings according to (1) form, (2) meaning so 
far as possible, and long lists avoided.) 

iii. Outlines of the history of the Parts of Speech 
with reference to (a) form, (b) function, 
as far as they are at present in use, (c) 
the elements of word-formation. 

H. F. H. 

A pamphlet which, no doubt, will interest 
many of our readers will shortly be published 
by the Cambridge University Press. It is a 
clear and impartial account of the present 
German methods of teaching Modern Lan- 
guages by Miss Mary Brebner, M. A. (London) 
and late Gilchrist Travelling Scholar. Miss 
Brebner was admitted to a great number of 
German secondary schools (boys' and girls'), 
and her report is everywhere based on first- 
hand knowledge. The pamphlet is called 
The Metlwd of teaching Modern Languages in 
Germany (viii + 74 pp.). 

The weighty words of the Hon. George 
Curzon, Under-Secretary for Foreign Affairs, 
at a recent educational gathering should be 
taken to heart. It was at the distribution 
of prizes and certificates, after the Com- 
mercial Education examinations so patriotic- 
ally undertaken by the London Chamber 
of Commerce. Some dainty educationists 
may sneer, naribus uncis, at the word 'com- 
mercial,' and say that education should not 
be commercial. In a ' nation of shopkeepers,' 
of whose sons 70 per cent, enter business, 
this assertion sounds strange, and it seems 
that our business is seriously injured by 
these proud theorists who would require, 
it would seem, an Olympus of their own. 
However this may be, whoever looks at 
the educational curriculum prescribed by 



the Chamber of Commerce will not fail 
to approve its breadth of view : the Com- 
mercial Education Schemes do not retaliate 
by the same narrowness of mind exhibited 
by the opposite party ; the most fastidious 
would be satisfied. General culture is most 
carefully imposed, as well as the more 
technical requirements naturally demanded 
from candidates who wish to go into busi- 
ness. All schools should therefore listen 
to these words : the only pity is that our 
great schools should not have a similarly 
wide curriculum, and should turn out such 
pitiful instances of ignorance in other sub- 
jects but the scholarship subjects. Why 
are English boys so hopelessly ignorant of 
geography, history, natural history, etc. 
' But that is another story.' 

The important point is the stress laid 
upon Modern Languages by the gifted and 
eminently .practical young politician. First 
and foremost in commercial education, Mr 
Curzon placed the thorough knowledge of 
our English tongue and literature ; in the 
second place, ' a mastery of one and, if 
possible, more than one modern lan- 
guage : French first and German second ; 
not the mere armchair familiarity with the 
tongue which enabled one to glance at a news- 
paper and dally over a novel, but the practical, 
businesslike acquaintance with it ivhich enabled one 
to write a letter in it or conduct a conversation.' 

These words cannot be too deeply im- 
pressed upon the minds of all those who 
are interested in the study of Modern Lan- 
guages : of what use are those long years 
of drudgery if they cannot produce the 
result of writing and speaking correctly 1 
Such must be the aim of all schools. Until 
this goal is reached, no school Governor, no 
Headmaster should be satisfied. 

It is interesting to continue Mr Curzon's 
list. It is most liberal. Third in his list 
he would place history and geography ; 
among the sciences he mentions elementary 
physics and physiology, the principles of 
mechanics, the rudiments of chemistry ; 
then, with regard to his particular audi- 
ence, he adds the study of insurance, etc. 
Had he mentioned Latin and Greek, cos- 
mography, geology, botany, natural history 
and mathematics, he would have set the 
programme of the French baccalauri'i/t-i'*- 
kttres. He suggests, further, shorthand, 
and another subject which I am delighted 
to see among those mentioned above, for 
it is a science and an art of the highest 
educational value photography. Better 
than this would have been French or 
German verse. 

It is Sir Walter Besant who said that 
every good writer ought to write at least 
ten lines of poetry every day. He is cer- 
tainly right : for each word that is actually 
written, rhyme and metre, compel twenty, 
thirty or fifty words to revolve before the 
mind ; and thus alone can an author suc- 
ceed in keeping his vocabulary well in 
hand. Of course the objection is that, out 
of twenty boys who spend endless hours 
going through the drudgery, only two or 
three emerge to find that their time has 
not been wasted. And, so far, after twelve 
years' experience, the writer has only suc- 
ceeded in getting three pupils who found 
time to try French verse ! ' The time may 
come . . .' VICTOR SPIERS. 

The results of the investigations of the Sub-Com- 
mittee on Phonetics, so far as they have as yet gone, 
point clearly to one fact. It is quite evident that 
the opponents of Phonetics are labouring under a con- 
siderable misunderstanding as to the aims and prac- 
tice of those who advocate their use, while at the 
same time they can hardly be aware of the extent to 
which they are used in foreign countries, nor of the 
results obtained abroad and in England by those 
who use them. 

To the reasons given by those who have not used 
phonetics (see above, p. 152), the phonetician would 
reply that his practice, as shown by experience, 
saves time, does pay in exams., even where pronun- 
ciation is not ' marked,' produces better results still, 
diminishes difficulties, has been proved beneficial, 
and is the imitation method par excellence. W 
cannot here quote at length the statements made 
by phoneticians of the results they have obtained, 
but it may be well to try to dispel the misunder- 
standing that exists by stating briefly what the views 
of the advocates of Phonetics really are. 

They believe that a Modern Language should be so 
dealt witli in schools that the pupils learn to use the 
language to some extent as a living and spoken lan- 
guage, i.e., that they learn to speak it ; and that the 
acquisition of the literary language is thereby rendered 
more rapid, and the results more satisfactory in point 
of correctness of grammar and idiom. In order that 
this may be possible, the first essential condition is 
that the teacher's pronunciation shall be as good as 
possible. It has been found by those who have tried 
it that a study of phonetics enables a teacher to 
master the pronunciation more rapidly and more 
certainly than he would do otherwise. He must of 
course learn his pronunciation from natives of the 
country where the language is spoken. His pupils 
must learn their pronunciation from him by imita- 
tion, but the teacher's knowledge of phonetics will 
enable him to assist his pupils in producing the cor- 
rect sounds by explaining to them the relations of 
one sound to another either in the same language 
or in different languages, and by indicating how the 
pupil must use his organs of speech. The phonetic 
alphabet is merely an aid to this use of phonetics 
generally, by the use of one sign for one sound. In 
this way the eye may aid the ear. Phonetics gene- 
rally, and the alphabet with them, are not an end in 
themselves, but merely a temporary aid. As soon as 
they have done their work, like other aids, they are 
thrown aside. 


The use of a phonetic alphabet as an aid in learn- 
ing or teaching pronunciation is absolutely indepen- 
dent of any so-called " method." Since time and 
labour are saved if a good pronunciation is learnt at 
the outset, reason would dictate that it should be 
used at the beginning of the study of a language. 
There is nothing, however, to prevent it being taken 
up if necessary at a later stage to correct a faulty 
pronunciation. Many teachers have indeed done so 
to correct their own pronunciation, and thus in- 
directly that of their pupils. 

Every person who has learnt a foreign language 
must have felt difficulty in reproducing the sounds 
he hears uttered by the natives of the country. But 
not every person realises that the difficulty is largely 
owing to ignorance of the particular movements and 
positions of his organs of speech, which are necessary 
for the production of the sound. It is one thing to 
instruct a pupil to utter a sound pronounced to him. 
It is another to be able at the same time to tell him 
how to do it. It is in this way that Phonetics are 
able to render more rapid the acquisition of a correct 
pronunciation, and that not of individual words 
alone, but of the whole rhythm and intonation of 
the language. 

* * * 

We have to thank our contemporary Neuere 
Sprachen for drawing our attention to an 
article in the XIX' sihle on L'Enseignement 
des langues (Ar mights en Allemagne by Charles 
Bos. We reprint the following extract : 

Je n'y a pas de commenjant on d'industriel allemand 
qui ne parle 1'anglais et le franeais couramment et qui 
ne sache les ecrire avec une certain correction. 
Nombreux sont ceux qui, en outre, parlent 1'espag- 
nol Ji cause des relations avec 1'Amerique du Sud. 
On en trouve aussi qui parlent assez bien 1'italien. 

Nous, an contraire, et les Anglais font de meme 
a ce point de vue nous n'apprenons pas les langues 

Nous atteudons que les clients viennent chercher 
nos marchandises, alors que les Allemands, plus 
pratiques, vont chercher le client. 

Us sont et vont partout grace au systume d'in- 
struction adopte dans leurs ocoles. Un professeur de 
langues vivantes, en Allemagne, se garde bien de 
parler en allemaud a ses eleves. II leur parle dans 
la langue qu'il leur enseigne. La grammaire et les 
auteurs choisis viennent ensuite. Aussi bien, au 
bout de deux ans, un eleve parle-t-il et ecrit-il d'une 
facon suffisante en francais eten anglais. II n'a plus 
qu' u passer les Vosges ou la mer du Nord pour se 

Voyez ce qu'il y a d'Allemands qui, sous pretexte de 
finir d'apprendre le francais, se sout installes en 
France, a Paris et dans Test particulierement. Les 
grosses maisons de speculation leur appartiennent ; 
en realite, ils sont presque les maitres de notre 
marehe. Et combien, sur les boulevards, d'enseignes 
on s'etalent triomphalement des noms a consonances 
germaniques ! En realite, aussi, ils out accapare 
en partie le commerce de gros sur la place en 

Eu Angleterre, fait plus significatif encore, a mod 
avis du moins, les directeurs des graudes maisous ou 
bien les chefs de correspondance sont des Allemauds, 
Pourquoi ? C'est que, seuls, les Allemands savent 
les langues vivantes ? 

No one will deny the truth of these re- 
marks, however unpalatable they may 
appear. How can we bring it home to 
the great British public ? Are we to wait 
quietly till our commercial supremacy is 


WE give below some particulars of two 
Holiday Courses arranged to take place 
from July 4-29, and August 15 to September 
9 respectively. Few English teachers can 
make it possible to spend July abroad, and 
last year there was consequently but a 
small English contingent at Marburg. We 
notice with pleasure that there is to be a 
second course this year at a convenient time 
for us. 

The three series of lectures arranged are 
distinctly attractive ; the right to attend 
them all can be obtained for 20 marks ! 
Life at Marburg is cheap, and the situation 
of the town is as delightful as the country 
around. It is to be hoped that many will 
recognise it as their duty to make a pilgrim- 
age this summer to Marburg, the Mecca of 
the modern language teacher. 


La mdthode expdrimentale en sociologie. Les 
soci&6s pastorales et leurs derives vers VOccident (6 

Ie9ons). Professeur : M. Pernotte, licencie es 

La division et V organisation du territoire de la 
France (7 lecons). Professeur : M. Leseceur, doctenr 
en droit, licencie es lettres, professeur de droit 
romain a 1'Universite' libre de Paris. 

La condition de la femme et des enfants en droit 
privd franqais (8 lemons). Professeur : M. Lescoeur. 

La tmg&lie de C'orneille (8 lemons). Professeur : 
M. Doutrepont, docteur es lettres, professeur agrege 
pour la philologie francaise, lectern 1 de langue et 
litterature fraucaises a 1'Universite de Marbourg. 

Introduction : Le Theatre avant Corneille ;- 
le Cid, Horace, Cinna, Polyeucte, Poiapiv, 
Theodore, Itodogunc, Nieomede ; leur caractere, 
leur nouveaute, leur role dans 1'evolution de la 
litterature dramatique en France. 
LUUralure contemporaine (8 lecons). Professeur : 
M. Mercier, licencie es lettres, charge des coiirs de 
laugue et litterature francaises a 1'Universite de 

A. Daudet. P. Bourget. Fr. Coppee. E. 

Histoire de la langue franfaise (6 lecons). Pro- 
fesseur : M. 1'abbe Rousselot, docteur es lettres, pro- 
fesseur de philologie romane etde phonetique expe>i- 
mentale a 1'Universite libre de Paris, directeur du 
laboratoire de phonetique experimentale au College 
de France. 

Un chapilre de la grammaire historique de la 



ise (3 Ie9ons). Professeur : M. Rousse- 


Sxercices de phonetujue experimcntalc (6 leeons). 
Professeur : M. Rousselot. 

Phonetique comparee dti franqals ft de I'ullcmand 
(8 lesons). Professeur : M. Koschwitz, docteur en 
philosopliie, professeur de philologie roniaiio a 1'Uni- 
versite de Marbourg. 

Exercises de diction et de discussion (8 leeons). 
Professeur : M. Doutrepont. 

Discussion de travaux Merits (8 lemons). Pro- 
fesseur : M. Mercier. 

Recitation (4 lei;ons). Professeur : M. Mercier. 
Conversation (16 conferences). 

Ces conferences auront lieu 1'apres-midi ou le 
.soir, par groupes de 10 a 12 personnes, dans 
divers locaux et lieux de promenade. Le nom- 
hre des professeurs francais sera proportioning ii 
celui des participants. 

Les cours et exereices auront lieu tous les jours, 
sauf le samedi et le dimanche, le matin de 8 h. a 


Das deutsche Wirtschaflsleben in der Vergangen- 
Jieit (8 Stunden), Herr Professor Dr v. Below. 

Die Piidagogik den Neulmmanisimis (4 Stunden), 
Herr Professor Dr Natorp. 

Das deulsclie Mdrchen (4 Stunden), Herr Professor 
Dr Kretschmer. 

Schil/i-rs Weltanschauung in srinen Dramen (12 
Stunden), Herr Privatdoccnt Dr Kiihnemann. 

Das Thema litterarhistorisch und pliilos- 
oplusch. Die philosophische Aufgabe. Die 
Jiiiiilier und Fiesko. Grundziige der tragischen 
Anschauung. Entwicklungsmiigliehkeiten. 
Kabule undLiebe. Don Carlos. Philosophische 
Entwicklung Schillers und tlbergang zu einem 
neuen dichterischen Stil. Wallenstein. Maria 
Stiiart. Jungfrau von Orleans. Eraut von 
Messina. Wilhelm Tell. 

Spracldiche Formung und Formlosigkeit (8 Stnn- 
den), Herr Privatdocent Dr Finck. 

Ban und LeLitung des menschlichcn Sprachorgans 
(4 Stunden), Herr Professor Dr Disse. 

Anleilung zur Vortragskunst (8 Stunden), Herr 
Aug. Bertuch. 

Ubungen im freien Vortrage (8 Stunden), Herr 
Aug. Bertuch. 

Ubcrselzungsubungen (8 Stunden), Hen 1 Dr Sehel- 

Htiicke aus A. Daudet, Leltres de mem maulin 
und Contesda lundi, und aus Dickens' Christmas 
Carol werden ins Deutsche iibersetzt, und die 
Ubersetzungen durch die Teilnehmer und den 
Leiter der (Jbungeu bericlitigt und gebessert 
' werden. 

ffbnngfii in miindliclier Unterhaltiing (16 Stunden). 
Diese Ubungen werden in Gruppen von 10-12 
Teilnehmern in zu verabredenden Stunden 
und an verschiedenen Orteu unter Anleitung 
akademisch gebildeter deutscher Lehrer abge- 
halten werden. 

Die Vorlesungen und Uebuiigen des deutschen 
Kursus finden mit Ausnahme der Gesprachsiibungen 
wochentiiglich ausser Mittwoch und Sonnabend in 
den Nachmittagsstunden von 3-7 Uhr statt. 



La Geographic mciale de la France (8 lemons). 
Professcnr : M. Edm. Demolins, directeur de la 

Science aociale. 

La Fniitnliii' : If pnetr el If inoraliste (4 1090115). 
Professeur : M. Doutrepont. 

Gusl.ace Flaubert: Vhoinme, la vie, et I'ceuvre (4 
lei;ons). Professeur : M. Doutrepont. 

LecoiUe de Lisle, de Gucrne et J. M. de Heredia ( 
lecons). Professeur : M. Onier Jacob, licencie es 
lettres, arcliiviste-paleographe, attache a la Biblio- 
theque nationale de Paris. 

Leur vie, leur ocuvre. Influence du premier 
sur les seconds. 

Trois, jeunes dcrivains : Pierre Louys, Eugene 
Morel, Pierre Quillard (3 lecons). Professeur : M. 
Omer Jacob. 

Originalitc propre de chacun d'eux. Leurs 
oeuvres. Pages inedites. La prose rythmee. 
Exereices de diction et de discussion (8 lemons). 
Professeur : M. Doutrepont. 

Discussion de travaux ecrits (8 lemons). Professeur : 
M. Omer Jacob. 

Conversation (16 conferences). 

Ces conferences auront lieu 1'apres-midi ou le 
soir par groupes de 10 a 12 personnes, dans 
divers locaux et lieux de.promenade. Le nombre 
des professeurs sera proportionne' a celui des par- 

Les cours et exereices auront lieu tous les jours, 
sauf le samedi et le dimanche, le matin de 8 a 10 h. 
L'emploi de la langue fran5aise y sera seul admis. 


English folklore and fairy talcs (8 lectures). Lec- 
turer: Mr Shaw Jeffrey, M.A., Assistant Master in 
Clifton College, Bristol. 

Sheridan's "Critic" (4 lectures). Lecturer: 
Mr Shaw Jeffrey. 

Poets of the last generation (7 lectures). Lecturer : 
Mr R. J. Lloyd, M.A., D. Lit. (London), Honorary 
Reader in Phonetics, University College, Liverpool. 

Tennyson. The Brownings. Arnold. The 
Rossettis. Morris. Swinburne. 
Poets of the present generation (8 lectures).- Lec- 
turer : Mr R. J. Lloyd. 

Watson. Kipling. Lang. Dobson. 
Bridges. Henley. J. Thompson. Newbolt. 

English pronunciation (8 lectures). Lecturer : Mr 
Tilley, Lecturer in English at the University of 

Elu-ution (5 lectures). Lecturer : Mr Tilley. 
Conversation (16 meetings). 

Lectures and classes will be held every day, except 
Saturdays and Sundays, from 10-12 A.M. No other 
language than English will be allowed. 


Herbart, Pestalozzi und die gegenwiirligcn Avfgaben 
der Erziehungslehre (8 Stunden), Heir Professor Dr 

Ursprung der Spradte (8 Stunden), Herr Privat- 
docent Dr Finck. 

Ban und Leislwng des menschlichen Sprachorgans 
(4 Stunden), Herr Professor Dr Disse. 

Th-eorie und Praxis der deutschen Aniuijtrac/ie (S 
Stunden), Herr Professor Dr Victor. 

Typen der gebildeten Aussprache. Mb'glich- 
keit und Berechtigung einer Durchsclinittsaus- 
sprache.- BUlmeudeutsch und Durchschnitts- 
deutsch. Anwendung des letzteren auf Texte 
verschiedener Stilarten. 

Anleitung zur Vortragskunst (4 Stunden), Herr 
Aug. Bertuch. 

Ubungen im freien Vortrage (8 Stunden), Herr 
Aug. Bertuch. 

Ubersetzungsitbungen (4 Stunden), Herr Dr Schel- 


Stilistisehe Ohtngen (4 Stunden), Herr Privat- 
docent Dr Finck. 

Ubungcn in mundlkhcr Unterhaltung (16 Stunden). 

Die Vorlesungen und Ubungen des deutschen 
Kursus findcn mit Ausnahmo der Gespriichsiibungen 
woclien tiiglich ausscr Mittwochs und Sonnabends in 
den Nachmittagsstimden von 3-6 Uhr statt. 

Payment of 20 marks is the only fee 
for all lectures in the A set (French and 
German courses), and the same for all 
lectures in the B set (French, English, and 
German courses). Those who wish to take 

part should apply in writing to : Seine Ex 
cellenz Herrn Generallieutenant Kleinhans, 
Haspelstrasse 13, Marburg i. H., who is 
chairman of the committee, and will supply 
further information. Details as to the 
arrangement of the courses and the charac- 
ter of the various sets of lectures may be 
obtained from Professor Dr Koschwitz 
(Universitiitsstrasse 40). Lodging without 
board costs from 20 to 30 marks ; with 
board from 70 to 100 marks for the month. 



gm i The Modern Language Association has been 
established chiefly to raise the standard of efficiency in 
modern languages as well as their status in the educa- 
tional curricula of the country and to provide means of 
communication for students and teachers by holding 
meetings, etc. 

I think that one object more ought to be aimed at, 
i.e., to provide pensions for those members of the 
Association who might require a little help when old 
age has come. 

The stumbling-block to such a scheme lies in the 
difficulty of collecting the funds required nevertheless 
I beg leave to offer the following suggestions to the 
consideration of the Committee and the members 

There is no temerity in saying that the list of mem- 
bers will shortly contain, at least, 500 names, the sub- 
scriptions will then amount to about 260, which sum 
is sufficient to carry out the objects mentioned in the 
first lines of this letter. 

But let us suppose that, say, four-fifths of the total 
number of members (i.e. 400) agree to pay an extra 
"pension-subscription" of Ids. 6d., the Association 
would receive from that source yearly 210, which sum 
could be divided (yearly) among (say) the ten members 
who have belonged to the Association the longest and 
who are over fifty-five years of age. 

The Pension-funds might be increased 

1. By donations. 

2. By receipts from lectures, etc. 

3. By the " Pension-Subscriptions " received between 

now and the time when pensions will be first 
granted (say five, seven, or ten years hence). 
The money collected under these three heads to be 
invested and the interest only handed over for pensions. 
To sum up : the old age pension funds would come 
from two sources. 

(a) Interest from above. 

(6) Yearly " Pension-Subscriptions " paid by members, 

not to be invested, but granted from year to year 

without deduction. 

A rule might be framed to allow those " pensionable " 
members who might not need pecuniary help to nomin- 
ate other members to receive the pension in their 

Lastly, wives of members might join on the same 
terms as the other members although they might not 
be specially interested in the study or teaching of 
modern languages. I am, Sir, yours obediently, 




April 25*A, 1898. 

DEAR SIR, I beg to call your attention to the de- 
cision of the Council of the University of Paris, dated 
April 1st, 1898, instituting the degree of DOCTOR OF 

THE UNIVERSITY OF PARIS (not to be confused with the 
degrees of Dr es Lettres, Dr es Sciences, etc. . . . which 
are granted by the State only). For the sake of brevity, 
I only enclose that part of the regulations which deals 
with the Faculty of Arts, but it must be understood 
that the new degree (like the German Ph.D.) is of an 
eclectic, not of a special nature, and will be granted to 
students of science or of medicine on similar conditions 
(i.e., the composing of a thesis embodying original 

The ordinary State degrees have always been, and 
still remain, practically beyond the reach of foreigners, 
the government requiring all students without dis- 
tinction, to pass the various preliminary examinations 
a process which involves a considerable loss of time. 

Such a restriction does NOT exist for the obtaining of 
the new degree, the regulations for which have been 
framed with due regard to the needs of foreign 
students. The "Doctorat" will, it is hoped, be of 
special value to teachers and students of modern lan- 
guages and philology, and be sought by them as a 
fitting crown to their English University career. 

I shall be greatly obliged if you will kindly give to 
this communication all the publicity which lies in your 
power. Thanking you in anticipation, I beg to remain, 
yours faithfully, H. E. BERTHON, 

Taylorian Teacher of French in the 
University of Oxford. 

P.S. I shall be glad to give additional information 
if necessary. 


Le Conseil de I'Universite' de Paris, Pu 1'article 15 du 
de"cret du 21 juillet 1897, . . . etc., etc. 

Delibere : 

Art. ler. H est institue" un doctorat de I'Universite de 
Paris. . . . 

Art. 5. A la Faculte des lettres, les aspirants doivent, 
s'ils sont Strangers presenter des attestations d'^tudes 
de la valeur desquelles la Facult6 est juge. 

La duree de la scolarite" est de quatre semestres au 

Elle pent etre accomplie soit & la Faculte", soit dans 
un des grands etablissements scientifiques de Paris. 

La duree petit en Itre abregee par decision de hi Faculte. 

Les e*preuves comprennent : 1 la soutenance d'une 
these e"crite en francais ou en latin ; 2 des interroga- 
tions sur des questions choisies par le candidat et 
agree"es par la Faeulte". 

DEAR SIR, In your March number I noted with much 
interest the remarks of your correspondent, I'\ J. F. 
(p. 51), on the use of the word IU-e and the erroneous 
criticisms of the Athenaum reviewer. On reference to 
several large dictionaries I find no instance given of 
the use of like as a conjunction, and should be glad if 
your correspondent could favour us with a few more 
examples of its appropriate use as this part of speech. 

M. E. S. 




THE Modern Language Association was founded in 
1892 "to raise the standard of efficiency in Modern 
Languages, to promote their study in schools, and to 
obtain for them their proper status in the educa- 
tional curricula of the country." It provides means 
of communication for students and teachers by pub- 
lishing a journal, and by holding meetings for the 
discussion of language, literature and method. It is 
especially the aim of the Association to help Modern 
Language teachers by making them feel that they 
are not isolated units, but a learned body of men and 
women, working towards a common goal, and pro- 
fessionally trained and qualified no less than the 
teachers of classics and mathematics. 

Centres have been established, with Local Secre- 
taries, in many places in the United Kingdom. A 
list of these is published annually at the end of the 
List of Members. 

The President of the Association for the present 
year is Mr A. T. Pollard, Headmaster of the City of 
London School. 

The annual subscription is 10s. Oil., and entitles 
Members to receive post free the Modern Quarterly, 
which is the organ of the . Association. Teachers of 

Modern Languages and others interested in the study 
of Modern Languages are eligible as Members. 

Ladies or gentlemen who desire to become Members 
of the Association should apply to the Hon. Secre- 
tary, W. G. Lipscomb, University College School, 
London, W.C. 

The following Members have been elected since the 
last list was printed : 

Miss Nellie Dale, 6 Belvedere Cottages, Wimbledon. 

E. Glanville, Moravian Boys' School, Neuwied-am- 


Miss E. N. Lawrence, Cambridge House, Wimble- 
don Park. 

G. Corner, M.A., The Laurels, Beverley, Yorkshire. 

S. Alge, Miidchenrealschule, St Gallen, Switzerland. 

0. Baumann, 1 Osnaburgh Villas, Camberley, 

Mrs Scott Maiden, Windlesham House, Brighton. 

F. Schbllhammer, University College, Sheffield. 

A. S. Kidd, M.A., The Grammar School, Rotherham. 
Mrs James Hill, 56 Fellows Road, London, N.W. 
Miss L. Neumann, The Girls' Grammar School, 





JANUARY 1st to MARCH 31st 1898. 

Reference is made to the following journals : Acad. (The Academy), Archit (Archiv fur das Stadium der Neueren Sprachen 
und Litteraturen) Athen. (The Athenaeum). The tlootman, Cosm. (Cosmopolis), Cl. Ret. (The Classical Review), Educ. (Educa- 

' " , * ,,_, , r* , ., ' T--.I v / y . . ;>.. A~,~~ /Ti... i ,...,.;.,..., ) 1' I .....L .;,.....! I >,...:.,... \ /;.... '7>. - m ... /'rim 

(Lltterarisches Centralblatt), Mod. Lang. Notes (Modern Langn ge Notes, America), M.F. (Le Maitre Phonetique), Xeogl. (Neo- 
Klottia), NeupMI. CM. (Neuphilologisches Centralblatt), Notes and Queries, Sett. Spr. (Neuere Sprachen). fract. Teach. (The 

Guide I (No 1-184 June 1896) and Guide II. (No. 1-157, December 1896) : Nos. 1 and 2 of the Modtrn Language Teachers' 
Ouide, edited by WALTER RIPPMANN, copies of which (price 4d., by post 4Jd.) can be obtained on application to the Editor of the 
Modern Quarterly. 

M. L. Q, '97, No. 1-243 : Items in the Classified List in the Modern Language Quarterly, No. 1 (July 1897). 

M. L. Q., '97, No. 244-423 : Items in the Classified List in the Modern Language Quarterly, No. 2 (November 1897). 

M. Q., '98, No. 1-204 : Items in the Classified List in the Modern Quarterly, No 1 (March 1898). 

For criticisms we are indebted to Mr Paget Toynbee (signed T.), to Dr K rl Breul (signed A'. B.), to Professor T. Gregory 
Foster (signed T. G. F.), and to Professor Victor Spiers (signed V. S.) ; for all else Mr Walter Kippmann is responsible. 

New Books and Reviews since March 31s< will appear in No. 3. 



Matthew Arnold. Selections from tbe 
Writings. Edited, with an Introduction and 
Notes, by L. E. GATES. New York, Henry Holt & 
Co. 1897. 16mo, pp. xci + 348; 90c. net. 205 

Sir T. Browne. Rellglo Medici and other 
Essays. Edited, with an Introduction, by D. LLOYD 
ROBERTS M.D. Smith, Elder & Co. 1898. Rev. 
ed. Fcap. 8vo, pp. 346 ; 3s. 6d. net. 206 

Browning. Selections from. Edited, with Introduc- 
tion and Notes, by F. RYLAND, M.A. Geo. Bell 
&Sons. 1898. Cr. 8vo, pp. xxx+164; 2s. 6d. 207 

Bnnyan. Pilgrim's Progress. In Modern English. 
Edited by J. MORRISON. Macmillan & Co. 1897. 
12mo, pp. 196 ; Is. 6d. 208 

M. L. Q.,'97, No. 8. 
Journ. Educ., Feb. '98, p. 112 (faint praise). 

Iturlii'. Speech on Conciliation with America. 

Edited, with Introduction and Notes, by A. J. 

GEORGE, M.A. Isbister. 1898. Crown 8vo, pp. 

120 ; Is. 209 

Byron. The Prisoner of Chlllon and other Poems. 

In Kritischen Texten mit Einleitungen und Anmerk- 

ungen, von ECGEN KOBLING. Weimar, Felber. 1896. 

8vo, pp. 450 ; 7s. 210 

M. L. Q., '97, No. 11 

Mod. Lang. Notes, Dec. '97, col. 477 (a favourable review by 
F. H. Pughe). 
Carlyle. Essay on Burns. Edited, with Introduction 

and Notes, by A. J. GEORGE, M.A. Isbister. 1898. 

Fcap. 8vo, pp. 162 ; Is. 211 

On Heroes. Edited, with Notes, by Mrs 

ANNIE R. MARBLE. Macmillan & Co. 1897. 12mo, 

pp. 454 ; 4s. 6d. 212 

Educ. Rev., Feb. '98, p. 178 ("notes very briefly given ; a 

welcome reprint"). 

The Hero as Divinity. Edited, with an 

Introduction, by M. HDNTER, M.A. Geo. Bell & 
Sons. 1897. Cr. 8vo, pp. lxxii + 99; 2s., swd., 
Is. 6d. 213 

Educ. Rev., Feb. '98, p 178 (favourable). 

The Hero as a Man of Letters. Edited by 

M. HUNTER, M.A. Geo. Bell & Sons. 1897. Cr. 
8vo, pp. lxxii + 110; 2s., swd., Is. 6d. 214 

M. L. (J., '97, No. 250. 

Journ. Educ., Feb. '98, p. Ill (a thoughtful, and on th whole 
favourable, notice). 

Coleridge. The Ancient Mariner. Edited, with 
Introduction and Notes, by A. J. GEORGE, M.A. 
Isbister. 1898. Fcap. 8vo, pp. 132 ; Is. 215 

De Qnlucey. Flight of n Tartar Tribe. Edited, 
with Introduction and Notes, by Prof. G. A. 
WAUCHOPE, M.A., Ph.D. Isbister. 1898. Fcap. 
8vo, pp. 112 ; Is. 216 

Enrle's Mlcrocosmography. Edited, with Introduc- 
tion and Notes, by A. S. WEST, M.A. Cambridge 
University Press. 1897. Extra fcap. 8vo, pp. xl + 
160 ; 3s. 217 

Educ. Times, Feb. '98, p. 84 (very favourable). Guardian , 

12 Jan. '98; m. Land. Xem, 26 March '98. 

Goldsmith. The Traveller. Edited, with Notes, etc., 
by Rev. A. E. WOODWARD, M.A. Geo. Bell & 
Sons. 1898. Cr. 8vo, pp. xx-t 64 ; swd., lOd. 218 

Johnson. Lives of Prior and Congreve. With 

Introduction and Notes, by F. RYLAND, M.A. 

Geo. Bell & Sons. 1897. Cr. 8vo, pp. xxxiv+80; 

2s. 219 

Educ. Rev., Feb. '98, p. 178 (favourable). 

Keats. The Odes. With Full-page Plates, Notes and 
Analyses, and a Memoir. By A. C. DOWNER, M.A. 
Oxford, Clarendon Press. 1897. Cr. 8vo, pp. 103 ; 
3s. 6d. net. 220 

Educ. Times, Feb. '98, p. 83 (" an academic study rather than 

a school-book "): Athen., 15 Jan. '98 (favourable); Guardian, 

2 Feb. '98. 

John Keats. Leben und Werke. Von MARIE 
GOTHEIN. Halle, Niemeyer. 1897. Vol. I. Leben. 
8vo, pp. xvi + 277, and vol. II. Werke. 8vo, pp. 
iT+295 ; 10m. 221 

These two volumes form a noteworthy attempt on the 
part of a genuine lover of Keats to make him familiar 
to German readers. The measure of success that has 
been achieved by Miss Gothein can more readily be 
determined by one of her countrymen than by an 
Englishman : we feel, however, no hesitation in say- 
ing that those who are introduced to Keats by these 
volumes will do so under excellent guidance. For her 
first volume, the authoress has mainly drawn upon the 
standard edition of Keats by Mr Buxton Forman, and 
upon that most charming book ' ' Letters of John Keats 
to his Family and Friends," edited by Sidney Colvio. 
She has used her material with great accuracy, has 
traced the mental and spiritual growth of Keats with 
considerable charm, and in Chapter II. (Leigh Hunt 
und der Londoner Freundeskreis) has given many 



striking suggestions in regard to the characters and 
"influence " of Keats' friends. Her estimate of Leigh 
Hunt is especially fresh and well put, though, for her 
purpose, somewhat over elaborate. This is the con- 
clusion " Trotz aller Weichheit seiner Charakters besass 
doch Hunt eine Eigenschaft ha'rterer Naturen. Er hatte 
den Mut seiner Meinungen : . . . Diese Eigenschaft ver- 
bunden mit einer geistreichen asthetischen Empfindung 
und einer beweglichen Anpassungsfahigkeit, machte ihn 
zu einem gefiirchteten und geschatzten Kritiker und war 
die Vorbedingung fiir den geistigen Einfluss, den er auf 
seine jiingeren und griisseren Dichterfreunde, wie Keats 
und Shelley, ausUbte. " In the latter part of the same 
chapter the influence of Wordsworth is very well worked 
out : I don't think this, for instance, has been noted 
before: "Diezweite Halfte dieses Gedichtes (tlie short 
' Endymiou ') ist eine Ausf uhrung des Gedankens, dass 
die Phantasiegestalten, womit die alten Dichter die 
Natur bevb'lkerten und beseelten, Naturschauspiele zum 
Anlass gehabt batten ; der Natur also, als Inspiration 
des dichterischen Schaffens, gebiihre der Euhm und 
Dank der Dichter. Dieser Gedanke stammte von 
Wordsworth (im vierten Buche des Ausfluges)." In 
the later chapters of the book, which deal with Keats' 
poems, this search after "personal influences" is re- 
placed by what is much the same thing, the search 
after "Quellen" or "Sources." That is indeed the 
main aim of the book, but it might have been com- 
bined with some kind of examination of the poems as 
works of art : it is valuable, especially to the student, 
to trace the sources of the ideas that led to the writing 
of " Endymion," but it is of greater importance to the 
general reader to understand the poem as a whole, to 
grasp its complicated scheme, and get some notion of 
its allegory and symbolism. This might have been 
done without in any way violating the unity of the 
plan of the book. The second volume consists of 
German renderings of Keats' poems. The result of 
such an undertaking must always be unsatisfactory to 
those who know the poet at first hand ; but, making 
that allowance, Miss Gothein has accomplished her task 
with no little taste and judgment. She has repro- 
duced Keats' metres with considerable ability, and 
seems, in most cases, to have hit his thought happily. 
I give two examples : 

(1) ndymion, Book II. 
Hershermacht der Liebe, Frost und Pein, 
Ach ausser dir wird all Erinnern sein 
Ein Schatten nur im Nebel ferner Zeit ! 
Den alles, Gutes, Schlechtes, Hass und Neid, 
Sind schnell verblasst ; doch ruhrst du uns, so klingt 
Ein Seufzer-Echo, und ein Schluchzen bringt 
Ein Kuss, den Honigtau begrabner Tage. 

(2) Ode auf eine ffhriechische Vase. V. 
schb'ne Form ! O attisehes Gebild ! 
Von marmornen Gestalten rings umdrangt, 
Von Bluthenzweig und Rankenwerk umhlillt ; 
Wie sich dein Schweigen auf uns niedersenkt ! 
Das Denken bannst du gleich der Ewigkeit ! 
Rafft einstmals dies Geschlecht das Alter hin, 
Bleibst du bestehn inmitten andrer Leid. 
Ein Freund der Menschheit lehrst du dies Gebot : 
' ' Schbnheit ist wahr und Wahrheit schb'n ! " Den Sinn 
Musst ihr verstehn, dies eine thut euch not 

T. O. F. 

Athm., 15 Jan. '98 (" well Informed and interesting "). 

Lamb. Tales from Shakespeare (Tempest, As 

You Like It, Merchant of Venice, King Lear 

Twelfth Night, Hamlet). With Introduction and 

Notes by J. H. FLATBED, M.A. Cambridge 

University Press. 1898. 12mo, pp. xii + 154; 

1. 6d. 222 

Boatman, Feb. '98, p. 166 ("excellent"); Athm. ,6 Feb. '98 ; 

Journ.^Educ., March '98; Guardian, 12 Jan. '98; Speaker, 

Macanlay. Lays of Ancient Rome. Edited by 
L. R. F. Du PONTET, B.A. Edw. Arnold. 1897. 
Cr. 8vo, pp. 172 ; Is. 6d. 223 

M. L. Q., '97, No. 255. 
youm. Educ., Feb. '98, p. Ill ("very satisfactory"). 

Mai-aulay. Lays of Ancient Rome. Edited, with In- 
troduction and Notes, by W. T. WEBB, M.A. Mac- 
millan & Co. 1897. Globe 8vo, pp. xxiv + 108; 
Is. 9d. 224 

Joura. Educ., Feb. '98, p. Ill ("a satisfactory introduction 

. . . the selection excellent. . . . the notes Interesting"). 

Two Essay* on William Pill, Earl of Chatham. 

Edited, with Introduction and Notes, by A. D. 

INNES, M.A. Cambridge University Press. 1897. 

Extra fcap. 8vo, pp. xxxii+220; 2s. 6d. 225 

Educ. Ret., Jan '98, p. 132 (very favourable) ; Guardian, 12 

Jan. '98; Bookman, Jan. '98. 

Selections from Sir Thomas Malory's IMorte 

Dnrlhur. Edited, with Introduction, Notes, and 
Glossary, by D. E. MEAD, Ph.D. Nutt. 1897. 
Cr. 8vo, pp. lxii + 346 ; 4s. 6d. net. 226 

Milton. Paradise Lost. Books I. and II., and Selec- 
tions from others. Edited, with Introduction, 
Suggestions for Study, Notes, Glossary, Index, 
etc., by A. P. WALKER, M.A. Isbister. 1898. 
Fcap. 8vo, 284 pp. ; 2s. 227 

Paradise Lost. Book II. Edited by F. GORSE, 

M.A Blackie & Son. 1897. Fcap. 8vo, pp. 88 ; 
Is. 228 

U. Q., '98, No. 9. 

Bookman, Feb. '98, p. 166 (favourable). 

Paradise Regained. Edited, with Introduction 
and Notes, by A. J. WYATT, M.A. Clive. 1898. 
Cr. 8vo, pp. xxiii+96 ; 2s. 6d. 229 

Thomas Otway. Die VerscliwormiK gegeu Vene- 

dig. Ins Deutsche ubertragen und mit einer 

Einleitung versehen. Von PAUL HAGEN. Leipzig, 

Avenarius. 1898. Large 8vo, pp. v+91 ; 2m. 230 

Lit. Cbl., 29 Jan. '98 (" Die Ubersetzung ist frei und gewandt, 

kiirzt audi ufters und andert, aber stets mit Geschmack und 

Verstandnis, das Original."/;. W\ulker]). 

Shakespeare. Cortolanns. Edited by E. K. CHAM- 
BERS. (The Warwick Shakespeare.) Blackie & 
Son. 1898. Fcap. 8vo, pp. xviii + 231 ; Is. 6d. 231 
A most admirable edition ; the play is treated exhaustively, 

but without padding. Warmly recommended. 

First Part of King Henry IV. Edited by 

W. ALDIS WRIGHT, M.A. Oxford, Clarendon 
Press'. 1897. Extra fcap. 8vo, pp. xxiv+178; 
2s. 232 

Athen., 5 Feb. '98 (very favourable); Kduc. Rev., Feb. '98, 
p. 178 (" far too learned "). 

- King Lear. Edited by A. W. VERITY, M.A. 
Cambridge University Press. 1897. 12mo, pp. 
300 ; Is. 6d. 233 

U. Q., '98, No. 13. 

Athen., 5 Feb. '98 (very favourable; "the notes might have 
been abridged with advantage"); Educ. Ret., Feb. '98, p. 178 
("excellent"); Acad., 15 Jan. '98; Guardian, 12 Jan. '98; 
Speaker, 13 Nov. '98. 

The Merchant of Venice. Edited, with an 
Introduction and Notes, by THOMAS PAGE. New 
Edition enl. Moffatt & Paige. 1898. Cr. 8vo, 
pp. 182 ; 2s. 234 

The Merchant of Venice. Edited by A. W. 
VERITY. Cambridge University Press. 1898. 
Extra fcap. 8vo, pp. xlviii+212 ; Is. 6d. 235 

Boatman, Feb. '98, p. 166 (very favourable); Athen., 5 Feb. 
'98 (very favourable); Educ. Rev ..Feb. '98, p. 178 (" excellent "); 
Guardian, 12 Jan. '98; School Guardian, 19 Feb. '98. 

The Merchant of Venire. Edited by H. L. 
WITHERS, Principal of Isleworth Training College. 
Blackie & Son. 1897. 12mo, pp. xxxiv + 142; 
Is. 6d. 236 

M. Q., '98, No. 14. 

Bookman, Feb. '98, p. 166 (favourable); Athen., 6 Feb. '98 
(favourable); Educ. Sen., Feb. '98, p. 178 (very favourable). 

Spenser. The Faerie Queene. Book I. Edited, 
with Notes and Glossary, by W. H. HILL, M.A. 
Clive. 1897. Cr. 8vo, pp. 236 ; 2s. 6d. 237 

M. L. ., '97, No. 45. 

Journ. Educ., Feb. '98, p. Ill ("no surplusage . . . very 
well fitted for those who are preparing for examination"). 


Spenser. Faerie anccne. Edited, with Introduction 

and Glossary, by K. M. WARBEN. Constable. 1898. 

Six vols., each, cl., Is. 6d., art canvas, 2s. 6d. 238 

Lit., 19 March '98 (" editorial work conscientiously done . . . 

dry without being erudite"); Univ. Ex/ens., March '98, p. 89 

(a very favourable notice by P. H. W\ickstee<T\). 

Stories from the Faerie ftueene. By MART MAC- 
LEOD. With an Introduction by J. W. HALES, 
and about 90 Illustrations from original drawings, 
by A. G. WALKER, Sculptor. Gardner & Darton. 
1897. 8vo, pp. xxvii + 395; 6s. 
M. Q ,'98, No. 164. 

Lit., 12 Feb. '98 (" Mr Halis' flne introduction and Miss Mac- 
leod's attractive version of the ancient tales will edify and 
please all who read them"). 

Spenser. Sheplieard's Calendar. Edited, with an In- 
troduction, by C. H. HERKORD, Litt.D. Maemillan 
&Co. 1896. Globe 8vo, pp. lxxiv+210; 2s. 6d. 240 
Ovide I. 35, and II. 39. 

Univ. Extern., March '98, p. 89 (a very favourable notice by 
P. H. W[icksteecC\). 

Trim.* -on. Prolegomena to In Memorlam. With 
an Index to the Poem. By THOMAS DAVIDSON. 
Isbister. 1898. 183 pages, fcap. 8vo ; Is. 6d. 241 

The Princess. Edited, with Introduction and 

Notes, by A. S. COOK, Ph.D. Boston, Ginn. 1897. 
Pp. xlvi + 187; 50 cents. 

English lyric Poetry, 15UO-1700. With an Introduc- 
tion by FRED. I. CARPENTER. Blackie & Son. 
1897. Cr. Svo, pp. xlv + 276 ; 3s. 6d. 
M. L. Q., '97, No. 53, 282. 

Journ. Educ., Feb. '98, p. 110 (" a very satisfactory addition 
to a good series" [The Warwick Library]). 
English lyrics. Chaucer to Poe. By W. E. 
HENLEY. Methuen. 1897. Cr. Svo, pp. xiv+ 
412; 6s. 244 

M. Q., '98, No. 21 (favourable). 
Athen., 15 Jan. '98 (not altogether favourable). 

The Flower of the Mind. A choice among the Best 
Poems. By Mrs ALICE MEYNELL. Grant Richards. 
1897. Cr. Svo, pp. 352 ; 6s. 245 

M. Q., '98, No. 23 (favourable). 
Atheti., 15 Jan. '98 (not altogether favourable). 

The Golden Treasury. Selected from the Best Songs 
and Lyrical Poems in the English Language, and 
arranged with Notes by FRANCIS T. PALGRAVE. 
Second Series. Maemillan. 1897. Pott 8vo, pp. 
xii+276 ; 2s. 6d. net. 246 

M. Q., '98, No. 22. 

Journ. Educ., Feb. '98, p. 111. 

Tho History of England In Verse. Edited by R. B. 
JOHNSON. Swan Sonnenschein. [In the press. 247 

Four Poets. Selections from the Works of Words- 
worth, Coleridge, Shelley, and Keats. Edited, 
with an Introduction, by OSWALD CHAWFURD. 
Chapman & Hall. 1897. Small cr. Svo, pp. 
viii+480; 3s. 6d. net. 248 

Lit., 5 Feb. '98 (' L the contents reveal no conceivable kind of 

selective plan "). 

Macmlllan's Advanced Reader. Maemillan. 1898. 
Cr. 8vo, pp. 430 ; 2s. 249 

English Masques. Edited by H. A. EVANS, M.A. 
Blackie. 1897. Cr. 8vo, pp. lxiv+246 ; 3s. 6d. 250 

M. Q.,'98, No. 27. 

Journ. Educ., Feb. '98, p. 109 ("careful, scholarly work"); 
Lit., 8 Jan. '98 (favourable); Educ. Rev., March '98, p. 225 
(" introduction ... at once learned and interesting ") ; Educ. 
Times, Jan. '98, p. 33 (" an admirable selection "). 

A Public School Reciter. By BERTHA M. SKEAT. 
Longmans. 1898. Cr. 8vo, pp. 184 ; 2s. 6d. 251 
Educ., 6 March '98 (very favourable) ; Educ. Times, March '98, 
p. 150 ('' the selection is remarkably fresh and judicious "). 


A Handbook of English literature. Originally com- 
piled by AUSTIN DOBSON. New Edition by W. 
HALL GRIFFIN, B.A., Professor of English Lan- 

guage and Literature at Queen's College, Lon- 
don. Crosby, Lockwood. 1897. Cr. 8vo, pp. 400 ; 
7s. 6d. 252 

M.L.Q, '97, No. 62 and 292. 

Lit., 8 Jan. '98 (unqualified praise). 

A Short History of Modern English literature. 

By EDMUND GOSSE. Heinemann. 1897. Cr. Svo, 
pp. 416 ; 6s. 253 

HI. Q.,'98, No. 31. 

Educ. Times, Feb. '98, p. 78 (" a good rapid survey ") ; Boot- 
man, March '98, p. 182 (" Immense knowledge is obvious on 
every page, but it is so deftly wrought, and with so persistent a 
sense of artistic values, that It escapes that air of vassalage to 
the bare fact which the handbook of literature, particularly 
when It covers a vast period, so hardly avoids " C. II. Berford); 
Cosm., Jan. '98, p. 66 (A. Lang); Educ. Rev., Morch '98, p. 225 
(" a delightful picture (-f English Literature which abounds in 
flne writing and luminous criticism"). 

Engllsrhe lltteraturgesrhichte. Von C. WEDDER. 
Leipzig, Gb'schen. Svo ; 80 pf. 254 

A History of English Poetry. By Professor COURT- 
HOPE. Vol. II. The Renaissance and Reformation. - 
Maemillan. 1897. 8vo, pp. xxiv+432; 10s. net. 255 
Educ. Rev., March '98, p. 224 (" Prof. C. Itads us with 
profound learning and clear guidance"). 

Reviews and Essays In English literature. By 

Rev. D. C. TOVEY. Geo. Bell & Sons. 1897. 
Cr. Svo, pp. xii + 187 ; 5s net. 256 

Educ. Times, Feb. '98, p. 78 (" derives much < f its exceptional 
interest from its reference to Cambridge topics and Cambridge 
men"); Journ. Educ., March '!i8, p. 180 (favourable); Athen., 
15 Jan. '98 (" not very first-rate "). 

Victorian literature. Sixty Years of Books and 
Bookmen. By CLEMENT K. SHORTER. Bowden. 
1897. Cr. Svo, pp. 232 ; 2s. 6d. 257 

M. Q., '98, No. 35 (favourable). 
Lit,, 8 Jan. '98 (not quite favourable). 

Alfred lord Tennyson : A Memoir by his Son. 

Maemillan. 1897. 8vo, pp. 516+551; 36s. net. 258 
M. d., '98, No. 36. 
Cosm., Jan. '98, p. 59 (A. Lang). 

Charles Dickens : A Critical Study. By GEORGE 

GISSINO. Blackie & Son. 1898. Cr. Svo, pp. 244 ; 

2s. 6d. 259 

A volume in the ' Victorian Era Series.' Acad.. 12 March '98 

(' quite unusually successful ") ; Lit., 19 March '98 (" The best 

study of Dickens we have ever read"). 

lord Byron's Mazeppa. Eine Studie von D. 

ENGLANDER. Berlin, Mayer und Miiller. 1897. 

8vo, pp. 96 ; 260 

Neogl., 15 Feb. '98 ("Obwohl zunachst fur Philologen von 

Interesse, was besonders von dem metrischen Teile gilt, darf 

diese vortreffliche Arbeit auch weiteren Kreisen warm empfohlen 

werden." M. Krummacher). 

Burns : Life, Genius, Achievement. By W. E. 

HENLEY. Reprinted from ' ' The Centenary Burns. " 
Whittaker. 1898. Cr. Svo, pp. 120; sewed, 
Is. 261 

From Shakespeare to Dryden. Being Vol. II. of 
"A School History of English Literature." By 
ELIZABETH LEE. Blackie. 1898. Fcap. Svo, pp. 
232 ; 2s. 262 

The Age of Mil ton. By J. BASS MULLINGER, M.A. , 
and Rev. J. H. B. MASTERMAN, M.A. Geo. Bell & 
Sons. 1897. Cr. Svo, pp. xxi + 254; 3s. 6d. 263 
M. L. Q.,'97, No. 299 (mixed). 

Journ. Educ., March '98, p. 181 (" decidedly a satisfactory 
book of its kind "). 

Shakespeare. A Critical Study by G. BRANDES. 

Heinemann. 1898. 2 vols. Svo, pp. viii + 403 and 

vii + 422; 24s. net. 264 

Lit., 12 March '98. 
A Book about Shakespeare. Written for Young 

People by J. M'lLWRAlTH (Jean Forsyth). Nelson. 

1898. Cr. Svo, pp. 222 ; 2s. 265 

William Shakespeare's lebrjahre. Eine litternr- 
historische Studie. Von G. VON SARRAZIN. Weimar, 
Felber. 1897. Large Svo, pp. xiii+232 ; 4m.50. 266 

Lit. t 5 Feb. '98 (" too one-sided, but nevertheless interesting "). 



American Literature. By KATHBBINE L. BATES. 

Macmillan. 1898. Cr. 8vo, pp. ix + 337 ; 6s. 267 

An Introduction to American Literature. By 

H. S. PANCOAST. New York, Henry Holt & Co. 

1898. Fcap. 8vo, pp. lxii+393 ; 4s. 6d. 268 

The Development of Australian Literature. By 

H. G. TURNER and A. SUTHERLAND. Longmans. 
1898. Cr. 8vo, pp. 344 ; 5s. ' 269 

A then., 12 March "J8 (favourable). 

Style. By Prof. RALEIGH. Edw. Arnold. 1897. Cr. 
Svo, pp. 129 ; 5s. 270 

Cosm., Jan. '98, p. 302 (very favourable); Lit., 8 Jan. '98 
(" lucid, brilliant and stimulating"). 

Dictionary of Authors, Biographical anil 

Bibliographical. Account of Lives and Writings 

of 700 British Writers from 1400 to Present Time 

By R. F. SHARP. Redway. 1898. Cr. 8vo, pp. 

314 ; 7s. 6d. net. 271 

Lit., 8 Jan. '98 (" defaced by a host of errors and omissions ") 

We print with pleasure the following note from Mr Redway : 

" Since Jan. 8 the volume has been thoroughly overhauled, and 

the only mistakes discovered , including misprints and omissions, 

are noted on a slip of errata, now issued with every copy of the 


I iiilnlii IIJIL; in da* Miiiliiiiii der cugllscheu 
Phllologie mil Buckslcht auf die Aiiforder- 
ungen der Praxis. Von Prof. W. VIETOR. 2 e 
umgearb. Auflage. Marburg, Elwert. 1897. Large 
Svo, pp. x + 102; 2m. 20. 272 

M. L. Q., '97, No. 310. 

A very favourable notice by R. W(ulker] in Lit. Cbl., a Mtirch- 
'98, and by R. Kron in Seogl., 15 Jan. '98. 


Soauics' Phonetic .Method for Learning to Read : 
the Teachers' Manual. Edited by Professor W. 
VIETOR, Ph.D., B.D., M.A. Swan Sonnenschein. 
1897. Two parts, pp. xxiv + 79 and iv+117 ; 2s. 6d. 
each part. 273 

if. L. Q., '97, No. 417 ; If. Q., '98, No. 56. 
Educ. Timet, Feb. '98, p. 81 ("just the help that a hard- 
worked teacher with little time for study would find useful "). 

English Method of Teaching to Bead. The Nursery 
Book in large letter sheets. By A. SONNENSCHEIN 
and J. M. MEIKLEJOHN, M.A. Macmillan, 1898. 
Super royal broadside, on a roller. Size 39x26 
6s. 27 4 

Principles of English (Irainuiar for the le of 
Schools. By G. R. CAHPENTKK. Macmillan. 1898. 
Cr. Svo, pp. x + 254 ; 4s. 6d. 275 

A Simple Vrammar of English now In Use. By 

JOHN EARLE, M.A., Professor of Anglo-Saxon in 

the University of Oxford. Smith, Elder & Co 

1897. Cr. 8vo, pp. xiv+297 ; 6s. 276 

Educ., 19 March ("lack of system marks many paits of 

the book. . . . Valuable hints in historical grammar are given in 

many cases, and the latter part of the book as a whole, despite 

the insufficient treatment of analysis, Is well worth the attention 

of teachers of English") ; Educ. Her., March '98, p. 221 ("an 

able, and, we consider, successful attempt to lift the study of 

grammar out of the rats of pettifogging philology"). 

English tirammar, Past and Present. In Three 

Parts. Part I. Modern English Grammar. II. 

Idiom and Construction. III. Historical English: 

Word- Building and Derivation. With Appendices 

on Prosody, Synonyms, and other outlying subjects. 

By J. C. NESFIELD, M.A., late Director of Public 

Instruction, North-Western Provinces and Oudh, 

India. Macmillan. 1898. Globe Svo, pp. viii + 470 ; 

4s. 6d. 277 

English Lessons for German, French, and Italian 
Pupils. After S. Alge's Method. By S. HAM- 
BURGER. St Gallon, Fehr. 1898. Large 8vo, 
pp. xvii + 211 ; 278 

A capital book ; the proofs were carefully revised by Mr de 
V. Pyen-Payne. We have noticed a few slips ; no doubt a 
second edition will soon be called for, and these will be cor- 

Cirammaire Pratique de la Laiiguc Auglalse. By 

Prof. LARMOTER. Beeman. 1897. Part i., cr. 
Svo, pp. xii + 316; 4s, 279 

Journ. Educ., Jan. '98, p. 41 (" framed on the old Ollendorfflan 
method of rule and dialogue "). 

Word-Building, Derivation, and Composition. 

Simple Exercises arranged for Class use as aids to 
Accurate Spelling and Punctuation, an extended 
Vocabulary, and the Correct Writing of English. 
By ROBERT S. WOOD, Headmaster of St Luke's 
National School, B Iton. Macmillan. 1898. Part 
VI., Standard VI. Globe Svo, pp. 80 ; 6d. 280 

Stoffe zu Englischen Sprechnbungcn. Von Prof. 
K. DEUTSCHBEIN. Vokabel-und Hilfsbuch fur die 
Lektiire und Vorkommnisse des tiiglichen Lebens 
mit besonderer Beriicksichtigung englischer Ver- 
haltnisse. Mit einer Karte von England, einem 
Plane und 16 Bildem von London und Umgegend. 
G'othen, Schulze. 1898. Pp. xii+151 ; Im80. 281 
A favourable notice by if. Krummacher in Neogl., 15 March 

Scenes of English Life. Lessons in English on the 
Series Method, with Instructions to Teachers and 
Directions for Pronunciation. Book I. Children's 
Life. By H. SWAN and V. BETIS. With a Preface 
on the Use of the Method for Teachers of the Deaf 
by SUSANNA E. HULL. Geo. Philip & Son. 1897. 
Cr. Svo, pp. lx + 119; 2s. 6d. Class Edition 
(Exercises only), pts. 1 and 2, 6d. each, or together 
in cl., Is. 282 

At. Q , '98, No. 57 (not altogether favourable). 
Educ. Rev., Feb. '98, p. 177 (warmly recommended). 

Scenes of English Life. (Psychological Methods of 
Teaching Languages. ) Geo. Philip & Son. 1898. 
Book II. Daily Life, The Family, Trades. Cr. Svo, 
pp. 102 ; Is. Book III. The Country, Sports and 
Games, Travelling, The Sea. Cr. Svo, pp. 110 ; 



English History for Children. With 20 full-page 

Illustrations. By Mrs FRED. BOAS. Nisbet. 1898 

Sm. cr. Svo, pp. 264 ; 2s. 6d. 284 

Educ., 20 Feb. '98 ("a book which children can read and 

understand "). 


The Oxford English Dictionary. Edited by Dr 

J. A. H. MURRAY. Oxford, Clarendon Press. Series 

ii., part iii. By HENRY BRADLEY. Franklaw 

Gaineoming ; 5s. 285 

Lit., 19 March '98. 

English Dictionary. Chambers. 1898. Imp. Svo, 
pp. 1264; cl., 12s. 6d., hf.-mor., 18s. 286 

Austral English. A Dictionary of Australasian Words, 
Phrases, Usages, Aboriginal-Australian and Maori 
Words incorporated in the language, Scientific 
Words that have had their origin in Australia. By 
E. E. MORRIS. Macmillan. 1897. Svo, pp. 550 ; 
16s. 287 

Lit., 19 March '98. 


Itiiiuas. Vlngt Ans Apres. Edited by F. TARVER. 
Edw. Arnold. 1896. Cr. Svcx, pp. 256; 2s. 6d. 
net. 288 

M. L. Q., '97. No. 90. 

Juurn. Educ., Jan. '98, p. 41 (" a more interesting book for 
toys would be hard to find"). 

La Fortune de D'Arlaguan. An Episode from Lt 
Vicomte de Bmgelonne. By ALEX. DUMAS. Edited, 
with Introduction and Notes, by A. R. Ropes, 
M.A. Cambridge University Press. 1897. Extra 
fcap. Svo, pp. xvi + 272; 2s. 289 

if. Q , '98, No. 70. 
Educ. Times, Feb. '98, p. 82. 

Victor Hugo. Morceanx choisls. Paris, Delagrave. 
2 vols. (I. Poesie ; II. Prose). Each vol. pp. 504 ; 
3fr.50. 290 

Lit., 6 Feb, '98 (very favourable). 


Nalot. Bern! et ses Amis. A Selection from Sans 
Famille. Edited, with Introduction, Notes, and 
Vocabulary, by MARGARET DE G. VERRALL. Cam- 
bridge University Press. 1897. Extra fcap. 8vo, 
pp. xii + 195; 2s. 

Educ'.' rimes,Feb! '98, p. 83 (favourable); Athen., 5 Feb. '98 
(" The notes are careful, but they need a little concentration ) ; 
Pratt. Teach., March '98 ; Guardian, 12 Jan. '98. 

IMicUand. Histoire de la Premiere Croisade. 

Edited by A. V. HOUGHTON. (Siepmann's French 
Series.) Macmillan. 1897. 12mo, pp. xvi+189; 

2s. 6d. 292 

M. Q., '98, No. 74 (mixed). 
Educ. Rev., Jan. '98, p. 132 (" suitable for class reading "). 

Mlchelet (J.). Louis XI. et Charles le Temeraire. 
Edited, with Introduction, Grammatical and Ex- 
planatory Notes, and full Vocabulary, by J. F. 
DAVIES. Hachette & Co. 1898. Cr. 8vo, pp. 
188 ; 2s. 293 

Mollcre. Le Bourgeois tieittilhommc : ComCdie- 
Ballet en Cinq Actes. Edited with Introductory 
Notice and Explanatory Notes by F. TARVER. 
Hachette & Co. 1898. New ed., cr. 8vo, pp. 138 ; 
limp, 9d. 

The Fairy Tales of Master Perranlt. Edited by 

WALTER RIPPMANN, M.A. Cambridge University 

Press. 1897. Extra fcap. 8vo, pp. 139 ; Is. 6d. 295 

Educ. Times, Feb. '98, p. 83; Athen., 6 Feb. '98 (" notes good 

and to the point"). 

Bandeau, Sacs ct Parchemins. Edited by B. MINS- 
SBN, M.-es-A. Rivingtons. 1898. Sm. cr. 8vo, 
pp. 118 ; 2s. net. 

Toudouzc. Madame Lambelle. Edited by J. BOIELLE. 
Whittaker & Co. 1897. Cr. 8vo, pp. 246 ; 3s. 297 
It. L. Q., '97, No. 97. 
Journ. Educ., Jan. '98, p. 41 (" the author's charm is not one 

which would appeal to schoolboys and girls, or, at any rate, only 

in the highest forms "). 

La Trlade Francaise. De Mussel, Lamartine, 
Victor Hugo. Petit Recueil de Po&ies par 
LOUISE BOTH-HJJNDRIKSBN. Isbister. 1898. Crown 
8vo, pp. 214 ; 2s. 6d. 298' 

Chrestomathie fraucaise: morceaux cholsls de 
prose et de polsie, avec prouonclatiou Hguree 
a 1'nsage des Strangers. Par JEAN PASSY et 
ADOLPHE RAMBEAU. Paris, H. Le Sondier. New 
York, Henry Holt. 1897- 8vo, pp. xxxv+258 ; 
5fr. 299 

II. L. Q,'97. No. 331. 

Hod. Lang. Notes, Nov. '97, col. 405 (an Interesting review by 
C. H. Orandgent). 

The Nineteenth Century in France : Selections 
from the best French literary works. English 
Translations by PAUL CHAUVET. Vol. I., The 
Poets : Lamartine, Hugo, Musset. Digby, Long & 
Co. 1898. Cr. 8vo, pp. 160 ; 3s. 6d. 300 

Nouvelles Contemporalnes. By MM. THEURIET, 
Biographical Sketches. By J. DUHAMEL, M.-es-A. 
Rivingtons. 1898. Sm. cr. 8vo, pp. 143 ; 2s. 
net. 301 

Nouvelles et Anecdotes Adapted and edited by A. 

DELACOURT, B.-es-L. Rivingtons. 1897. Sm. fcap. 

8vo, pp. 62 ; 6d. net 302 

Educ., 19 March '98 ; Edu c. Times, March '98, p. 148 ("con- 
scientiously done "). 


A History of French Literature. By EDWARD 
DOWDEN, D.C.L., LL.D. Heinemann. 1897. Cr. 
8vo, pp. 444 ; 6s. 303 

M. Q., '98. No. 78. 

Cosm., Jan. '98, p, 301 (favourable) ; Educ. Rev., March '98, p 
225 (" a series of vignettes set in an attractive running commen- 
tary and drawn by a mature artist "). 

Briiuetiere. Essays in French Literature. Trans- 
lated by D. NICHOL SMITH, with a Preface by M. 
BRUNETikRE. Fisher Unwin. 1898. Cr. 8vo, pp. 
254 ; 7s. 6d. 

Levranlt. Auteurs fraucais. Etudes critiques et 
analyses. Paris, Delaplane. 1898. 12mo, pap., 
3fr.50 ;'<;]., 4fr. 305 

L. Morel. Etudes lltteralres. Sainte-Beuve, poete 
et romancier ; Pascal et les Pense"es. Zurich, 
Schulthess. Large 8vo ; 3m. 306 

Voltaire's Leben. Von K. SCHIRMACHER. Leipzig, 
Reislaud. 1898. 8m. 307 

Larronmet. Bacine (les grands eorivains 

Hachette et C<*. 1898. 16mo, pp.206 ; 2fr. 308 

I In "i>li i l<- de Vian. Seln Leben nnd seine Werkc 

(l.V)l-lti'i>. Litterarische Studie von Dr KATHE 

SCHIRMACHBR. Paris, H. Welter. 1897. 8vo, 

pp. 320 ; lOfr. 309 

A very favourable and valuable review by R. Mahrenholtz in 

Ifeogl., 1 Feb. '98. 


Dr B. KI-..II . Lc Petit Parlsien. Karlsruhe, Bielefeld. 
1898. 4th ed., revised. 8vo, pp. viii+184; 
2m.40. 310 

Guide I. 125; M. L. Q., '97, No. 146; If. Q., '98, No. 85. In 
this new edition the excellent book may be considered to have 
reached its final form. 

An edition for English readers will shortly be published by 
Messrs J. M. Dent A Co. 

Fraiizoslscucs Beallexlkon. Unter Mitwirkung 
vieler Fachgenossen herausgegeben von Dr 
CLEMENS KLOPPEK. Leipzig, Renger. 1897. 1. 
Lieferung. Large 8vo, pp. 1-98 ; 2m. 
if. Q., '98, No. 86. 

A favourable notice of parts 1-3 by R. MahrenhoUi in L, g. r. P. , 
Feb. '98, col. 64; by O. Wendt in Neu. Spr., V., p. 560 (very 

Tourists' Vade Mecnm : French. Sir Isaac Pitman & 
Sons. 1898. Fcap. 8vo, pp. 91 ; Is. 

Modern France (1789-1895). By ANDRE LE BON, 
Member of the Chamber of Deputies. Fisher Unwin. 
1897. 8vo, pp. xvi + 488; 5s. 

, . 

larly honest"); Educ. Ren., March '98, p. 223 (' clear, vigorous, 
and yet impartial"); Bookman, Jan. '98, p. 134 ("written by a 
politician, who is also an exceptionally cultivated man "). 

France. By MART ROWSELL. (The Children's Study. ) 
Fisher Unwin. 1897. Fcap. 8vo, pp. 382; 
2s. 6d. 314 

M. Q., '98, No. 88. 

Journ. Educ., March '98, p. 183 ("pleasantly written, and on 
the whole well-informed "). 


Scenes of Child Life in Colloquial French. A 

French Reading Book for Young Children. By 
Mrs J. G. FRAZER (LILLY GROVE). Illustrated by 
H. M. BROCK. Macmillan & Co. 1898. Globe 
8vo, pp. xvi+124 ; Is. 6d. 315 

French Beader. Edited by Rev. A. JAMSON SMITH. 
A. & C. Black. 1898. Sm. cr. 8vo, pp. 207 ; 2s. 

An Elementary Scientific French Beader. By P. 
MARIOTTE-DAVIES. Boston, Heath. 1897. 8vo, 
pp. 135 ; . 317 

A Manual of French Prose Construction. By J. G. 

ANDERSON, B.A. (Lond.J, French Master at Mer- 

chant Taylor's School. Blackie & Son. 1898. Cr. 

8vo, pp. ix+276 ; 5s. 318 

Journ. Educ., Feb. '98, p. 110 (" an original and most sugges- 

tive contribution"), cp. March '8, p. 166; Alhen., 5 March '98 

("a good book in its way, but to our mind too elaborate ') : 

Educ., 12 Feb. '98 (favourable) ; Educ. Times, March '98, p. 148 




A Complete Course of French Composition and 
Idioms. By HECTOR REY, B.-es-L. Blackie & 
Son. 1897. Cr. 8vo, pp. 214 ; 3s. 6d. 319 

M. Q., '98 No. 89 (mixed). 

Athen., 5 Feb. '98 (" the writer's method is a little difficult to 
follow, and he has not contrived to keep free of mistakes ") ; 
Educ. Sen., Feb. '98, p. 183 (very favourable). 

Classbook of Commercial Correspondence, French 
and English. By A. E. RAGON. Hachette & Co. 
1897. Cr. 8vo, pp. 300 ; 2s. 6d. 320 

if. Q., '98, No. 90. 

Educ., 12 Feb. '98; E m. Rev., Jan. '98, p. 132 ("very 


Sommer. Passages from English Military writers of 
the Day. Materials for Translation into Modern 
Languages. Selected and Edited for the use of 
Army Candidates, Military Students, etc., etc. 
By H. OBKAR SOMMBB, Ph.D., M.A. Hachette & 
Co. 1898. Cr. 8vo, pp. viii + 102; 2s. 321 


, A. Thomas. Essais de phllologle rraimiisc. Paris, 
E. Bouillon. 1898. 8vo, pp. viii + 441 ; 7f r. 322 
This volume, which consists for the most part of articles, 
which have already appeared in Romania and elsewhere, con- 
tains two distinct series of essays the Jirst being Melanges 
Philologiques ; the second, Recherches Etymologique*. Inci- 
dentally, M. Thomas deals with certain English words ; among 
them, worsted (whence French ostade), and grogram (origin- 
ally from French grosgrain, which, after passing into 
English, has returned to France in yet another form viz., gour- 
ffouran). One of the most interesting essays Is that on La 
semanliqiu, in which the origin and meaning of the term are 
discussed. The last essay in the first part contains a very 
appreciative notice of M. Gaston Paris. The volume is provided 
with a full lexicographical index, with separate divisions corre- 
sponding to the languages to which the words belong. T. 

Die vrlchtigstcn Erscheiniiiigeii der franzosischen 
Grammatlk. Von K. BODDEKER. Leipzig, 
Renger. 1896. 8vo, pp. 132. 323 

If. L. Q., '97, No. 123. 
Neu. Spr., V. 568 (A. Oundlach; very favourable). 

A Three-year Preparatory Course In French. 

C. F. KROEH. Macmillan. 1897. First Year. 

8vo, pp. 260 ; 3s. 6d. 
if. Q., '98, No. 96. 

Educ. Timei, Feb. '98, p. 82 (" very helpful and stimulating ") ; 
Educ. Rev., Feb. '98, p. 182 (favourable). 

French Practical Course. By G. MAGNENAT. Mac- 
millan. 1897. Cr. 8vo, pp. xi+286; 5s. 325 

M. L. Q.,'97, No. 350. 

Edur. Ret., Jan. '98, p. 132 (" great attention paid to the 
study of phraseology . . . method excellent"). 

Ciralllet et Myard. Gramiualrc et composition 
francalse. Publie'e sons la direction de F^LIX 
MARTEL. Paris, Delagrave. 12mo ; 2fr.50. 326 

Longmans' Illustrated Second French Reading 
Book and Grammar. By J. BIDOOOD and J. W. 

CAMPBELL. Longmans, 1896. Cr. 8vo, pp. 160 ; 
2s. 327 

if.L.Q., '7, No. 128. 

Journ. Educ., Jan. '98, p. 41 (favourable). 

.\ew Grammatical French Course. By Prof. A. 
BARRkRK, R.M.A., Woolwich. Whittaker. 1897. 
Parts I. and II. in 1 vol., Elementary. Pp. 114; Is. 
Part III., Intermediate. Pp. 168; 2s. 328 

M. Q., '98, No. 93 (old-fashionc 1 "). 

Educ. Timet, Feb. '98, p. 82; Athen., 5 Feb. '98 ("suitable to 
beginners "); Educ. Reo., Feb. '98, p. 182. 

M. Ban-fere's Elementary and Intermediate Courses will be 
warmly welcomed. They are the fruit of long experience ; not 
too much is given at first, but the vocabulary Is one that will 
appeal to children, and is plentifully repeated ; the rules are 
lucidity itself and amply illustrated ; one would almost think 
them easy. The difficulty of il ett and c'etl of Lesson XVII. 
of the Intermediate Course, and that of the Personal Pronouns 
(Lesson XIX.), are a pleasure to read. The Irregular Verbs 
themselves arc made as cosy as Is possible, by means of black 
type, which emphasizes the irregularities, while the regular parts 
though conjugated are shown to be known already. The typo- 
graphical execution of the book leaves nothing to be desired. 
On the whole, It Is in excellent work, that Is certain to be of the 
greatest value. V. 8. 

The First French Book : Grammar, Conversation 
and Translation. By H. I it i' . Hachette & Co. 
1897. PottSvo, pp. xxiv+204; lOd. 329 

H. Q., '98, No. 94. 

Educ. Times, Feb. '98, p. 82 ; Educ. , 6 Feb. '98 (very favour- 
able) ; Educ. Rev., Jan. '98, p. 131 (favourable). 

The Preceptors' French Course. By ERNEST 

WEEKLEY. Clive. 1898. Cr. 8vo, pp. viii + 199 ; 

2s. 6d. 330 

Journ. Educ., Feb. '98, p. 112 (' There Is nothing original in 

the plan, but the execution is a distinct advance on similar 

courses"); Educ. Timet, Feb. '98, p. 83 (favourable); Educ., 

12 Feb. '98. 

Key to the Preceptors' French Course. By ERNEST 
WEEKLEY, M.A. Clive. 1898. Cr. 8vo, pp. iv + 
43 ; 2s. 6d. net. 331 

Grammar of French Grammars. By Dr V. DE 

FIVAS, M.A., LL.D. 54th ed., rev. and enl. 
With the Author's latest Notes, Corrections and 
Additions, and an Appendix on the History and 
Etymology of the French Language. Crosby 
Lockwood. 1898. Fcap. 8vo, pp. 450 ; 2s. 6d. 332 

French without Tears. Book III. By Mrs HUGH 
BELL. Edw. Arnold. 1897. Roy. 8vo, pp. 128; 
Is. 3d. 333 

if. L. Q.,'97,No. 344. 

Journ. Educ., Jan. '98, p. 41 (" the stories are bright and in- 
teresting "). 

s. Sues. Exerclces pratiques snr les gnlllcismcs 
et expressions nsnelles de la langue fraucaisc. 

Genf, R. Burkhardt. 1896. 8vo, pp. 208 ; 3f. 334 
M. L. Q., '97, No. 144,357. 
A favourable notice by R. Kron in Xeogl., 1 Jan. '98. 

Short French Examination Papers. By H. R. 

LADELL, M.A., F.R.G.S. Relfe Bro. 1897. Cr. 
8vo, pp. 102 ; 2s. 6d. 335 

A Key, issued to Teachers and Private Students only, 
can be obtained from the Publishers, price 6s. net. 
M. L. Q., '97, No. 362. 

Educ., 19 March '98 (favourable); Educ. Timet, Feb. '98, 
p. 84; Bookman, Jan. '98, p. 139 (" useful"). 

A Comprehensive French Manual for Students 

Reading for Public Examinations. By OTTO 

C. NAP. Blackie & Son. 1897. Cr. 8vo, pp. 292 ; 

3s. 6d. 336 

M. Q., '98, No. 97 (qualified praise). 

Athen., 5 Feb. '98 ("well adapted for its purpose"); Educ. 
Rev., Jan. '98, p. 130 (highly recommended). 

Matriculation Model Answers. French. Being 
the Lond. Univ. Matric. Papers in French from 
June 1888 to Jan. 1897. Clive. 1898. Cr. 8vo, 
pp. iv+200; 2s. 337 

I'n Peu de Tout. By F. JULIEN. Sampson, Low, 
Marston & Co. 1897. Cr. 8vo, pp. 282 ; 2s. 6d. 
net. 338 

if. Q., '98, No. 99 (unfavourable). 
Educ. Rev., Jan. '98, p. 132 (favourable). 
French Verbs Simplifled and made Easy. By F. 
JULIEN. Sampson, Low, Marston & Co. 1897. 
Pp. 52 ; Is. net. 339 

M. Q., '98, No. 101 (unfavourable). 
Educ. Hen., Jan. '98, p. 132 (favourable). 


' French Dictionary. By F. E. A. GASC. Geo. Bell & 

Sons. 1897. New ed., enl. Large 8vo, pp. viii-f 

956; 12s. 6d. 340 

Educ., 19 March '98 ("good and useful"); Educ. Times, 

March '98, p. 148 (very favourable); Educ. Rev., March '98. 

p. 222 (favourable). 

Bictionualre Phoiietlqnc dc la Languc Fraucalse. 
By H. MICHAELIS and P. PASSY. With a Preface 
by G. PARIS. Hannover, Carl Meyer (G-.istav 
Prior). 1897. 8vo, pp. xvi+318 ; paper, 4m., el.. 
4m. 80. 341 

if. Q., 98, No. 108. 

Lit. CM., 15 Jan. '98 (a valuable review by W. 7[ietor])- 
Seuphil. CM., Feb. '98, p. 48 (a very favourable notice by 
Wendt) ; a very favourable review by Ch. Halter In il. F., Feb 
'98, p. 39. 




Eight Stories from Anderseu. Edited by WALTER 
RIPPMANN, M.A. Cambridge University Press. 
1898. Extra fcap. 8vo, pp. vii+228 ; 2s. 6d. 342 
M. Q., '98, No. 110. 
Atlien. , 5 March '98 (" edited witli good judgment "). 

Bauiiibacli. l>ic Viuiiii. Edited, with Notes and 

Vocabulary, by Dr W. BERNHARDT. Isbister. 1898. 

Crown 8vo, pp. 108 ; Is. 3d. 343 

Journ. Educ., March '98, p. 183 ("a Immoristic story"; 


Goethe, f lavlgo. Translated by Members of the 
Manchester Goethe Society. Nutt. 1898. Cr. 8vo, 
pp. 136 ; 3s. 6d. 344 

The First Part of the Tragedy of I nii.l in 

English. ByT. E. WEBB, LL.D. New and cheaper 
edition, with the Death of Faust, from the Second 
Part. Longmans. 1898. Cr. 8vo, pp. 306 ; 6s. 345 

<;i)|y, von Berllchingeu. Edited, with Intro- 
duction, Notes, and Map, by F. GOODRICH, Ph.D. 
New York, Henry Holt & Co. 1896. Pp. xli + I/O ; 
70c. 346 

Noticed by H. Senyer in Afod. 7Mng. Xotes, Jan. '98, col. 50. 

- Iphtgenlc auf Taiirls. Edited by Dr C. A. 

BUCHHEIM. Oxford, Clarendon Press. 1898. 4th 

ed., revised. Extra fcap. 8vo, pp. 212 ; 3s. 347 
A full and very favourable review by //. Moricli In Z. f. d. U., 
'98, p. 221. 
.i iiiiiu. Marchen. Edited, with Notes and a 

Vocabulary, by E. L. NAFTEL. Hachette & Co. 

1898. Fcap. 8vo, pp. vi + 176; Is. 6d. 348 

Heine's Leider mid (.. di, hi, . Edited by Prof. C. 
A. BUCHHEIM. Macmillan. 1897. Pott 8vo, pp. 
376 ; 2s. 6d. net. 349 

it. (J., '98, No. 113. 

Journ, Educ., Feb. '118, p. 112 ("(jives in dainty form the 
best of Heine's muse "); Bookman, Feb. '98, p. 1G4 (" unfortun- 
ately, it would be unfair to judge Heine by such an expurgated 
edition"); Atlien., 26 Feb. '98 ("excellent notes . . . warmly 
commended"); Lit., 29 Jan. '98 (very favourable); Educ. 
Times, March '98, p. 148 (very favourable) ; Educ. Rev., March 
'98, p. 222 ("helpful notes, and an able and interesting intro- 
duction "). 

Leasing. Minna von Barnhelm. Edited, with 
Notes and a Vocabulary, by 3. F. DAVIS, D.Lit. 
Hachette & Co. 1898. Fcap. 8vo, pp. v+192; 
2s. 350 

- Minna von Baruhclui. Edited by H. J. 
WOLSTENHOLME, B. A. Cambridge University Press. 
1898. 12mo, pp. 256 ; 3s. 351 

At/ten., ~j March '98 (" It is difficult to discern the need of yet 
another edition . . . the notes strike us as often too elemen- 
tary "). 

We fully endorse this criticism. There are now four separate 
English school editions of Minna. 

Mebiihr. Griechische Heroen-Geschichten, with In- 
troduction, Notes and Vocabulary by A. VCEGELIN, 
M.A. Hachette & Co. 1898. Fcap 8vo, viii+ 
132 pp. ; 2s. 352 

Schiller. Wllhelni Tell. With Introduction and 
Notes by W. H. CARRUTH, Ph.D., Professor of tho 
German Language and Literature in the University 
of Kansas. Macmillan. 1898. Fcap. 8vo, pp. Ix, 
1 page map, 246, 7 page plates ; 3s. 6d. 353 

Volkuiauu. Klelne Geschlchteii. Edited, with Notes 

and Vocabulary, by Dr W. BERNHARDT. Isbister. 

1898. Crown 8vo, 100 pp. ; Is. 354 

Journ. Educ., March '98, p. 183 ("an excellent Reader for 

pupils who have passed the first stage "). 

Lustlge Gescblcbteu. Adapted and edited by R. J. 
MOEICH. Rivingtons. 1898. Sm. fcap. 8vo, pp. 
48 ; 9d. net. 355 

Educ., 19 March '98. 

Drel Kleliie Lustsplele. Edited, with Introduction 
and Notes, by Prof. B. W. WELLS, Ph.D. Isbister. 
1898. Crown 8vo, 128 pp. ; Is. 3d. 356 

Knulc Rocks. A North Sea Idyl. By WlLHELJI 
with a Preface by Professor J. FIEDLER. Elliot 
Stock. 1898. Cr. Svo, pp. 269 ; 6s. 357 


Geschlcute der dentschen Lltteratur Ton den 
altcsteu Zeltcu bis znr Gegcitwart. Von Prof. 
Dr F. VOOT und Prof. Dr M. KOCH. Leipzig, 
Bibliographisches Institut. 1897. Large Svo, pp. 
760; 16m. 358 

it. Q.,'98, No. 118. 

Lit. Co/., 8 Jan. '9S (" Wir haben hier ein Werk vor nns, das 
seinen Zweck, die Entwickelung der deutschen Lltteratur in 
allem Wesentlichen zu klarer Ansehanung zu bringen, wissen- 
schaftlich und kiinstlerlsi-h bestens erflillt"); Edur. Times, 
Jan. '98, p. 35 (very favourable). 

Edonard Rod. Essai sur Goethe. Paris, Pen-in. 
1897. 16mo, pp. 309 ; 3f.50. 359 

Cosm., March '98, p. 804 (favourable). 

foil (Bruno). Pfalzgrafin Genovefa in der deutschen 
Dichtung. Leipzig, Teubner. 1897. Svo, pp. 
vi + 199;5m. 360 

In the introduction the rise and development of the Genovefa 
legend In Germany are briefly discussed (1-9). The first chapter 
contains a survey of the Genovefa-Dramen in Germany up to the 
middle of the eighteenth century (10-53); the second chapter 
enumi'iates and discusses the German dramas, the heroine of 
which is Genovefa, from the middle of the eighteenth century 
down to our own times (57-147). In a third chapter the musical 
compositions of the Genovefa legend are enumerated (148-154) ; 
the fourlh chapter (155-164) deals with the Volksschauspiel c 
and the Puppenspiele, while in a fifth chapter (165-C9) the 
poems on Gi-novefa are enumerated and discussed. After a 
short summing up of the results arrived at, the hitherto partly 
unpublished fragments of Otto Ludwig's drama Genovefa are 
printed from the treasures of the Schiller-Goethe Archiv at 
Weimar. The fragments are partly in prose and partly in verse, 
and are very important for the study of the poetic intentions of 
the great dramatist. The book Is very carefully written and 
seems to be exhaustive. A". B. 


With Frederick the Great : A Tale of the Seven 
Years' War. By G. A. HENTT. Blackie & Son. 
1897. Cr. Svo, pp. 384 ; 6s. 361 

Lit., 5 March '98 (very favourable). 

Wallensteln und die Zeit des ISO jiilirigen Krieges. 

Von H. SCIIULZ. Mit 4 Kunstbeilagen und 150 

authentischen Abbildungen. Bielefeld, Velhagen 

und Klasing. 1898. Large 8vo ; 3m. 362 

Should prove useful to a teacher reading Schiller's play with 

his class. 

The Life of Luther. By J. KOSTLIN. Translated 
from the German. 2nd ed. Longmans. 1898. 
Cr. Svo, pp. 516 ; 3s. 6d. 363 

Charles the Great. By THOMAS HODGKJN, D.C.L. 
Macmillan. 1897. Svo, pp. 251 ; 2s. 6d. 364 

Lit., 29 Jan. '98 (' excellently well written"). 


German for Beginners. A Reader and Grammar. 
By L. HARCOUHT. Whittaker & Co. 1898. 2nd 
ed. , revised and enlarged. Demy Svo, pp. xii + 202 ; 
2s. 6d. net. 365 

1st ed. (1895). Uuitte I., No. 159. 
We welcome this new edition of a first German book, every 
page (f which gives evidence that we have here the work of a 
skilful and sympathetic teacher. It is probably the best book 
at present available for English beginners. 

Die Lektiire als Grnudlage elites einheltlieheu 
nnil natnrgeniasseii I'nterrlclilea In der 
dentschen Sprache sowlc alx Mlllclpinikr 
uatloualer Blldnng. Deutsche Fros.-istiieke und 
Gedichte erlautert und behandelt von Dr OTTO 
LYON. Zweiter Teil, erste Lieferung : Obertertia. 
Leipzig, Teubner, 1897. Large Svo, pp. vi+299 ; 
3m. 60. 366 



.. riiiiin M-lccMons for Sight Translation. Com- 
piled by G. F. MONDAN. Isbister. 1898. Pp. 48 ; 
9d. 367 

Joura. Educ., March '98, p. 183 (" the selection seems to us 


< linix ur.-iiiin 1 - ilr Chansons Allcmaiides avec 
Mnslqne. A 1'usage des classes eMmentaires. 
Par MM. TAVERNIER et ADAM. Paris, A. Colin. 
1897. Large 8vo, pp. 68. 368 

A Fourth German Writer. A Second 1'onrse of 
Kxerclses on German Syntax. (Parallel Gram- 
mar Series.) By R. O. ROUTH. Swan Sonnen- 
schein. 1898. Royal 16mo, pp. 88 ; 2s. 369 

Dr Uiiiio Meyer. An Advanced German Writer. 
(Parallel Grammar Series.) Swan Sonnensehein. 

[In tht press. 370 

I. F. Schilling. A Key to the German Writers. 
(Supplied to Teachers only). Parallel Grammar 
Series. Swan Sonnensehein. 1898. Fcap. 8vo, 
pp. 48 ; 4s. 371 

Sommer. Passages from English Military Writers of 
the Day, etc. 372 

See above, No. 321. 


Lower German. Reading and Supplementary Gram- 
mar, with Exercises and Material for Composition. 
By Louis LUBOVIUS. Blackwood. 1898. Cr. 8vo, 
pp. ix+217; 2s. 6d. 373 

First Year in German. By I. KELLER. American 
Book Company. 1896. 8vo, pp. 290 ; Idol. 374 
Jount. Educ., March '98, p. 183 ('' the book seems to us to be 
based on a very sound idea"). 

A Seeonil German Course. By H. BAUMANN, M.A. 
Blackie & Son. 1897. Crown 8vo, pp. 252; 
2s. ftl. 375 

M.L.Q., '97, No. 381. 
Journ. Educ., March '98, p. 183. 

German Gramnialieal Drill. By JOSEFHA SCHRA- 

XAMP. New York, Henry Holt & Co. 1898. 8vo, 

pp. 175. 376 

Exercises In Conversational German. By JOSE^HA 

SCHKAKAMP. New York, Henry Holt & Co. 1898. 

8vo, pp. 113. 377 

Dentsrhe Kedelehre. Von H. PROBST. Leipzig, 

GSschen. 1897. Small 8vo, pp. 142 ; 80pf. 378 

A favourable notice in Lit. Cbl., 5 March '98. 

Der dentsehe I'nlerrirht. Eine Methodik fur hohere 

Lehranstalten. Von R. LEHMANN. Berlin, Weid- 

mann. 1897. 2 te durchgesehene und erweiterte 

Auflage. Large 8vo, pp. xix + 460; 3m. 379 

A notice in Lit. CM., 29 Jan. '98. 

Die Bedeutuiig der dciitschcii Phllologle fur das 
Leben der Gegenwart. Von HERMANN PAUL. 
FESTREDE. Munchen, Franz. 1897. 4to, pp. 23 ; 

A most favourable notice by if. K(och) in Col., 22 Jan. '98. 


H. Paul. Dentches Wortcrbiirh. Halle, Niemeyer. 
1897. Large 8vo, pp. 576 ; 8m. 381 

Guide I. 172, II. 145 ; It. L. Q., '97, No, 201, 387. 

Lit. Ctl., 29 Jan. '98 (" das reichhaltigste und beste deutsche 
WBrterbuch." W. B\raune\). 




I nili- le Opere dl Dante Allghlerl. Nuovamente 
rivedute nel testo dal Dr E. MOORE. Con Indice 
dei Nomi Propri e delle Cose Notabili compilato da 
PAOET TOYNBEE, M.A. Second Edition. Oxford, 
Clarendon Press. 1897. Cr. 8vo, pp. viii-t-491 ; 
7s. 6d. 382 

In this new edition of the Oxford Dante a good many mis- 
prints in the text have been corrected, a list of conjectural 
emendations in the Quaestio de Aqua et Terra has been added, 
and the index has been carefully revised and corrected. Such 
additions and corrections as Mr Toynbee was unable to insert in 
the body of the Index are given on a supplementary leaf at the 
end of the volume. T. 

Dante. Seln Lebeii nnd seln Werk. s.-in Ver- 
haltnis znr Kunst mill znr Poll! Ik. Von F. 

X. KRAUS. Berlin, Grote, 1898. With 81 illus- 
trations. Lex. 8vo, pp. xii+792; 28m. 383 
Cosm. , Feb. '98, p. 611 (extremely favourable). 

A Dictionary of Proper Names and Notable Matters 
In the Works of Dante. By PAOET TOYNBEE, 
M.A. Oxford, Clarendon Press. [In t/te pi-ess. 384 

Adolfo Borgognoul. Scella dl scrlttl dauteschi, 
con prefazlone a eurn di Rice. Trnffl. Citta 

di Castello. 16", pp. 193 ; 21.40. 385 

T. Kotlagislo. II limbo dantesco ; stndf tUosoHci 
e letterart. Padova, tip. edit. Antoniano. 1898 
8vo, pp. vi + 423; 31. 386 

Dante. A Question of the Land and of the Water. 

Translated by C. H. BROMBY. Nutt. 1897. Cr. 

8vo, pp. 60 ; 2s. net. 387 

It. Q., '98, No. 146. 

Al/ien., 12 March '98 ("If it was to be translated, it might 
have been done rather less badly"). 

Dante. A defence of Ihe ancient text of the 
"DiTlna Commedla." By WICKHAM FLOWER. 
Chapman & Hall. 1897. Sq. cr. 8vo pp 60 
3s. 6d. 3 8 8 

If. Q., '98, No. 146. 

Athen., 12 March '98 (unfavourable). 

Dante. The Inferno. Translated, with plain Notes 

by EUGENE LEE-HAMILTON. Grant Richards. 1898. 

Cr. 8vo, pp. xvii + 249 ; 5s. net. 389 

A review by A. J. Butler in Bookman, March '98, p. 180 ("The 

best thing we can say for Mr Lee- Hamilton is, that he seems to 

be generally accurate in his renderings, so far as verbal accuracy 

goes. But he evidently has a -good deal to acquire both of 

learning and of taste before he can be accepted as a worthy 

member of the brotherhood of Dante translators"): Athen 12 

March '98 (fairly favourableX 

Dante. Twenty-five Cantos from the "Dlvlna 

Commedla." Translated into English Verse by 

C. POTTER. Digby, Long & Co. 1898. Enlarged 

edition, or. 8vo, pp. 182 ; 6s. net. 390 

Dante. La Vita Xnova. Traduction accompagnee 
de commentaires par MAX DURAND-FARDEL. Paris 
Fasquelle. 1898. 18mo, pp. 224 ; 3f.50. 391 

\erlo Moscoll da < i H;i dl Castello, Aiitlco Klniii- 
tore Sconoscluto. Per cura di PIETRO TOMMASINI 
MATTIUCCI. Perugia. 1897. 8vo, pp. 159 ; 392 
A detailed examination of the poems of a hitherto unknown 
Italian lyric poet, who was a contemporary, and possibly, as 
the editor attempts to show, a literary correspondent of Dante. 
Signer Mattioccl draws attention to a number of passages in 
which he thinks Nerio Moscoli Imitated Dante, but the parallels 
he points out by no means carry conviction in the majority of 
acses. The publication is of considerable value from the point 
of view of the vocabulary, which serves to illustrate that of 
Dante. An edition of the poems themselves, under the editor- 
ship of Professors E. Monaci and A. Tenneroni, is announced for 
Immediate publication. T. 

Mlcbelagulolo Bnonarottl's Dlchtnngeu, heraus- 

Ssgeben und mit kritischem Apparate versehen von 
. FREY. Mit einer Portratradiernng von ALB. 
KRUOBR und einer Heliographie nach Francesco da 
Hollanda. Berlin, G. Grote. 1897. 8, pp. 
xxvi + 548; 28m. 93 

Torquato Tasso. La Gerusalemme Llberata. 

Riveduta nel testo e commentata da Pio Spagnotti. 
2 ediz. riveduta. Milano. 16, pp. xl + 486; 11. 
Legato con ritratto del Tasso ; 21. 394 

Le rime. Edizione critica su i manpscritti e le 

antiche stampe, a cura di Angelo Solerti. Vol. I. : 
Bibliografia. Bologna. 8, pp. 528 ; 121. 395 

Vol. II. : Rime d'amore. Bologna. 16, pp. 512 ; 

121. 396 

A History of Italian Literature. By RICHARD 
GARNETT, C.B., LL. D. Heinemann. 1898. Large 
cr. 8vo, pp. 431 ; 8s. 397 

A review by II*. P. Ker on p. 126 of this number of the X. Q. 


Elizabethan Translations from the Ifaliiin. The 

Titles of such Works now first collected and 

arranged, with annotations. Third Part. Mis- 

cellaneous Translations. 1. Religion and Theology; 

2. Science and the Arts ; 3. Grammars and Diction- 

aries ; 4. Proverbs. By MARY AUGUSTA SCOTT, 

Ph.D., Baltimore. The Modern Language Associa- 

tion of America. 1898. 8vo, pp. 161-272. 398 

The concluding part of a valuable and careful piece of biblio- 

graphy with instructive notes aid comments. A full, triple 

index (titles of works, English translators, Italian authors), wiih 

dates, adds greatly to the usefulness of the work. T. 

The I in I ism. of To-day. By M. BAZIN. Translated 

by W. MARCHANT. New York, Henry Holt & 

Co. 1897. 399 

Lit., 26 Feb. '98 (favourable). 


Leltfadeii I'ttr den enteu I'nterrlcht Ini Halle- 

niM-lii-ii. Von. S. ALOE. St. Gallon, Fehr. 

1897. 40 
Seuphil. Cbl., Jan. '98, p. 17 ("11 libro e bnono, condotto 

con solerzia e degnodi favorevole accoglienza." Romeo Lovera). 

Die Hnllenlsclie Unigaiigsprache In systematlscher 
Anorditnng mill mil Ausspnichfhllfen. Von 

Dr 0. HECKER. Westennann, Braunschweig. 1897. 
8vo, pp. xii+312; 4m. 401 

M. Q.,'98.No. 158. 

.\eogl., 1 March '98 (extremely favourable). 

l>, in, 1 1 i.i Ferrari. L'arte del dire : manuale di 
retorica per lo student* delle scuole secondarie. 
4 ediz. corretta e ampliata. Milano, Hoepli. 1898. 
16, p. 304, con quadri sinottici ; 11.50. 402 


Meudoza (II. de). Morceaux 1'holsls de la Giierre 
<lu renade. Auth. ed. Spanish Text, Notes in 
French by J. G. MAGNABAL. Hachette & Co. 

1898. 12mo, pp. xvi + 116 ; Is. 

First >|i:uiMi Readings. A Graded Reader of 
Complete Selections, with Notes and Vocabulary, 
by MATZKK. Isbister. 1898. Cr. 8vo, 226pp.; 
3s. 6d. 404 

An exhaustive review (favourable on the whole) by P. de Haan 
In Mori. Lang. Notes, Dec. '97, col. 499, and Jan. '98, col. 3!). 

A Short History of Spanish Literature. By 

J. FITZMAURICE-KELLY. Heinemann. [In the / ..... 

Lingua e Letteratnra gpagunola delle Originl. 

EGIDIO GORRA. Milano, Hoepli. 1898. Cr. 8vo, 

pp. xvii + 430; 61. 406 

A favourable notice by P. F. in Lit. Cbl., 12 March '98; a full 

and valuable review by C. Carrole Marden in Mod. Lang. Notes, 

March '98, col. 170; Lit., 26 Feb. '98 (very favourable). 

Neneg Spanisch - Deutsches Worlerbuch. Von 

THEOD. STHOMER. Berlin, Herbig. 1897. Small 
8vo, pp. xi+828 ; 6m. 407 

A favourable notice by P. F. in Lit. Cbl., 26 Feb. '98. 


Klelne llugarlsehe Spracblehre. Von A. NAOY. 
Heidelberg, Groos. 1897. 8vo, pp. 184. 408 

I . lirimrh der IJngarlschen Sprache. Von F. 

GORG. Wiem, Hartleben. 1897. Small STO, pp. 
183. 409 

A favourable notice by S. A. of the above two books In Neogl., 
15 March '98. 

A Norwegian Grammar and Reader, with Motes 
and Vocabulary. By J. E. OLSON. 1898. 7s. 6d. 


Engeulo Paroli. Grammatlca teorlco-practlcn 

della lingua svedese. Milano, Hoepli. 1898. 

16, p. xvi+294 ; 31. 411 

Theoretlscli-praktlsches Lehrbnch der ruiuau- 

Ischen Sprache. Von G. DAN. Wien, Pertes. 

1897. 8vo, pp. iv + 240 ; 4m. 412 

Japanese Self-taught. Colloquial Phrases and exten- 
sive Vocabularies in English-Japanese. Yokohama, 
Kelly & Walsh. 1898. 8vo ; 7s. net. 

Modern Persian Colloquial Grammar. Containing 
a short grammar, dialogues, and extracts from 
Nasir Eddin Shah's diaries, tales, etc., and a 
vocabulary. By F. ROSEN. Luzac & Co. 1891 
Cr. 8vo, pp. xiv + 400 ; 10s. 6d. 

English and Russian Military Vocabulary. Com- 
piled by Lieut. A. Mears, Indian Staff Corps (Inter- 
preter in Russian). Nutt. 1898. Cr. 8vo, 
pp. 128 ; 3s. 6d. 
In two parts Russian-English and English-Russian. Seems 

to be a careful piece of work. 



The Works of Geoffrey C'haueer. (The Globe 

Edition.) Edited by ALFRED W. POLLARD, 


McCoRMlCK. Macmillan. 1898. Crown 8vo, pp. 

lii + 772 ; uncut edges, 3s. 6d. Also Prize Edition, 

full gilt back and tops, 3s. 6d. 

A review by W. P. Ker in Boatman, March '98, p. 179 ; a 
favourable review in Lit., 19 March '98. 
Early English Literature. To the Accession of 

King Alfred. By STOPFORDA. BROOKE. Macmillan. 

1898. Crown 8vo. [I>i the press. 417 

Mnldou mid Kriiiinaiibiirh. Two Old English 

Songs of Battle. By CHARLES L. CROW. Boston. 

Ginn&Co. 1897. 12mo, pp. xxxvii+47. 418 
First Steps In Anglo-Saxon. By HENRY SWEET, 

M.A. Oxford, Clarendon Press. 1897. 12mo, 

pp. 120 ; 2s. 6d. 

M. Q., '98, No. 167. 

A very favourable notice by F. Klaeber In Mod. Lang. Ao(e, 
March '98, col. 186; Educ, Rev., Feb. '98. p. 177 (favourable); 
Unit. Corr., 1 Jan. '98; Athen., 13 Dec. '97. 
An Elementary Old English Grammar. (Early 
West Saxon.) By A. J. WYATT, M.A. Cambridge 
University Press. 1897. Cr. 8vo, pp. 160; 
4s. 6d. 420 

M. L. Q., '97, No. 402. 

Mod. Lang. Notes, Feb. '98, col. 97 (a very favourable review 
by F. Klaeber). 

Itie Syntax In den Werken Alfreds der Groasen. 
Von Dr J. ERNST WULKJNG. Zweiten Teiles erste 
Halfte. Zeitwort. Bonn, Hanstein. 1897. Large 
8vo, pp. xiv+250 ; 8m. 

A very favourable notice by R. W[iMer] in Lit. Cbl., 5 Feb 

Old English Glosses. Edited by A. S. NAPIER. 
Oxford, Clarendon Press. [In the prett. 422 

Biblical Quotations In Old English Prose Writers. 

Ed., with Vulgate and other Latin Originals, Intro, 
on Old English Biblical Versions, Index of Biblical 
Passages, Index of Principal Words, by ALBERT S. 
COOK. Macmillan. 1898. 8vo, pp. lxxx + 330; 17s. 

The Student's Dictionary of Anglo-Saxon. By 
H. SWEET, M.A. Oxford, Clarendon Press. 1897. 
Sm. 4to, pp. xvi+217; 8s. 6d. net. 
11. L. Q., '97, No. 223; M. Q., '98, No. 166. 
A careful and very favourable review by F. Kluge in L. g. r. P., 

Jan. '98, col. 13. 

Ouomastlcon Anglo-Saxoiiicnm. List of Anglo- 
Saxon Names from the time of Beda to that of King 
John. By W. G. SEAHLE. Cambridge University 
Press. 1897. Royal 8vo, pp. Ix + 601 ; 20s. net. 425 
Lit., 19 March '98 (a valuable review); Athen., 22 Jan. '98 

(unfavourable; see letter in Athen., 5 Feb. '98); Times, 4 Dec. 

'7 ; Ifotet and Queries, 5 March '98. 

Gotlsches Elementarbuch. By Dr W. STREITBERO. 
Heidelberg, Winter. 1896. 8vo, pp. xii + 200 ; 3m. , 
cl., 3m.60. 

M. Q., '98, No. 169. 

A favourable notice by H. Schmidt-Wartenberg In Mod. Lang. 
Notes, Dec. '97, col. 498. 



Ciotlsche S|II-:K liilcnkiiialrr mil Granimatlk, liber- 
M>i/mi!i und Erlanteruitgen. Von H. JANTZEN 
Leipzig, Goschen. 1898. Small 8vo ; 80pf. 427 


Ancasslu and Xlcoletle : n old-French Love 
Story. Edited and translated by F. W. Bouu- 
DILLON. Text collated afresh with the MS. at Paris. 
Translation revised and Introduction rewritten 
Macmillan. 1897. 2nd ed. 12mo, pp. 302- 
7s. 6d. 428 

Lit., 29 Jan. '98 (not very favourable). 

Xotlee sur un Legendler Francals du xllle. 

Slecle classl selou 1'ordre de I'annee 

litnrglque. Par PAUL MEYER. (Tire" des 

Notices et Extraits des Maiiuscrits de la Biblio- 

theque Nationale et autres Manuscrits.) Paris, 

Imprimerie Nationale. 1898. 4to, pp. 69 ; 429 

An Interesting account of a collection of lives of the saints in 

French.which is basid upon a different Latin original from that 

which is contained in the " Legenda Aurea" of Jacobus de 

Voragine. M. Paul Meyer claims to have discovered the original 

or at any rate a version very close to the original, in a little 

known work of the first half of the thirteenth century (at any 

rate later than 1230), which goes by the name of Aooreviatio in 

Oeslit et Miraculis Sanctorum. In connection with this notice 

the reader may lie referred to M. Paul Meyer's article on the 

Provencal Translation of the " Legenda Aurea" in the last 

number of Romania (No. lOu). T. 

Kenaud of Montanban, done into English by 
CAXTON, re-translated by R. STEKL. Geo Allen 
1897. 4to, pp. 298 ; 7s. 6d. 430 

if. Q., '98, No. 172. 

Lit , 29 Jan. '98 (favourable). 

The Franks. By LEWIS SEROEANT. (Story of the 
Nations Series.) Fisher Unwin. 1898. 431 


Walther von der Vogelvtelde. Selected Poems. 
Done into English, with an Introduction and Six 
Illustrations, by W. A. PHILLIPS, M.A. Smith 
Elder & Co. 1897. Sm. 4to, pp. xliii + 126- 
10s. 6d. 432 

if. L. Q., '97, No. 225. 
Lit. , 29 Jan. '98 (fairly favourable). 

The lay of the Mix-lungs. Metrically translated bv 
ALICE HORTON, and edited by EDW. BELL, M.A". 
Geo. Bell & Sons. 1898. Sm. post 8vo, pp. lxxi + 
411 ; 5s. 433 

Educ. Ttma, March '98, p. 149 (very favourable) Educ. Rev 
March '98, p. 222 (" useful but dull "). 

Dieter, Ferdinand. Lant-nnd Formeulehre der 

t ltmTiii:in isi-lii-n Dlalekte. Zum Gebrauch fur 
Studierende dargestellt von R. Bethge, 0. Bremer, 
F. Dieter, F. Hartmann und W. Schliiter, heraus- 
gegeben von Ferdinand Dieter. Erster Halbband : 
Lautlehre des Urgermanischen, Gotischen, Altnor- 
dischen, Altenglischen, Altsachsischen und Althoeh- 
deutschen. Leipzig, 0. R. Reisland. 8vo, pp. xxxv 
+ 343 ; 7m. 4.34 

The phonology of Old Frisian will be issued together with the 
accidence of the Old Germanic dialects In a second volume 
which Is to follow as soon as possible. The vowels and con- 
sonants of Original Germanic, Gothic, and Old Norse are treated 
by Bethge, those of 01d;English by Dieter, Old Saxon by Schliiter, 
Old High German by Hartmann. In an introductory chapter 
(Ix-xxxv) an account Is given by Bethge of the Old Germans 
and their language before it split up into a number of dialects 
(ix-xiil), which Is followed by a useful discussion by the various 
contribute of the single Old Germanic dialects (Old Frisian 
included, and treated by Bremer) as to area, time, and helps for 
the study of them (xill-xxxv). 

The book is clearly arranged and well printed, and bids fair to 
become a most welcome help to students of ihe Old Germanic 
dialects. It will take the place of M. Heyne's once very useful 
but now completely antiquated book (not to mention Hultzmann's 
flne but unfinished grammar), and should be found on the shelves 
of our Qermanisten by the side of Paul's Grundriss and the gram- 
mars of the single dialects Issued under the auspices of W 
Braune (by M. Nlemeyer at Halle) and of W. Streltberg (by 
Winter at Heidelberg). It Is to be regretted that word-formation 
Is to be excluded from the scope of the book. K. B. 


The Flourishing of Koniancc and Ihe Hlse of 
Allegory (Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries) By 
G. SAINTSBDHY. M.A. Blackwood & Sons. 1897 
Cr. 8vo, pp. 448 ; 5s. net. 435 

M. L. Q., '97, No. 229 ; if. Q., '98, No. 178. 
Univ. Ext. Journ.. March '98, p. 88 (" delightful but most un- 
equal." P. H. -[ictsteed]). 

King Arthur and the Table Round. Tales chiefly 
after the Old French of Crestien of Troyes. With 
an Account of Arthurian Romance and Notes, by 
W. W. NEWELL. Boston, Houghton Mifflin 2 
vols., pp. lxi+230 and 268 ; 16s. net. 436 

The Legend of sir Vawaln. Studies upon its 

original scope and significance, by JESSIE L 

WESTON. Nutt. 1897. Cr. 8vo. pp. xiv+117 

4s. net. 437 

A review by Ernest Rhys in Boatman, March '98 p 184 

( her studies have the great merit of leaving one with a 

sharpened interest in her strange hero"). 

The Voyage of Bran, Soil of Febal, to the Land 

of the Living. Vol. II. The Celtic Doctrine of 

Rebirth. By ALFRED NUTT. Nutt. 1897. Cr. 

8vo, pp. xii + 352; 10s. 6d. net. 438 

U. Q., '98, No. 176. 

A very interesting and favourable review by Clyde B Furst 
in Mad. Lang. Sates, Nov. '97, col. 409; long and favourable 
review In Folklore, Dec. '97 (Prof. York Powell), and Class. Rer., 
98, No. 1 (Dr f. B, Jecons). 

Prlnclpieu der Llleratnrvrissenschan. Von E 

ELSTER. 1 Band. Halle, Niemeyer. 1897. Large 
8vo, pp. xx + 488 ; 9m. 439 

if. Q., '98, No. 182. 

A valuable, most favourable review by Otto Lyon in Z. f.d. U., 
xii. Gl. 



II. Klinghardt. Artikulations- und Horiibungen. 
Cothen, Schulze. 1897. Large 8vo, pp. viii + 256 
5m. 50 440 

At. L. Q., '97, No. 233, 415 ; M. Q., '98, No. 188. Some Inter- 
esting remarks by Dr Reuscliel in Xeuphil. CM., Feb. '98, p. 44 
a long and valuable review by .1. Rambtau In J/orf Lana Kates' 
Nov. '97, col. 421-436. 

II. <. in /maun. Die praktische Anwendung der Sprach- 
physiologie beim ersten Lese uuterricht. Berlin 
Reuther & Reichard. 8vo, pp. 52 ; lm.50. 441 
A favourable notice by W. V[ittar] in Lit. Cbl., 5 March '98. 

Soames' Phouetlr Method for Learning lo Read. 

See above, No. 27.1. 



Franziiglsche Puonetlk fur Lehrer mid Stndie- 
rende. Von FRANZ BEYER. Cothen, Schulze. 
1897. 2verb. Aufl. 8vo, pp. xvi+222; 4m.80. 443 
if. Q., '98, No. 192; M. F., Jan. '98 (review by Schmidt). 
Passy and Rumbean. Chrestomathie Francaise. 444 
See ab jvc, No. 29fi. 

Mlchaelis and Passy. Dictionnaire Phonotique de la 
Langue Francaise. 445 

See above, No. 337. 

Ktndes sur la prouonclaf lou classlqne de la laiigue 

franratse, snivles de pages choisles des grands 

ecrlvalns dii I9 slecle. Par Madame L. HORTA 

Nutt. 1897. Cr. 8vo, pp. xii +188; 3s. 446 

Educ., 12 March '98 (' the English student will find little real 

help ") ; Educ. Times, March '98, p. 148 (condemned). 

Tlckell's Rules for French Pronunciation. 

Hachette & Co. 1897. On Cards ; Is. each. 447 
M. Q.,'98, No. 196. 

Educ. Times, Feb. '98, p. 83 (unfavourable); Educ., .5 Feb '98 
(unfavourable) ; Educ. Rev., Feb. '98, p. 182 (" most useful "). 



It. lltirlig. Die Phonetik und der VolksschTillehrer. 
Leipzig, Wunderlich. 1897. 



O. Ilecker. Die italienische Umgangssprache. 449 

See above, No. 388. 

Borneo l,overa. Die Aussprache des Sehriftitalien- 
ischen. 450 

An article in Neu. Spr. , V. p. 505. 

A Compendium of Italian Pronunciation. By 

T. E. COMBA. 2s. 451 


The Study of Children anil their School Training. 

By FRANCIS WARNER, M.D. (Lond.), F.KC.P., 
F. R.C.S. (Eng. ), Physician to and Lecturer at the 
London Hospital, Physician to the Royal Albert 
Orphanage, formerly Physician to the East London 
Hospital for Children. Macraillan. 1898. Cr. 
8vo, pp. xx+264; 4s. 6d. net. 452 

The Application of Psychology to the Science of 
Education. By J. F. HBKBAKT. Translated, 
with Notes and an Introduction to the Study of 

Herbart, by B. C. MULLINER, B.A. Preface by 

DOROTHEA BEALE. Swan Sonnenschein. 1898. 

Globe 8vo, pp. cxxv+231 ; 4s. 6d. 453 

The HcrlMirtiaii Psychology applied to Education. 

By JOHN ADAMS, M.A., B.Sc., F.C.P. Isbister. 

1898. Cr. 8vo. , pp. 288. 3s. 6d. 454 

Educ. Timet, Feb. 98, p. 79 (" a, good book, and especially 
good for teachers at this moment . . . students of education 
will revel in it, even if they reject its teaching"). 

G. A. Colozza. Del potere di inibizione : nota peda- 
gogica. Torino. 1898. 16mo, pp. 128; 21.25. 455 

E. Lcvaxscur. L'enseignement primaire dans les pays 
civilises. Nancy, Berger-Levrault & C ie . 1897. 
Large 8vo, pp. ix. + 628 ; 15f. 456 

A notice, favourable on the whole, in Lit. CM., 5 March '98. 

Cniverslty Education In England, France, and 
John Murray. 1898. Demy 8vo, pp. 32 ; Is. 457 

Handbook of Courses open to Women in Rrltlsh, 
Continental, and Canadian i:niversities. 

Suppl. for 1897. By ISABKL MADDISON. Mac- 
millan. 1898. 8vo, pp. iv + 64 ; Is. net. 458 

Progress In Women's Education In the British 
Empire. Edited by the Countess of WARWICK. 
Longmans. 1898. Cr. 8vo, pp. xxiv -t 370 ; 6s. 459 
Educ., 19 March '98; Jolirn. Educ., March '98, p. 17S. 

The Modern Quarterly of Language and Literature 

NOTICE TO CONTRIBUTORS. The Modern Quarterly of Language and Literatim, edited 
by H. FRANK HEATH, with the assistance of Dr BRAUNHOLTZ, Dr BREUL, Mr I. GOLLANCZ, Mr 
A. W. POLLARD, Prof. WALTER RIPPMANN, and Prof. V. SPIERS, is open for the discussion of all 
questions connected with the study and teaching of Medieval and Modern Languages and their 
Literatures. Contributions dealing with Germanic should be sent to Dr BREDL, Englemere, 
Chesterton Road, Cambridge ; with Romance to Dr BRAUNHOLTZ, 37 Chesterton Road, Cambridge ; 
or to Prof. V. SPIERS, 75 Lancaster Road, North Kensington, London, W. ; with the Bibliographical 
List to Prof. WALTER RIPPMANN, 41 Westmoreland Road, Bayswater, London, W. ; and those dealing 
with all other subjects to the General Editor, H. FRANK HEATH, University of London, Burlington 
Gardens, W. All contributions should be clearly written, with the name and address of the author, 
and the number of words they contain, legibly written on the last page. Unsuitable MSS. can be 
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Modern Quarterly 


Language and Literature 

Edited by 

With the assistance of 


Vol. I. 

November 1898 

No. 3. 



FEW scholars have attained literary distinc- 
tion so early and have justified the expecta- 
tions entertained with regard to them so 
fully as Eduard Sievers, whose name is 
familiar alike to English and German Ger- 
manisten as that of one of the greatest 
investigators and most successful teachers 
of German and Germanic philology. 

By birth a countryman of the brothers 
Grimm, whose work he has continued in 
many directions, Dr Sievers is now in the 
prime of his life. He is the able director of 
the German and Germanic department of 
studies in the University of Leipzig, the 
general editor of one of the most important 
periodicals mainly devoted to the study of 
the older German language and literature, 
the helper and adviser of a zealous band of 
scholars, and the highly esteemed correspond- 
ing member of a great number of German 
and foreign academies and learned societies. 
Many of his pupils are now holding important 
posts in German and foreign universities, 
especially in America, and the influence of 
his thorough method and of his vigorous and 
stimulating teaching is being widely felt at 

home and abroad. Dr Sievers has always 
followed the development of the study and 
teaching of Modern Languages with keen in- 
terest. He is an admirable English scholar, 
thoroughly familiar with England, as a result 
of frequent and prolonged visits to our 
shores where he found the companion of 
his life and a man intimately acquainted 
with the literary treasures of the British 
Museum and the Bodleian Library. 

In the following lines only a rapid survey 
can be given of the main features of Pro- 
fessor Sievers' life and remarkable literary 

Eduard Sievers was born on November 
25, 1 850, at Lippoldsberg, near Hofgeismar, 
in the Kassel district, and studied at the 
Universities of Leipzig and Berlin. At 
Leipzig Hermann Paul, Wilhelm Braune, 
and others were his fellow-students. He 
achieved the quite unparalleled distinction 
of being appointed ausserwdentlicher Professor 
in the University of Jena when he was but 
twenty-one years of age. He remained at Jena 
from 1871-83, and in 1876 was made Profes- 
sor Ordinarius. From 1883-87 he filled 'he 


chair of German at Tubingen; from 1887-92 
he taught at Halle, and in 1892 he was called 
to Leipzig to succeed his former teacher, 
Fr. Zarncke, to whom he had previously 
dedicated two important works, 'Der Heliand 
und die angelsiichsische Genesis' in 1875, 
and the fourth volume of the ' Beitrage zur 
Geschichte der deutschen Sprache und Lit- 
teratur,' together with Paul, Braune, Wind- 
isch, Vogt and others, in 1877. Wherever 
Dr Sievers taught he succeeded in gathering 
round him a band of zealous students, whom 
he inspired with his own enthusiasm. Many 
of these proved their gratitude and devotion 
by dedicating to him in 1896 an important 
volume containing twenty -four learned contri- 
butions to the study of German and Germanic 
literature and philology to commemorate the 
twenty-fifth anniversary of his entrance on 
his academic career. Apart from his aca- 
demic lectures, Dr Sievers has readily and 
with the greatest kindness helped numerous 
scholars and younger students the grateful 
acknowledgment for which unselfish assist- 
ance may be read in many prefaces to im- 
portant philological works, help given with 
a generosity to which the present writer can 
speak from personal experience. As a writer 
Professor Sievers is clear and lucid, and one 
who invariably handles his subject in a 
masterly fashion. The dispassionate and 
generous tone of his polemical discussions, 
the entire absence of all pettiness, deserves 
most unqualified praise. 

As a scholar Dr Sievers is very many- 
sided, but he has given most of his time and 
attention to the investigation of questions 
connected with grammar and metre, to the 
theory of accentuation, to phonetics, and to 
scholarly editions of numerous Old High 
German, Old Saxon, Old English, and Old 
Skandinavian texts. He was a regular con- 
tributor to Paul's and Braune's ' Beitrage ' 
from its first appearance (1874), and is now 
(from vol. xvi. onwards) the general editor of 
this important periodical. He is also the 
author of a valuable article on the German 
language, contributed to vol. x. (1879) of the 
last edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. 
Of his numerous contributions to the study 
of German and Germanic, only the following 
can be mentioned in this place : 

In the domain of Old High German Dr 
Sievers has given us a valuable edition 
of 'Tatian' (1872, 2 1892), reproducing the 
Latin gospel harmony by the side of the Old 
High German translation, together with an 
elaborate Introduction and a complete Glos- 
sary. He has also edited: 'Das Hilde- 
brandslied, die Merseburger Zauberspriiche 

und das frankische Taufgelobnis ' in photo- 
graphic reproductions (1872), 'die Murbacher 
Hymnen' (1874), the M.H.G. 'OxforderBene- 
diktinerregel' (1887), and in 1879 he began, 
in collaboration with E. Steinmeyer, the 
great collection of the Old High German 
Glosses which has only recently been com- 
pleted (by Stein meyer, in four volumes, 
1879-98). His contributions to the study 
of Old Low German are of the greatest im- 
portance. He was the first to discover, that 
part of the Old English poem called ' Genesis' 
was a translation from a lost Old Low Ger- 
man poem on an Old Testament subject. 
His theory, set forth in ' Der Heliand und 
di angelsiichsische Genesis' (1875), has re- 
cently (1894) received full confirmation by 
the discovery of the Roman fragments con- 
taining a portion of the original Old Low 
German poem. In 1878 he published his 
splendid edition of the ' Heliand,' the best 
for critical purposes. This edition contains 
the two chief manuscripts side by side, 
Latin parallels from many contemporaneous 
theological writings, and most valuable col- 
lections of synonymous expressions occurring 
in the ' Heliand,' with constant reference to 
Old English, a full introduction and valuable 
critical notes. He contributed a short his- 
tory of the Gothic language and literature to 
the first edition of Paul's ' Grundriss der 
germanischen Philologie ' (1889), and re- 
cently investigated the date of "Wultila's 
death in several articles ih the ' Beitrage ' 
(vols. xx. and xxi.). Dr Sievers has done 
much for the study of Old English Grammar 
and metre. In 1882 appeared the first 
edition of his well-known ' Angelsachsische 
Grammatik ' (3rd ed., 1898, Engl. translation 
by A. S. Cook, 1885), of which an abstract, 
' Abriss der angelsiichsischen Grammatik,' 
was published in 1895. Many valuable 
articles on Old English language and ver- 
sification are contained in the ' Beitrage.' 
The results of his Skandmaman studies are 
chiefly given in his ' Beitrage zur Skalden- 
metrik' (1878-79), the 'Proben einer met- 
rischen Herstellung der Eddalieder' (1885), 
and the ' Tiibinger Bruchstiicke der alteren 
Frostuthingslog ' (1886). He has given a 
brief but clear account of the Runic iiwi'i/i- 
tions in volume i. of Paul's ' Grundriss ' (1889 
and 1897). Germanic word-forms, sound- 
laws and metre, were the object of his 
constant attention, as is shown by many 
important articles in the columns of the 
' Beitrage.' As early as 1 874 he published 
his ' Paradigmata zur deutschen Grammatik ' 
(new ed., 1876) on separate sheets, which 
are therefore most convenient for the com- 



parative study of the Old Germanic dialects. 
Of great importance for the theory of Old 
German accent are his studies, ' Zur Accent- 
und Lautlehre der germanischen Sprachen ' 
(1878, extracts from vols. iv. and v. of the 
' Beitriige '). The study of Old German metre 
was put on a new basis by Sievers. His 
thorough investigations of Old English, 
Old Scandinavian, and Old Low German 
alliterative metre suggested to him certain 
views as to the general laws of alliterative 
poetry. These views resulted in the formula- 
tion of his ' theory of the five types ' which 
became epoch-making, and was, and still is, 
the subject of eager discussion. Sievers' first 
important essays on metre appeared in the 
' Beitrage ' (vols. x. and xii.), under the title, 
' Zur Rhythmik des germanischen Allitera- 
tionsverses.' He then expounded his theory 
in Paul's ' Grundriss ' (vol. ii., 1892), under 
the title, ' Metrik der altgermanischen 
Alliterationsdichtung,' an enlarged form of 
which was published (in 1893) under the 
title, ' Altgermanische Metrik.' It is still 
the most important work of its kind ; in it 
the views of Sievers' opponents are discussed, 
and a full bibliography is given. He has 
promised to write the. chapter on Germanic 

Metre for the new edition of Paul's ' Grund- 
riss.' Although most of Dr Sievers' writings 
concern the older stages of German and Ger- 
manic philology and literature, he has not 
neglected the study of the living and spoken 
language. In 1876 he published his 'Gruncl- 
ziige der Lautphysiologie,' which title was 
subsequently changed into 'Grundzuge der 
Phonetik' (4th ed., 1893, with a useful 
bibliography). He also wrote the chapter 
on ' Phonetik ' in both editions of Paul's 
'Grundriss' (vol. i., 1889 and 1897). 

It is hoped that these lines will reach Dr 
Sievers on his forty-ninth birthday, when he 
will look back on an uninterrupted and 
fruitful literary career of nearly thirty years. 
They are intended to accompany his portrait, 
which many of our readers will, no doubt, 
be glad to possess, and at the same time to 
show the eminent scholar that the great ser- 
vices rendered by him to the study of Ger- 
manic, English, and German are most highly 
appreciated by English students of Modern 
Languages. May he long continue to lead 
the way in the methodical investigation of 
problems, the attractiveness and importance 
of which he has often been the first to point 


NOTK. Herrick, the most spontaneous of 
poets, perhaps by virtue of his very 
spontaneity, acquired a trick of throwing 
into verse the ideas which met with his 
approval in his desultory reading he may 
be said, indeed, to have kept a poetical com- 
monplace book, his authors supplying the 
commonplace^ and he himself the poetry. 
These borrowings are found most freely in 
his epigrams, but they may be traced also 
in his finer poems. In printing his HIIS- 
perides and Noble Numbers Herrick often 
used italics to indicate a borrowed thought, 
and in the final edition of his works every 
italicised line will have to be traced to its 
original, together with numerous others, as 
to the source of which his memory must 
have failed him when he was seeing his 
book through the press. In annotating 
Herrick for Messrs Lawrence & Bullen's 
Mn*ex Library in 1892, I was able to add a 
fair number of new illustrations to those 
already pointed out by Dr Grosart, but my 
little finds were reduced to insignificance 
by a wealth of notes subsequently placed 
at my disposal by a veteran student of 

Herrick, who unluckily prefers to remain 
anonymous. Many of these notes will be 
found in my second edition (1897), but as 
this was printed off some little while ago, 
there has been time for new sources to be 
discovered, and old finds to be hunted up, 
and from these fresh materials I have been 
allowed to select a new sheaf. In a very 
few cases the passage quoted cannot be 
proved with absolute certainty to be the 
precise one which Herrick had in his mind, 
but 1 think that in most instances the 
quotations will carry conviction, and that 
these fresh proofs of the poet's indebtedness 
to Sallust, Tacitus, Seneca, and other writers 
whom we should hardly have thought of in 
connection with the Hesperides, will be found 
interesting, and even amusing. 

57. DREAMS. 
. Here we are all, by day ; by night we're 

By dreams, each one, into a several 


PLUTARCH, de Superstit., 3: 6 'iipd- 
x\firo( <pr)t, raff iyfi'riyopi'iaiv eva xal -"iiviiv 


a passage taken almost literally from 
SENECA Thyest. 87-89). 

Our days run . . . fast away . . . when 

or you or I are made 
A fable, song, or fleeting shade. . . 

PERS. v. 151 : carpamus dulcia [let's 
go a Maying !] ; . . cinis et manes et 
fabula ties. Vive memor leti ; fugit 


VERSES (last stanza). 

And when all bodies meet 
In Lethk to be drown'd, 
Then only numbers sweet 
With endless life are crown'd. 

MARTIAL, X. ii. 7, 8, 11, 12: Pigra 
per hunc fugies ingratae flumina 
Lethes, Et meliore tui parte super- 
stes eris. ... At chartis nee fata 
nocent, nee secula praesunt, Sola que 
non norunt haec monumenta mori. 

This same flower that smiles to-day 
To-morrow will be dying. . . . 
The worse and worst Times still succeed 

the former. . . . 
Tlien . . use your time, 
And, while you may, go marry ! 

SENEC., Hippol. 761-776 : Langue- 
scunt . . . lilia . . ., Et . . de- 
ficiunt rosae. Tempus te taciturn 
subruet, hora que Semper praeterita 
deterior subit. Dum licet, utere. Cp. 
OVID, Ars. Am. iii. 65; TIBULL., I. 
viii. 47 ; PUBL. SYR. : Quotidie est 
deterior posterior dies. 
He pays UK, Jutlf, wlw does confess the debt. 

SENEC., de Benef. i. 1 : ^Reddit bene- 
ficium qui libenter debet. (LODGE: 
Such is the nature of this debt, 
that ... he restoreth a benefit, 
that willingly oweth the same.) 

Fools they are who never know 

How the times away do go ; 

But for us who wisely see 

Where the bounds of black Death be, 

Let's live merrily, and thus 

Gratify tlie Genius. 

SlMONIDES : NIJT/O;, oJg rauTfl 
ug ypovog soS 

ixaerov tig 

75/ov d,iroaTppt<&a.i. JOS. HALL (Her- 
rick's 'learn'd Diocesan'), Meditations 
and Vows [1616], 3rd Cent. 20: It was 
a witty and true speech of that obscure 
Heraclitus, that all men, awaking, are 
in one common world, but, when we 
sleep, each man goes into a several 
world by himself. 

Fight tlwu with shafts of silver, and o'er- 


Provb. ap. Suidam, I. 696, ed. Bern- 
hardy [1853]: 'Apyvptaig Xo'y^a/tf/ 
/tap/ou, xa; Tai/ra xpatrficriig. 


As oft as Night is banish'd by the Morn, 
So oft, we'll think, we see a king new 


SENEC., Here. (EL 615: Noctem 
quoties summovet Eos, Regem toties 
credite nasci. 

Nature with little is content. 
SENEC., Epp. xvii.: Natura minimum 
petit. (LODGE : Nature is content 
with little.) 

1. 90. Vice rules . . at Court. 

SENEG.,Hippolyt. 982: Fraus sublimi 
regnat in aula. 
(I. 99). Like a surly [v. I. sturdy] oak, 

with storms perplex'd, 
Grows still the stronger, strongly vext. 

Cp. 377, 1. Ill : by vexation grows 
The stronger. SENECA, de Providentia, 
4 : Non est arbor solida nee fortis, 
nisi in quern frequens ventus incur- 
sat ; ipsa enim vexatione constringi- 
tur, et radices certius figit. 

Suspicion, discontent, and strife 
Come in for dowry with a wife. 
OVID, 1. c. (dos est uxoria lites) came 
to H., perhaps, through BEN JONSON, 
Silent Woman, iv. 2 : Strife and tumult 
are the dowry that comes with a wife. 
152. To ELECTRA. 

We'll weary all the fables, there. 
BEN JONSON, The Fox, iii. 6: While 
we ... act Ovid's Tales, . . . till 
we have quite run through And 
wearied all the fables of the gods. 

T engender with the night. 
BEN JONSON, Catiline, I. i. 13 : T'en- 
gender with the night, and blast the 
day. (An original line, occurring in 

aAXd aij ravra, 

/3ioToi' oX/yof /3ioTOV 

ayaSSiv rXrfii<?6tt,ivog. PERSIUS, 

v. 151 : Indulge Genio ; carpamus 




265. To THE QUEEN. 

Be both princess here and poetress. 
SPENSER, Tears of Muses, 577 : Most 
peerless prince, most peerless poetress ! 
So dress him up with love, 
As to be a chick of JOVE. 
BURTON, I. ii. 3, 10 : Perhaps one 
in a thousand may be pullus Jovis in 
the world's esteem. Ibid., I. ii. 4, 6 : 
He shall be accounted . . . pullus 
Jovis, . . . [JUVENAL, xiii. 147]. 

That prince takes soon enough the victor's 

JFTio first provides, not to be overcome. 

TACIT., Hist. ii. 25 : [SUETONIUS 
PAULLINUS loq.]-. Satis cito incipi 
victoriam, ubi provisum foret, ne 

st. xi. 
Cupids fly, 
To light their tapers at the Bride's bright 


BEN JONSON, The Barriers : Marriage 
Love's object is, at whose bright eyes 
He lights his torches. 

Man's fortune must be had in reverence. 

AUSONIUS, Ep. viii. 7 : Fortunam 
reverenter habe. BEN JONSON, Under- 
woods, xlv. ../. . 'Tis wisdom and that 
high, For men to use their fortune 
reverently. Cp. Id. Prince Henry's 
Barriers [Merlin, I. 2]; The Fox, iii. 
6 ; Sejan, ii. 1, s. fin. 

From tramplers free. 
Not as Dr Grosart = travelling 
beggars, but = persons treading upon 
my grave. Cp. SHKSPR., K. Rich. II., 
III. iii. 157 : I'll be buried in the 
king's highway, . . . where subjects' 
feet May hourly trample on their 
sovereign's head. 
315. He must of cure despair, 

Who makes the sly physician his heir. 

PUBL. SYR., Male secum agit aeger, 
medicum qui haeredem facit. Cp. 
BEN JONSON, The Fox, i. 1 : I often 
have Heard him (Vot.PONK) protest 
that your physician Should never be 
his heir. 

. . . My lines are hard, . . . and marr'd, 
If thou not read'st them well. 

BEN JONSON, Epigr. i. To the Reader. 
Pr'ythee, take care, that tak'st my 
book in hand, To read it well, that is, 
to understand. 


II. 25, 26. A third [day] 

Makes guests and fish smell strong. 

LYLY, Euphues, p. 305 Arbor: As 
we say in Athens, ' fish and guests in 
three days are stale.' Cp. ARISTOPH., 
Fragm. 344 : 1^-Jdia rf no-fa.. PLAUT., 
Mil. Glor. I. i. 144: hospes nullus 
tarn in amici hospitium devorti potest, 
Quin ubi triduum ibi continuom fuerit 
iam odiosus siet. 1056 : Should'st 
thou prize me as a dish Of ... third 
day's fish. 

(I. 134). Princely Pemberton, who can 
Teach man to keep a god in man. 

SENECA, Ep. xxxi. : Animus . . . 
rectus, bonus, magnus. Quid aliud 
voces hunc, quam deum in humane 
corpore hospitantem ? 

465. II. 63, 4. 

The body sins not, 'tis the will 
That makes the action good or ill. 
PUBL. SYRUS : Voluntas impudicum, 
non corpus, facit. 


Black your hairs are, mine are white ; 
This begets the mwe delight . . . ; 
As in pictures we descry 
Venus standing Vulcan by. 

LYLY, Euphues, p. 204 Arber : We 
commonly see that a blacke ground 
doth best beseeme a white counter- 
faite ; and Venus according to the 
judgment of Mars was then most 
amiable, when she sate close by 


If accusation only can draw blood, 
None shall be guiltless, be he ne'er so 


BURTON, II. iii. 7 : As Ammianus 
[lib. xviii.] well hath it, Quis erit iii- 
nocens si clam vel palam accusasse 
sufficiat 1 If it be sufficient to accuse 
a man openly or in private, who shall 
be free I [The true text, AMMIAN. 
MARCELLIN. xviii. 1, ed. Boxhorn, 
1632, is : Ecquis, ait [JULIANUS], 
innocens] esse poterit, si accusasse 
sufficiet ] The passage is paraphrased 
by BEN JONSON, To the Earl of Salis- 
bury, a. 1605; and by RANDOLPH, 
Muses' Looking-Glass, a. 1638; IV. 
iii. 38. 



Eaten I Jiave ; and, though I had good 


I did not sup, because no frifn<l* were 

SENECA, Ep. xix. : Ante, inquit 
[Epicurus], circurasj)iciendum est, cum 
quibus edas et bibas, quam quid edas 
et bibas. Nam sine amico viseoratio 
leonis ac lupi vita est. 

IVTiere . . . roses and cassia crown the 
untill'd soil. 

TIBULL. I. iii. 58-66 : Ipsa Venus 
cjimpos duceb in Elysios. . . . Fert 
casiam non culta seges, totosque per 
agros Floret odoratis terra benigna 

Here . . . handsome striplings run 

Their goals for virgins' kisses. . . . 

Then unto dancing . . . 

Commixt they meet. 

TIBULL. I.e. : Hie juvenum series, 
teneris immixta puellis Ludit, et 
assidue proelia miscet Amor. 


Nothing can le more loathsome than to see 
Power conjoin'd with Nature's cruelly. 

SENEC., de Clem. i. 3 : Nullum . . . 
dementia . . . magis quam . . . prin- 
cipetn decet. . . . Nam pestifera vis 
est, valere ad nocendum. 


He ivho lias suffer' d shipwreck fears to sail 
I 'jinn the seas, though with a gentle gule. 
OVID, ex Ponto, II. vii. 8 : Tran- 
4uillas etiam naufragus horret aquas. 



Curls In/If ilroim'd 

In Tynan deir*. 

TIBULL. III. iv. 28 : Stillabat Tyrio 
[hod. Syrio] myrtea rore coma. 

This is the height of justice, that to do 
Thyself, which fhon putt'st other men nut". 
As great men leml, the meaner fullmc on, 
Or to the good, or evil action. 

CLAUDIAN, de IV. Cms. Honor. 296- 
302 : In commune jubes si quid, censes 
ve tenendum, Primus jussa subi ; 
tune observantior aequi Fit populus, 
nee ferre negat,cum viderit ipsum Auc- 
torem parere sibi. Componitur orbis 
Regis ad exemplum ; nee sic inflectere 
sensus Humanos edicta valent, ut vita 
regentis. Mobile mutatur semper cum 
principe vulgus. 


No man fames late unto that place from 

Never man yet had a regredience. 

SENEC.., Here. Fur. 865 : Nemo ad id 
sero venit, unde nunquam Quum semel 
venit, potuit reverti. 

661. AMBITION. Slippery all Ambition is. 
CICERON., de Offic. 1. 19 s. fin. : gloriae 
cupiditate ; qui locus est sane lubricus. 
Id. (V. Philipp. 18) calls cupiditatem 
dominandi praecipitem et lubricam. 


Sweet country life ! to such unknown, 
Whose lives arc others ; not their own. 

SENEC. , de brev. vit. 2 : Nemo se sibi 
vindicat; alius in alium consumimur. 
. . . Hie illius cultor est, iste illius, 
suus nemo. [LODGE : Every one (to be 
short) spends himself upon others ; . . . 
and enquire of these men's living, . . . 
none of them all is his own man, or 
intends his own business]. Cp. SENEC., 
Thycst. 402 : Qui notus nimis omnibus, 
Ignotus moritur sibi. 
(/. 23.) The best compost for the lands 
/.< tin' ii-if.1' iiiiixfi-r'sfeet and hands. 

Cp. 771 : Where He sets his foot, he 
leaves rich compost there. HACKET, 
Life of Ld. Keeper WILLIAMS, pt. II., 
p. 28 : COLUMELLA ( ) com- 

mends it wittily to an owner to live 
upon his own ground, if he would 
thrive ; says he, Fimus optimus in 
agro est domini vestigium. 


(II. 22-24, 26, 28.) 
Time steals away like to a stream, 
And we glide hence along with them. 
No sound recalls the hours once fled. . . . 
Nor us, . . . when we are lost. . . . 
' Then //i-> i'''' mirthful . . ! 

OVID, Art. Am. iii. 61-66 : Ludite ! 
euntanni more fluentis aquae. . . . Nee 
quae praeteriit hora redire potest. 
Utendum est aetate ; cito pede labitur 

State at a distance adds to dignities. 
TIBERIUS ap. TACIT., Ann. i. 47 : Per 
filios pariter adiri, majestate salva ; cui 
major elonginquoreverentia. Cp. 685, 
11. 9, 10. 


Though li/ well warding many blows we've 


That stroke most fear'd is, which is struck 
the last. 



SENEC. Bp. Jos. HALL, Medit"*- 
and Vows [1616], 3rd Cent. 81 : The 
first and second blow begin the battle ; 
but the last only wins it. 


Adversity hurts none but only such 
Whom whitest Fortune dandled IMS too 


PUBL. SYR. . . Cp. CICERON., de 
Amicit. xv. 54 : Fortuna . . . eos . . . 
plerumque efficit CPRCOS quos amplexa 

699. GRIEF. 

Sorrmvs divided amongst many, less 
Discruciate a man in deep distress. 
SENEC., Consol. ad Polyb. 31 : Est 
autem hoc ipsum solatii loco, inter 
multos dolorem suum dividere, qui 
quia dispensatur inter plures, exigna 
debet apud te parte subsidere. 


'Tis not the walls or purple that defends 
A prince from foes ; but 'tis his fort of 


SALLUST, Bell. Jug. 10 [MiciPSA to 
JUGURTHA] : Non exercitus neque 
thesauri praesidia regni sunt, verum 
amici. [HELVID. PRISC. ap.] TACIT., 
Hist. iv. 7 : Nullum majus boni im- 
perii instrumentum, quani bonos ami- 
cos. NORTH'S . PLOT. (Aratus), p. 
1028 : There is no surer guard unto a 
prince than the perfect love and good 
will of his subjects. 

21. FAME. 

'Tis still observed, that Fame ne'er sings 
Tlie order, but tlie sum of things. 

PLIN., Epp. IV. xi. 15 : Summam . . . 
rerum nuntiat faraa, non ordinem. 

little saint best jits a little shrine. \_Ilep. 
xvi. times.] HORACE, Epp. I. vii. 44 : 
Parvum parva decent. 

746. To ELECTRA. Love looks for Love. 
Love love begets. "Eptag spur a 
Tigers and bears . . . For proffer' d love 
will love repay: None are so harsh but, if 
they find Softness in others, will be kind. 
SENEC., de Benef. i. 3 : Officia etiam 
ferae sentiunt ; nee ullum tarn imman- 
suetum animal est, quod non cura 
mitiget, et in amorem sui vertat. 

with thfe to bless Thy war. NORTH'S 
PLOT. [Sylla], p. 484 : Some say that 
Sylla had a little golden image of 
Apollo, . . . and in time of war wore 
it always in his bosom. 


. . . the relation then of both grows poor, 
When these can ask, and kings can give, 

no more. 

TACIT., Ann.iii. 30: Satias capiet aut 
illos, cum omnia tribuerunt, aut hos, 
cum jam reliquum est quod 

759. . . . LIKE PRINCE, LIKE PEOPLE. . . . 
Such as tJie prince is, will his people be. 
BURTON, A. M. (Democritus, jr., to the 
Reader; p. 46 , ed. 1883): As the 
Princes are, so are the People : Qualis 
rex, talis grex. Cp. 614. 


Love and tlie Graces evermore do wait 
Upon tlie man that is a potentate. 

BURTON, I. ii. 4, 6 [of the rich] : All 
the Graces, Veneres, . . . attend him. 

762. THE PETER-PENNY. No Penny, no 
Paternoster. BURTON, I. ii. 3, 15 : 'No 
penny, no paternoster,' as the saying is. 


Of both our fortunes good and bad, we find 
Prosperity more searching of the mind : 
Felicity flies o'er, the wall and fence, 
While Misery keeps in with patience. 

TACIT., Hist. i. 15: Secundae res 
acrioribus stimulis animos explorant ; 
quia miseriae tolerahtur, felicitate 

766. DEATH ENDS ALL WOE. Where'er we 
go, Fate gives a meeting. SENEC., Ep. 
xxvi. : Incertum est quo te loco Mors 
expectet; itaque tu illam omni loco 


Love must be fed by wealth ; this blood of 

Must needs wax cold, if wanting bread 

and wine, 

Cp. 93 (Ovio quoted). HABINGTON, 
Castara,p. 32 Arber: Wealth the fuel 
is That maintains the nuptial fire. 
TERENT., Eunuch. IV. v. 6 : Sine 
Cerere et Libero friget Venus. 
Among disasters tluit dissension brings, 
This not the least is, which belongs to kings: 
If wars go well, each for a part lays claim, 
If ill, then kings, not soldiers, bear the 


TACIT., Agric. 27 : Iniquissima haec 
bellorum conditio est ; prospera omnes 
sibi vindicant, ad versa uni imputantur. 
781. To ANTHEA. 

Delays in love but crucify the heart. 
BURTON, III. ii. 5, 5 : Many . . hin- 
drances there are, which . . . crucify 
poor lovers. 



In this little urn is laid 
Prudence Baldwin, once my maid ; 
From whose happy spark here Jet 
Spring the purple -violet ! 
PERSIUS, i. 38-40 : Nunc non e mani- 
bus illis, Nunc non e tumulo fortunata 
que favilla Nascentur violae ? Quoted 
by BURTON (I. ii. 4, 6). 


TJie bastard phoenix, bird of Paradise. 

Sir T. BROWNE, Pseudodox. Epidem. 
[1646], III. 12, p. 132: The Manu- 
codiata, or Bird of Paradise, hath had 
the honour of this name, and their 
feathers, brought from the Moluccas, 
do passe for those of the phenix, 
which the Eastern travellers will 
hardly admit. 


Wlio all alone sits there, 
Having his eyes still in his ear, 
And a deal of nightly fear. 
B. JONSON, Epigr. li. : For we that 
have our eyes still in our ears Look 
not upon thy dangers, but our fears. 


Haste is unhappy ; what we rashly do, 
Is both unlucky, ay, and foolish too. 

STAT., Theb. x. 704 : Da spatium 
tenuemquemoram; male cuncta minis- 
trat Impetus. 
Where war with rashness is attempted, 

The soldiers leave the field with equal fear. 

TACIT., Hist. iv. 67: Sabinus festina- 
tum temere proelium pari formidine 


Immortal clothing I put on. 
2 Esdras, ii. 45 : These be they that 
have put off the mortal clothing and 
put on the immortal. 


Ere thou [JULIA] counsel 'st with thy glass. 
OVID., Art. Am. iii. 136: quod quam- 
que decebit Eligat, et speculum con- 
sulat ante suum. BEN JONSON, Silent 
Woman, i. 1 : She may . . . Take often 
counsel of her glass. 


In desperate cases, all or most are known 
Commanders, few for execution. 

NORTH'S Plutarch (PHOCION), p. 
761 : Hercules ! (quoth he) how 
many captaines do I see, and how 
few souldiers ! 


JFJiere most sweets are, there lies a snake. 
VIRG., Eel. iii. 92 : Qui legitis flores 
et humi nascentia fraga, Frigidus (o 
pueri, fugite hinc !) latet anguis in 

900. TEARS. 

Tears most prevail ; with tears thou too 

may'st move 
Rocks to relent, and mt/est maids to love. 

OVID, Art. Am. i. 661 : Et lacrymae 
prosunt ; lacrymis adamanta movebis. 



Words beget anger ; anger brings forth 

blows ; 
Blows make of dearest friends immortal 


HOR., Epp. I. xix. 41 : Ludus enim 
genuit trepidum certamen et iram ; 
Ira truces inimicitias, et funebre 

902. TRUTH. 

Truth is best found out by the time, and eyes ; 
Falsehood wins credit by uncertainties. 

TAC., Annul, ii. 39 : Veritas visu et 
mora, falsa festinatione et incertis 

We credit most our sight. 
SENEC., Ep. vi. : Homines amplins 
oculis quam auribus credunt. 


The lictors bundled up their rods ; beside, 
Knit them with knots, with much ado 

untied ; 

That if, unknitting, men would yet repent, 
They might escape the lash of punishment. 
PLUTARCH, Quaestt. Rom. 82 : A; rl 
TUV STpa.TTj'yZv 0.1 pd/Sdoi auv&idiij,itici.i 
rGiv xe\i xe<a\i 

TOU afxfvrog; rj 

xa \lXtt/KfH}i 

pilSw xa.1 
tipyrj rb Xvuv &Tpi/j,a 

-ipi rij; MXaaetaf ; . . . BEN JONSON, 

Ks' s Entertainment (Note on the fasces) : 
Fasciculi virgarum . . . notandum est, 
non debere praecipitem et solutam 
iram esse magistratus. Mora enim 
allata et cunctatio, dum virgae sol- 
vuntur, identidem consilium mutavit 
de plectendo . . . quaedam vitia sunt 
corrigenda . . . 

In all our high designments, . . . 
The first event breeds confidence or fear. 
TACIT., Annal. xii. 31 : Ille gnarus, 



primis eventibus metum aut fiduciam 
gigni, citas cohortes rapit. 

Hard are the two first stairs unto a crown ; 
Which got, the third bids him a king come 


BEN JONSON, Sejanus, A. i. s. fin. 
[DRUSUS loq.]: The first ascents to 
sovereignty are hard; But, enter'd 
once, there never wants or means 
Or ministers, to help th' aspirer on. 
From TACIT., Annal. iv. 7 : Primas 
dominandi spes in arduo; ubi sis 
ingressus, adesse studia et ministros. 

936. To SILVIA. 

None is disci-eel at all times. 
PLIN., H. N. vii. 41 : Nemo mor- 
talium omnibus horis sapit. 


Wliat credit can we give to seas, 
Who, kissing, kill such saints as these 1 

thol. Pal. VII. ccxvi. 5) : Tig vapa irinTu 
T/ffr/f, oc dux. ISiJig pu'earo svuTfHXpiq;. 



Thou . . . unto whom 

What's hard to others nothing's [ = is not 

at all] troublesome. 

Cp. OVID'S compliment to Ger- 
manicus (ex Ponto, IV. viii. 74) : Quod- 
que aliis opus est, hoc tibi lusus erit. 


Lid the Muses bring 

Thee less to taste than to drink up their 

spring 1 

^ MARTIAL, VIII. Ixx. [of NERVA] : 
Cum siccare sacram largo Permessida 
posset Ore, verecundam maluit esse 
sitim. B. JONSON, Epiyr. Ixxix. [of Sir 
Ph. SIDNEY] : Like whom, before, Or 
then or since, about our Muses' springs, 
Came not that soul exhausted so their 

Long live the King ! and, to accomplish 

We'll from our own add far more years 

to his. 

PLAUT., Asinar. III. iii. 20 : Ego te ? 
quam si intellegam deficere vita, jam 
ipse Vitam meam tibi largiar, et de 
mea ad tuam addam. TIBULL. I. vi. 
63 : Vive diu . . . ! proprios ego 
tecum, Sit modo fas, annos contri- 
buisse velim. MARTIAL, I. xxxvii. : 
Vive tuo, f rater, tempore, vive meo ! 
PROPERT. IV. xi. [or xii.] 95 : Quod 

mihi detractum est, vestros accedat 
ad annos. SENEC., de Brev. Fit. 8 : 
Dicere solent eis quos validissime dili- 
gunt, paratos se partem annorum 
suorum dare. Also, OVID, Met. vii. 
168; MART. VIII. ii. ; <&c. 

' Tis some solace in our smart, 
To have friends to bear a part. 
Solamen miseris socios habuisse 
dolorum. Cp. SENEC., Cons, ad Marc. 
12 : Malevoli solatium est. . . . 

Care keeps the conquest ; 'tis no less 

To keep a city than to win a town. 

OVID, Art. Am. ii. 12: Arte mea 
capta est ; arte tenenda mea est. Nee 
minor est virtus quam quaerere parta 
tueri. BEN JONSON, Engl. Gram. ch. 
vii. quotes, as from CHAUCER: As 
great a praise is, to keep well as win. 
The true text (Troilus, III. 1634) is : 
As greet a craft is kepe wel as winne 
(ed. Skeat). 


Why should we covet much, ivhenas we 

We've more to bear our charge than way 

to go? 

CICERO, deSenect. xviii. s. fin. : Potest 
enim quicquam esse absurdius, quam 
quo minus viae restat, eo plus viatici 
quaerere ? 

Brisk methinks I am and fine, 
When I drink my capering wine. 
(II. 4, 6, 8 : JFlien I drink mi/ . . . wine.) 
Modelled on ANACR. 48 Bergk : "Or' 
tyii tin rov olwv [rep. vii. times]. 

Kings must not use the axe for each 

offence ; 

I'l'inces cure some faults by their patience. 
SENEC., de Clem. i. 22 : Ipsos facilius 
emendabis minore poena. . . . Civita- 
tis autein mores magis corrigit parcitas 
animadversionum. [LODGE : The few- 
ness (if executions reformeth the city's 
manners the more.] Vitia ejus facilius 
compesrit, si patiens eorum est. 
To an old sore, a long cure must go on ; 
Great faults require great satisfaction. 

TACIT., Annal. iii. 54 [TIBERIUS' 
letter] : Ne corporis quidem morbos 
veteres et diu auctos nisi per dura et 
aspera coerceas. 


1017. THE VISION, [of ANACREON]. Cp. 
ANACREONTEA, 1, in Bergk, Anihol. 
Lyr. As he spake, his mouth ran o'er 
with wine. 'Amxpeut . . . fU . . . bap 

.. TO %ifXo; oev o/ou. 
He . . . lisping reel'd, and reeling like to 
fall. A young Enchantress close to him 
did stand. TpipovTa &' avrriv %&>! "Epuc 
i^npayuyii. She Snatch'd off hi* rrn 
and gave the wreath to me. 'O 5' s^i 
/.apqvcHi tjjtiil ar'spo; biotasit. Since when 
methinks my brains about do swim, And 
I am wild and wanton, like to him. To 
&' i? ! ' Atazp'sovro;. t~/<u d' o fiupiii &pa: 

sptaros ol v 

1029. PARDONS. 

Those ends in war the best contentment 

JHwse peace is made up with a pardon- 


TACIT., Annul, xii. 19 : Bellorum 
egregios fines, quoties ignoscendo 

Studies themselves ivill l<i//i/ni*h anil 


When either price or praise is ta'cn un-ii,/. 
TACIT., Ann. xi. 7 : Sublatis studi- 
orum pretiis, t-tiam studia perituru. 

Wlio lines too much, too much the lore/I 

will hate. 

Cp. Amnon and Tamar (2 Samml, 
xiii. 2, 15): A. fell sick for his sister 
T. . . . A. hated her exceedingly. And 
Angelo (in B. JONSON, The Case is 
Altered, v. 3) : ' You scornful baggage ! 
I loved thee not so much but now I 
hate thee ! ' 

'Tis no discomfort in the world, to fall 
Wlien tJie great Crack not crushes one, 

but all. 

SENEC., de Provid. 5 : Grande sola- 
tium est, cum universe rapi. Id. Nat. 
Qiuwst. vi. 2, s. fin. : Si cadendum est, 
cadam orbe concusso. . . . Ingens 
solatium est ... CLAUDIAN, in liufin, 
v. 19 : Everso juvat orbe mori ; solatia 
letho Exitium commune dabit. 

Who may do most, does least ; the bravest 

Shew mercy there, where they have power 

to kill, 

PUBL. SYR. : Nocere posse et nolle, 
laus amplissima est. 

1061. ON FORTUNE. 

. . . Site can but spoil me of my means, 

not mind. 

BURTON, II. iii. 3 : Fortune ... she 
can take away my means, but not my 

That prince must govern with a gentle 

Who will have love comply irith his com- 

ma /xl. 

SENEC., de Clem. i. 24 : Remissius im- 
peranti melius paretur. [LODGE : He 
that governetli more mildely, is 
obeyed more willingly.] 

H'lirn to thy porch I come, and ravish'd see 
The state of poets there attending thee. 

WEBSTER, Lines to T. Heywood 
[1612]: What a full state of poets have 
you cited, To judge your cause ! 

No man so well u kiiii/ili'nn rules its he 
ll'lid Imfli himself obeifd I In- M'C<'i(jnhj. 
SEX EC.'., (/'' Ii'u, xv. 4: Nemo regere 
potest nisi qui et regi. Cp. SOLOX., a/>. 
DIOG. LAERT. I. ii. 12 : "Ap%i xp 

1099. They praise flu' ninijitcr, and not him. 
Cp. MARTIAL, VI. xlviii. 2: Non tu, 
Pomponi, coena diserta tua est. 
1121. DISTRUST. 

'Tis Wisdom's part, to doubt a faithful 


OVID, Art, Am, i. 754 : Quos credis 
fidos eft'uge ; tutus eris. Cognatum 
fratrem que cave, carum que sodalem. 

' Nolle Number*.' 

23. GOD is ONE. 

GOD ... is said to be most One. 
S. BERNARD, de Considerat, v. 7 [ap. 
BUXTORF., Le.c. s.v. Unissimus] : Tarn 
simplex Deus quam unus est. Est 
autem unus et quomodo aliud nihil. 
Si dici possit, unissimus est. Bp. 
DAVENANT, Determ. Quaestt. [a. 1639], 
xxiv. p. 113: Eem unitissime unam 
essentiam scilicet diviuam. 

No man is blest through erery part. 
HORAT., Carm. II. xvi. 27 : Nihil est 
ab omni parte beatum. 

Gifts blind the wise. 
Exod. xxiii. 8 : A gift blindeth the 
wise (Deuter. xvi. 19). Ecclus. xx. 
29 : Gifts blind the eyes of the wise. 



St. v. : The cure VMS worse than the 


BURTON II. iii. 1, g 2, s. fin. : Excessit 
medicina malum, the physic is more 
troublesome than the disease, so he 
complained in the poet ( ). 


Shame checks our first attempts ; but then 

'tis proved, 
Sins first disliked are after that belov'd. 

TACIT., Agric. 3 : Invisa primo desidia 
postremo amatur. Cp. DANIEL, Com- 
plaint of Rosamond, st. 65 : For Nature 
checks a new attempt with loathing ; 
But use of sin doth make it seem as 

Humble m must be, . . . Grace is in- 

creased by humiUti/. 
Janus iv. 6 ; 1 Peter v. 5 [from 
Prov. iii. 34] : GOD giveth grace 
unto the humble. 


Honour thy parents ; but good manners 


Thee to adore thy GOD the first of all. 
MENANDER : Qtiiv ~fH>Tl;j.a,, 


His . . . dove-like eyes. 
Of the infant JESUS. In Hesper. 92, 
characteristically of ' two Cupids ' : 
their dove-like eyes. From Song of 
Solomon, v. 12 : His eyes are as the 
eyes of doves. Ibid. i. 15 : Thou hast 
doves' eyes. 
101. EVIL. 173. Six. 

Evil no nature luith ; the loss of good 
Is that which gives to sin a livelihood. 
. . . Sin no existence, nature none it 


Or good at all (as learrid Ai/iiiim* snith). 
AQUIN., c. Gentes, iii. 7 : Nulla 
essentia est secundum se mala. . . . 
Privatio non est aliqua essentia. 
1 04. To HIS DEAR GOD. 

What may conduce 

To my most healthful use, 

Almighty GOD, me grant ; 

P>ut that, or this, 

That hurtful is, 

Deny Thy suppliant. 
Poeta ap. PLATON., Alcib. 2 M - 9 : 
Ziij Pa.ffi~f.t\j, TO. IMV ia&\&, xa,i su^ofj,'itoic 
xal aviiiKTOii"A/j,fi,i SlSou, TO. Ss diivd* 
/.a! tiyyftitut ava\iiivA [In Anlhol. 
Pal. X. 108, *Xuypd . . . 


To him who longs . . ., 
Celerity even itself is slow. 
PUBL. SYR., Etiam celeritas in desi- 
derio mora est. 

151. GOD'S HANDS. 

GOD'S hands are round and smooth, tha t 

gifts mail fall 
Freely from them, and hold none back at 


CAUSSIN, Holy Court (translated by 
T. H., ), 38 : In the Canticles 

(v. 14) the hands of the Spouse [are] 
compared to golden globes, ... to 
denote to us the munificence of GOD. 
. . . His hands are globes made 
round, . . . they ar^ smooth, neat, 
polite, to powre, without stay, good 
turns upon men ; they alwayes empty 
themselves, and are alwayes re- 
plenished, for they are filled with 
a sea of liberality. 


The Mountains of the Scriptures are 

(some say) . 

Moses and Jesus called Joshua : 
The Prophets, Mountains of the Old, are 

meant ; 

Th' Apostles, Mounts of the Neio Testa- 

c. iii. s. fin. : Ibit ad Monies Scriptur- 
arum ; ibi inveniet monies MOSEN, 
JESUM filium Nave ; monies Pro- 
phetas; Montes Novi Testament! 
Apostolos. . . . 

164. HEAVEN. 

Heaven is most fair ; but fairer He 
That made that fairest canopy. 

BURTON (III. iv. 1, 1) quotes 
( ) : Coelum pulchrum ; sed pul- 
chrior coeli fabricator. 

173. See on 101. 


GOD hath this world for many made, '/is 

true ; 
But He hath made the world to come for 


2 Esdras, viii. 1 : The most High hath 
made this world for many, but the 
world to come for few. 


GOD bought man here with His heart's 

blood expense ; 
And man sold GOD here for base thirty 


G. FLETCHER, Christ's Triumph over 
Death, st. xxvi. : How dearly GOD 


His servant buys ! For GOD His man 
at His own blood doth hold; And 
man his GOD for thirty pence hath 


GOD'S prescience makes none sinful. 

Bp. DAVENANT, Determ. Quaestt. [a. 
1639] xxv. : Praescientia divina non 
erat causa lapsus humani. 

228. ... A TRUE LENT. 

A paraphrase of Isaiah, ch. Iviii. 


GOD luiles the dual number, being known 

The luckless number of division : 

And when He bless'd each several day, 

He did His curious operation, 

'Tis never read there (as the Fathers say), 
GOD bless'd His work done on the second 


CARYL (on Job), ap. SPENCER, Store- 
house, p. 474 : The Rabbines have a 
conceit why, after the work of the 
second day was finished, God behold- 
ing what He had done did not add 
any approbation to it. ... Because 
then was the first disunion, that made 
the first ' 2nd ' that ever was. All 
before was one, sub unissimo DEO, 
under the one-most God. [See on 23, 

The rude, Th' inconstant . . . multitude. 
BURTON, III. vi. 1, 2 : A rude, in- 
constant multitude. 



IT is a sure and a happy instinct which has 
led men, in all ages, from Solomon down to 
the leader writer of the Daily Chronicle, to 
select some authoritative text upon which 
to base their reflections ; and in this proper 
spirit I wish to refer at the outset of these 
remarks to what is perhaps the most famous 
piece of criticism ever uttered upon the 
dramatists of the later seventeenth century. 
"The Fainalls and the Mirabells," says 
Lamb in his essay on the Artificial Comedy 
of the Last Century, " the Dorimants and the 
Lady Touchwoods in their own sphere, do 
not offend any moral sense ; in fact they do 
not appeal to it at all. They seem engaged 
in their proper element. They break 
through no laws or conscientious restraints. 
They know of none. They have got out of 
Christendom into the land what shall I call 
it 1 of Cuckoldry the Utopia of gallantry, 
where pleasure is duty and the manners 
perfect freedom. It is altogether a specu- 
lative scene of things which has no reference 
whatever to the world that is. No good 
person can be justly offended as a spectator, 
because no good person suffers on the stage." 
Now these words have coloured practically 
the whole of subsequent criticism upon the 
plays of this time. They give the opinion of 
one of our greatest dramatic critics, and they 
are true. But truth may mislead by being 
too brilliant and too narrow in its illumina- 
tion. The bull's-eye lantern held by the in- 

sidious burglar or the avenging policeman 
will help you but little to see the kindliness 
depicted on his features. And it is the fate 
of epigram to illuminate but one half of a 
situation, and that not always the more 
desirable. It is true enough that no good 
person should be offended as a spectator of 
Restoration Drama indeed the playwrights 
were always saying so themselves but it is 
the reason which seems unconvincing or at 
least insufficient : " because no good person 
suffers on the stage." The fact is one cannot 
speak even of all the Restoration Comedy, let 
alone the Tragedy, in any terms which will 
apply to it en bloc, for in the forty or fifty 
years which succeeded the Restoration there 
were several kinds of comic play written. 
The comedies of Tatham are very different 
from those of Dryden and those of Dryden 
from the work of Congreve and his school, 
some of whom, notably Farquhar, show con- 
siderable divergence from the theory and 
practice of their master. 

It is not my intention to spend much time 
over the tragedies, for in spite of the com- 
plexities of some of their plots (I have never 
yet been able to make out what the Conquest 
of Granada is all about) in spite of the 
splendid courage of Almanzor, who slays 
his hundreds in three short hours without 
turning a hair, and quails at nothing, 
not even the ghost of his mother though 
that would have been excusable in spite 



of some very fine lines here and there 
such as : 

" My love's my soul and that from fate is free 
Tis that unchanged and deathless part of me," 

it is difficult to take the heroic drama of the 
time very seriously, or to find it much more 
convincing than Parthenissa or the deeds 
of Artamenes in the 'Grand Cyrus' who 
finishes off his cool 10,000 instead of the 
paltry hundreds of Dryden's Spanish hero. 

One comes near to being bribed and 
corrupted when one reads the sentiments 
of such a splendid fellow as Maximin in 
'Tyrannic Love,' who thus addresses his 
gods for disturbing his domestic affairs : 

" What had the gods to do with me or mine ? 
Did I molest your heaven ? 
Why should you then make Maximin your foe, 
Who paid you tribute which he need not do ? 
Your altars I with smoke of rams did crown 
For which you leaned your hungry nostrils down 
All daily gaping for your incense there 
More than your sun could draw you in a year, 
And you for this these plagues on me have sent. 
But by the gods (by Maximin I meant) 
Henceforth I and my world 
Hostility with you and yours declare. 
Look to it gods ! for you the aggressors are, 
Keep you your rain and sunshine in your skies 
And I'll keep back my flame and sacrifice. 
Your trade of heaven shall soon be at a stand 
And all your goods lie dead upon your hand." 

Act V. Sc. i. 

Such select pieces of heroic indigna- 
tion at unwarrantable interference are not 
sufficient in themselves to make a character 
convincing, and the final scene between the 
Emperor and an aggrieved follower, Placidius, 
who stabs him, in which the Royal Martyr 
is discovered sitting upon the prostrate body 
of his assailant and giving him spasmodic 
digs in the liver with his dagger is scarcely 
more so. " Oh I am gone," cries Placidius, 
rather naturally. " And after thee I go," 
answers the indignant potentate, 

Revenging still and following ev'n to the other 

world my blow 

And shoving back this earth on which I sit 
I'll mount and scatter all the gods I hit." 

[Stabs him again. 
Curtain ! 

This play, as you will have gathered, is one 
of those earlier ones of Dryden in which he 
discarded the use of blank verse and adopted 
the heroic rimed couplet in imitation of the 
French heroic alexandrine, a practice which 
he defends in his famous " Essay on Dramatic 
Poesie " and to which he adhered for some 
fourteen years. One of his chief opponents 
in this matter was Sir Robert Howard, his 
brother-in-law, and both discuss the question 

upon general and a priori grounds with con- 
siderable zeal and one at least with some 

Had Dryden's courtesy allowed him to 
quote a few lines from one of his opponent's 
plays, he would have justified the attempt to 
break away from an effete tradition far better 
than by all his arguments. Howard was no 
doubt right in theory but in view of such 
lines as the following, which are a fair 
average specimen of the blank-verse then 
being written, one feels that the victory lies 
with him who gave the worse reason : 

" But I forget. My dearest Niece 
You shall perceive that neither my concerns 
Nor passion hinder my just care of thee, 
My best Samira. 

I have provided such a fortune for you ; 
Nay, start not at it. ... 
'Tis the young Heir, young Brancadoro, 
This day he comes to visit thee, 
We'll quickly make it up. . . . 
Come, good Nephew, I have much to do ; 
Within I'll tell thee all my mind." 

The Surprisal, Act I. Sc. i. 

Howard, however, had the good taste to 
follow the fashion Dryden set under protest, 
"though," as he truly remarks, "very far 
off." Aristotle's theories and the practice of 
the ancients had been mercilessly bandied 
about during the course of this little con- 
troversy, but no one dared not even Dryden 
to exercise that reserve upon the stage 
which the Greeks always showed in the pre- 
sentation of a tragic action. The public, 
who during the Commonwealth had looked 
on unmoved at the massacre of the Irish 
women after Naseby and the atrocities of 
Drogheda and the whole Irish campaign, 
were little likely to seek or to find any 
xada.f>ffi$ of their emotions in the announce- 
ment of a death by a messenger, or even 
in that modified realism which led to the 
putting out of Gloucester's eyes at the back 
of the scene. The curtain fell, as a rule, on 
a stage strewn with corpses and reeking with 
gore in the heroic tragedy, and the last plays 
of this kind which Dryden produced, when 
he had long given up the use of rhyme, are 
as vulgar in this respect as they are ludi- 
crous. This is how Cleomenes, the Spartan 
hero, finds peace. There has been a fierce 
battle before the spectators' eyes between 
the Spartans and the Egyptians, who have 
been driven back. Cleonides, the young son 
of Cleomenes, has been left behind, as also 
has Coenus, the villain of the play : 

Coenus. This was well watch'd ; the Boy is left 
unguarded. [Thrusts at Cleonides behind. 

Cleonides. Oh ! I am slain by treason ; 
Revenge me, royal Father ! 


Re-enter Cleonienes. 
Cleomenes. 'Twas sure his voice : 
Too sure : Pity and Rage 
Distract my soul : But rage will first be served. 

[jKuiis fit Coenus and kills him. 
There's Justice for .myself and for my son ! 

Clean. Traytor Coeuus ! what's become of him ? 

Cleom. Look ! there he lies. 

Clean. I'm glad on't ; 

Forgive me, Heaven : I hope 'tis no offence 
To say I am glad, because he kill'd me basely. 
Still I grow fainter : Hold me, hold me, Father. 

C/eom. Cheer up, and thou shalt live. 

Clean. No, I'm just dying. 

Cleom. What shall I lose ? 

Cleon. A boy : That's all. 

I go ; and when you come pray find me out, 
And own me for your son. [Dies. 

Enter Pantheus (a favourite of Cleonienes) and 

Cleanthes (friend of Cleonienes). 
Cleom, All's lost for which I once desir'd to live. 

Yet the Egyptians have been defeated ! 

Pantheus. Come to our business then : Be speedy, 


And give the word ; I'll be the first to charge 
The grim Foe, Death. 

One wonders at first whom Pantheus in- 
tends to charge, for not a solitary Egyptian 
is to be seen, as Gleomeues truly remarks ; 
but we are not left long in doubt : 

Cleom. Fortune, thou hast reduc'd me very low, 
To do the drudgery of Fate myself ! 
What, not one brave Egyptian ! not one worthy 
To do me manly right in single combat ? 

Cleanthes here strikes in to relieve his 
depression : 

The Gods at last are kind, 
And have provided you a Sword that's worthy 
To match your own : 'Tis an Egyptian's too. 

Cleom. Is there that hidden treasure in thy Country ? 
The Gods be praised for such a Foe I want. 

Cleanthes. Not such a Foe for such a Friend am I ; 
I would fall first for fear I should survive you, 
And pull you after to make sure of Death 
To be your undivided Friend for ever. 

Cleom. Then enter we into each others Breasts. 
'Tis a sharp passage yet a kind one too. 
But, to prevent the blind mistake of Swords, 
Both thrust at once, and home, and at our Hearts. 
Let neither stand on guard, but let our Bosoms 
Lie open to each other in our Death 
As in our life they were. [Thru /./.. 

This neat contrivance, however, will not 
suit Pantheus, the third friend. He pro- 
tests : " And where's my part 1 You shut 
me out like Churls, while you devour the 
Feast of Death betwixt you." 

Cleom. (who, though depressed himself, is good at 
encouraging others). Cheer up thy Soul, and 
thou shalt die, Pantheus, 

But in thy turn : There's Death enough for all. 
But, as I am thy Master, wait my leisure, 
And honestly compose my limbs to Rest, 
Then serve thyself. Now, are you ready, Friend? I am. 

Cleom. Then this to our next happy meeting. 
[ They bo/h push together, then st<tyr/cr backwards, 
and full fni/i'/li/'i- in each others' arms, 

Pantheus coolly remarks : 

So, this was well performed and soon dispatched ; 
Both sound asleep already. 

. . . This is my place, 

Just at my master's feet. Guard him, ye (!od.-, 
And save his sacred Corpse from publick shame. 

[If c falls on his simrd and dies. 
Cleomenes, Act V. Sc. ii. 

So when the Egyptians returned they 
found five corpses on the stage, and the 
curtain fell amidst the applause of the 

Enough has probably been said to prove 
the unreality of the Restoration heroic 
tragedy. It is indeed far more ' artificial ' 
than the comedy to which Lamb gave that 
epithet. Yet were one to make any generali- 
sation on these data about the tragic drama 
of the Restoration as a whole, one would go 
far astray. The work of Otvvay, who was 
producing plays between 1675 and 1683, 
is very different from all this, and so are 
the Trayedii'* Imiii-ii/'iiises by George Barnwell 
(1730), and 'The Fatal Curiosity' (1737) by 
his younger follower, George Lillo. In the 
' Orphan,' and even in ' Venice Preserved,' 
there is none of that brain-addling complexity 
of plot which marks the heroic drama ; there 
is no rhyme, there are no royal martyrs or 
imperial lovers for the duke in ' Venice 
Preserved ' has a very second-rate role, and 
the loving and conspiring is all done by 
a middle-class conspirator, Jaffier, and his 
fellow .<. The ' Orphan ' marks still further 
reaction from the Dryden models. This 
tragic story of the love of two brothers for 
the same pure and beautiful girl is unutter- 
ably gloomy and even horrible; still Scott has 
truly remarked that Otway's scenes of passion 
"rival, and sometimes excel, those of Shake- 
speare ; more tears have been shed probably 
for the sorrows of Belvidera and Monimia 
than for those of Juliet and Desdemona." 
The last words of Monimia to her passionate, 
weak, and irresolute husband will be suffi- 
cient indication that we are here on very 
different ground : 

' ' When I'm laid low i' the grave,, and quite forgotten, 
Mayst thou be happy hi a fairer bride ! 
But none can ever love thee like Monimia. 
When I am dead, as presently I shall be, 
For the grim tyrant grasps my heart already, 
Speak well of me ; and if thou find ill tongues 
Too busy with my fame, don't hear me wronged ; 
Twill be a noble justice to the memory 
Of a poor wretch once honoured with thy love. 
How my head swims ! 'tis very dark. Good night ! " 

The Orphan, Act V. Sc. ii. 



Here is none of the extravagance, none 
of that constant underlining, which is the 
chief source of Dryden's bathos, and is the 
sole cause that no one now reads Lee. The 
days of Charles II. did not offer a suitable 
soil for the growth of that ' tenderness ' 
which is Otway's best quality. The atmo- 
sphere of the time was intellectual, critical, 
and satiric, and it was peculiarly depress- 
ing to those more sentimental and serious- 
tempered men like Otway, who require an 
imaginative but a wholesome and exhilarating 
environment if their fancies are not to grow 
morbid and exaltt. It was the same blight 
which mortified the core of Richardson's 
sentiment somewhat later, and has relegated 
the works of two geniuses to the shelves of 
those who talk about books instead of read- 
ing them, while they would otherwise stand 
among the books of those who read them 
without talking about them. It was doubt- 
less this thought which led Taine, in claim- 
ing for Otway a place beside Shakespeare, 
to add, " II ne lui manque que de naltre cent 
ans plus t6t." 

The Comedy of this period is to be taken 
far more seriously than even the best of 
the Tragedy, for Comedy as it was under- 
stood by the playwrights of the time was 
the intimate expression of the cultured and 
educated classes. Let me emphasise one or 
two aspects of life and thought in the days 
when the bells of London were crashing 
their welcome to the son of the man whom 
the citizens had watched to his death with 
something more than mere indifference. The 
supporters of the royal house had spent some 
ten years in exile under conditions of hard- 
ship, poverty, and even danger, which were 
none the less galling because their master 
was the nominal guest of the French court 
just at the period when Louis XIV. was 
collecting around him all the wealth and 
wisdom, all the beauty and wit of France. 
It is not easy to be a poor man in the midst 
of a brilliant society at any time. It is 
specially hard for men who once have been 
the wits of their own svlnus to be placed, as 
these men were, and to feel any very glow- 
ing enthusiasm for a life of hard work and 
puritanical virtue. What sympathy could 
Sir George Etherege have felt for the ordi- 
nances which abolished the theatre or re- 
stricted the drama to private performances 
at Rutland House, after he had seen the 
greatest modern playwright since Shake- 
speare produce his tirst comedy L'Etourdi 
in 1653, and had seen him rise to highest 
fame with ' Le Depit Amoureux' (1654), 
and ' Les Prteieuses ridicules ' (1659). It must 

have been a bitter-sweet delight to men of 
culture and artistic sense to be present at 
the first nights of such plays to have come 
away from the theatre flushed with enthu- 
siasm and swearing very probably with suffi- 
ciently emphatic language " to alter all that " 
if ever they returned to England. When 
they did return they longed for a life of 
peace and quiet and enjoyment, and they 
hated questions of morality they were only 
too willing to believe they and those friends 
of theirs who had lived through the time of 
repression in England that casuistry was 
another name for hypocrisy. 

The society of London and the Court after 
1660 was a bohemian and artistic one. Never 
before or since, 1 imagine, have the people 
of quality had so real an interest in art as 
in those days never has the 'haul nionde' 
delighted to honour artists with so much 
sincerity with so little attempt to exploit 
them. The manners of society must not 
be judged from too narrow a standpoint. 
The people that erects Brobdignagian cake 
ornaments to its departed princes clubs on 
the same day its most prominent actor and 
its best soda-manufacturer with a knight- 
hood. The fine ladies of the Restoration 
took Kinaston in their coaches to drive in 
St James' Park after the play, dressed in the 
women's garments he had just appeared in. 
Charles II., and his brother sent their coro- 
nation-robes to Bellarton and Leigh to use as 
stage-properties. We are more discreet now, 
for have we not our Steads and our Labou- 

If the society of that day was artistic 
it was also highly intellectual and little 
sentimental. It was the seventeenth cen- 
tury which saw the foundation of the Royal 
Society, of modern science and modern 
psychology, but it also gave birth to the 
modern art of history-writing and indirectly 
to the modern interviewer, the society rag 
and, worst of all, that incubus that grows 
by what it feeds on, 1 he modern auto- 
biographer and writer of his own reminis- 
cences. For Clarendon wrote his History of 
the Great Rebellion ; Defoe's imagination 
invented the delightful art of tittle-tattle 
in the ' Scandal Club ' for his Renew (1704) ; 
Lord Herbert of Cherbury wrote his own 
life, and Pepys delighted to masque in 
cipher as a gay old rip. It was an age 
which cared more for fact than for all the 
imagination of Ariel or Gloriana. It was the 
age of Vandyke, Sir Godfrey Kneller, and Sir 
Peter Lely of Butler's ' Characters,' of Dry- 
den's 'MacFlecknoe,'of Bunyan's 'Christian,' 
of Hudibras and his squire Ralph the age, 


in a word, of portraiture serious, flattering 
(sometimes), moral and satiric often. Here 
we are at the very fountainhead of modern 
realism, at the birth of all those powers 
which made the modern novel possible, as 
Professor Raleigh has so brilliantly pointed 
out. One certainly would not expect the 
comedy of such an age to be unreal and 
artificial to be pardonable for its offences 
against good taste, only because, forsooth, it 
had no true relation to actual life. Indeed, 
if by Restoration Comedy is meant the work 
of Etherege, and Wycherly, and Congreve, 
and Vanbrugh, and Farquhar, it is none of 
these things it is intensely realistic. It 
began laboriously and dully in the attempt 
to make the Roundhead and all his works 
ridiculous, with infinitely less wit than 
Butler had at his command, but with the 
same desire to have the laugh for which they 
had been waiting for ten years. And their 
laugh was the last. Such are the plays of 
Tatham with his ponderous, awkward pound- 
ing of Lambert and his mean-souled ambi- 
tious wife who hoped to fill the post that 
disappeared with Cromwell. The only scenes 
at all good in ' The Rump : or The Mirrour 
of the Late Times,' acted 1660, with great 
success, are those in which the would-be 
Lady Lambert tries to train her maid into 
becoming subservience to the wife of the 
would-be Lord Protector. Men had literally 
forgotten how a play should go on the 
stage, and they had to start again with such 
rambling chronicle-histories as this and the 
" Siege of Rhodes." Sir Robert Howard's 
' Committee ' is a more skilful attempt in the 
same direction. There is plenty of hard 
hitting, but the scene in which Ruth ironi- 
cally coaches the puritan Abel how to woo 
a Cavalier lass and his blundering repro- 
duction of it are funny enough. 

Ruth. Now Brother Abel. 

Abel. Now Sister Ruth ? 

Eutli. Hitherto he observes me punctually, [Aside 
Have you a months mind to this 
Gentlewoman Mistress Arbella ? 

Abel. I have not known her a week yet. 

Ruth. cry you mercy good brother Abel. 
Well, to begin then, you must alter your posture, 
And by your grave and high demeanor make your 


Appear a hole above Obadiah ; lest your Mistress 
Should take you for such another scribble scrabble as 

he is, 

And always hold up your head as if it were 
Bolster'd up with high matters, your hands joyn'd 
Flat together, projecting a little beyond the rest of 

Body as ready to separate when you begin to open. 

Abel. Must I go apace or softly ? 

Ruth. gravely by all means, as if you were loaded 
With weighty considerations, so. Very well. 
Now to apply our prescription ; Suppose now that I 

Were your Mistress Arbella, and meet you by 
Accident ; keep your posture so, and when you come 
Just to me, start like a Horse that has spy'd 
Something on one side of him, and give a little gird 
Out of the way on a suddain ; declaring that you 
Did not see her before, by reason of your deep 
Contemplations : then you must speak, let's hear. 

Abel. God save you Mistress. 

Ruth. fie man, you shou'd begin thus, Pardon 
Mistress my profound contemplations, in which I 

was so 
Buried that I did not see you ; And then as she 

answers, proceed. 
I know what she'll say, 1 am so used to her. 

Abel. This will do well if I forget it not. 

Ruth. Well try once. 

Abel. Pardon Mistress my profound Contempla 

In which I was so hid, that you could not see me. 

Ruth. Better sport then I expected, [Aside. 

Very well done, you'r perfect : then she will answer, 
Sir, I suppose you are so busied with State affairs, 
That it may well hinder you from taking notice 
Of anything below them. 

Abel. No forsooth, I have some profound 
Contemplations, but no State Affairs. 

Ruth. fie man, you must confess, that the weighty 
Affairs of State lie heavy upon you ; but 'tis a burthen 
You must bear, and then shrug your shoulders. 

Abel. Must I say so, I am afraid my Mother \villbe 

For she takes all the State matters upon her self. 

Ruth. Pish, did she not charge you to be rul'd by 

me ; 

Why man, Arbella will never have you ; 
If she be not made believe you can do great matters 
With Parliament men, and Committee men ; 
How should she hope for any good 
By you else in her composition. 

Abel. I apprehend you now, I shall observe. 

Ruth. "Tis well at this time, I'll say no more ; 
Put yourself in your posture so ; 
Now go look your Mistress ; 
I'll warrant you the Town's our own. 

Abel. I go. 

Act. I. Sc. i. 

But the comic dramatist soon learnt to do 
something better than this. The comedies 
of Dryden, good as some of them are in their 
way, may be quickly dismissed. They con- 
tributed little to the production of a Congreve 
or a Farquhar, they followed for the most 
part a tradition as wrong as that which 
tempted the author of MacFlecknoe to turn 
Paradise Lost into an opera. Most of Dry- 
den's comedies are called tragi-comedies, by 
which is not implied that intimate fusion of 
the tragic and comic found in the church 
scpne of 'Much Ado,' but a mechanical 
mixture of a tragic plot of intrigue (of the 
same intricate Spanish description found in 
his tragedies), and profoundly uninteresting 
at that, with a light underplot of fashion- 
able flirtation, sparkling dialogue, and light- 
hearted irony, which one is never quite sure 
is not cynicism instead of satire. The seri- 
ous parts of his best comedy, ' Secret Love, 
or the Maiden Queen,' are as artificial and 



unconvincing as you will; and that pretty 
' light o' love ' pair, Celadon and Florimel, 
constitute all our interest in a play which 
made and marred the reputation of charming 
Nell Gwynne. Dryden was fond of intro- 
ducing such couples in one play (' Mar- 
riage a la Mode ') there are four and this 
is his only really original contribution to pure 
comedy of manners the comedy of unmis- 
takable satire. Rodophil and Doralice are a 
fashionable married pair who have not ex- 
hausted their mutual affection, but are of 
opinion that their characters will be quite 
gone if they remain faitliful any longer. So 
Rodophil lays siege to Melantha, who is in- 
tended, though he doesn't know it, for his 
friend Falamede, while Palamede, deeply dis- 
tressed at the idea of matrimony, devotes 
himself to Doralice, and so on till all comes 
right ; a plot used more than once after- 
wards, as, indeed, was a scene in ' Secret 
Love,' where Celadon and Florimel strike a 
definite treaty of conditions before marriage 
as to the freedom each party is to be allowed 
after. Dryden touched this off lightly and 
effectively ; in the hands of Sedley, in 
' Bellamira,' it is dull and coarse, though in 
Congreve's scene between Mirabel and Milla- 
mant it reaches an originality all his own a 
combination of raillery, wit, and satire quite 

The knowledge of play -construction came 
from France, and was shown by Sir George 
Etherege, who had actually seen the plays 
of Moliere acted. In Paris he learnt that 
the Comedy of Humours was no longer pos- 
sible. It was not a personified abstraction 
that men wanted, but a typical person ; and 
real flesh and blood tints could only be at- 
tained by studying from the living model. 
So Etherege came back to England deter- 
mined to study from the life, and he began 
very naturally, as every other artist was 
doing, with portraiture. It was some time 
before he or his followers learnt that in 
comedy of such a kind there is no room for 
the tragic vein. The value of the ' Comical 
Revenge ' its significance in the history of 
the drama, lay in its portraiture and in the 
evident influence upon it of plays like Ln 
IMpit Ammmux and L'Etourdi. Sir Frederick 
Frollick is a portrait of P^therege himself. 
He can fight well enough at need he is a 
finished fop he affects to care nothing for 
the society of his friends, and he spends 
hours at his toilet. " There never was a 
girl more humoursome nor tedious in the 
dressing of her baby," we are told. The 
tragody in the play is of no value high 
love, jaundiced jealousies, and a tremendous 

duel fin fiifiindffin de Dryden interrupted 
by Puritan villains of course villains ! 

' She would if she could ' is a decided 
advance on this. Lady Cockwood is a 
female Tartuffe a person of loud preten- 
sions in religion, who demands respect and 
devotion for her piety, and is all the time 
engaged in a disgraceful intrigue. Here one 
hears the first clear note of satire on the 
manners of the day. This was to be fol- 
lowed in good time by the " mutton-fisted " 
blows of Wycherley and the rapier thrusts 
of Congreve. But Etherege had learnt more 
than satire he was the first man to know 
how to manage an effective mise-cn-scenf,. 
He put the fashionable streets and parks of 
London on the stage he anticipated such 
scenes as those of an 'Ideal Husband' by some 
200 years. The London of that day was 
very different from now. St James' Street 
was a kind of country road, with grass and 
gravel paths leading down from Piccadilly to 
St James' Park, which at that time included 
the Green Park. The Mall had just been 
made by Charles II. as a fashionable drive 
there were a few smart shops in St James' 
Street, up and down which the fashionable 
folk held their church and week-day parade, 
and somewhere on the west side of the street 
was the house of that fine old turn-coat 
Waller, who rivalled the Vicar of Bray, and 
whom not to know was not to be in society. 
The third act of ' She would if she could ' 
is full of colour and realism. The curtain 
rises, and Mrs Trinkett is seen sitting in 
the door of her shop in the New Exchange, 
a kind of Burlington Arcade, more like the 
fashionable booths of Baden-Baden than any- 
thing else. She is inviting the fashionable 
folk to walk in " what d'ye buy 1 What 
d'ye lack, gentlemen 1 Gloves, ribbands, and 
essences 1 ribbands, gloves, and essences." 
But she has more serious business afoot, for 
under cover of selling " fashionable toys to 
keep the ladies in countenance at a play or 
in the park," she passes letters or makes 
rendez-vws for people of quality. The young 
gallants are crowding round her shop or 
ogling the ladies some of them having 
their eye-brows and periwigs scented " with 
a little essence of oranges or jessamine." 
Then off the chief characters go in a coach 
to the Bear in Drury Lane for a dance, and 
once more -the stage is a-flutter with a 
realistic scene of colour and light the dark 
tones of rich blue velvet coats lightened with 
the glitter of sword-hilts, throwing up the 
flaunting taffetas in sky-blue, pink, and flame 
worn by the damsels who sway and turn 
gracefully in the slow rhythm of a minuet. 


Essence, or Orange- 

Etherege's third play, 'The Man of Mode,' 
has no plot, but it is brilliantly written, and 
is full of characterisation. But here again 
all the chief men are portraits. In the short 
scenes that follow it is not artificial unreal 
life you look at, but the conversation of Lord 
Rochester (Dorimant), who summed up life 
as he saw it in the couplet 
" Our sphere of action is Life's Happiness, 

And he who thinks beyond thinks like an Ass," 

the quips of Sir Charles Sedley (Medley), 
Dryden's friend, and the affectations of Sir 
Fopling Flutter (Beau Hewitt), " the freshest 
fool in town." 

Medley. Dorimant my Life, my Joy, my darling 
Sin how dost thou ? 

Handy. You love to have your Clothes hung just, 

Dm: I love to be well-dress'd, Sir ; and think it 
no Scandal to my Understanding. 

Handy. Will you use the Esi 
flower Water? 

Dor. I will smell as I do to-day, no Offence to the 
Lady's Noses. 

Handy. Your Pleasure, Sir. 

Dor. That a Man's Excellency shou'd lye in neatly 
Tying of a Ribbond or a Cravat ! How careful's 
Nature in furnishing the World with necessary 
Coxcombs ? 

BeUair. That's a mighty pretty Suit of yours, 

Dor. I am glad't has your Approbation. 

Bell. No Man in Town has a better Fancy in his 
Cloaths than you have. 

Dor. Yon will make me have an Opinion of my 

Medley. There is a great Critick, I hear, in these 
Matters lately arriv'd piping hot from Paris. 

Bell. Sir Fopliug Flutter, you mean. 

Med. The same. 

Bell. He thinks himself the pattern of Modern 

Dor. He is indeed the pattern of Modern Foppery. 

Med. He was yesterday at the Play with a Pair of 
Gloves up to his Elbows and a Periwig more exactly 
Curl'd than a Lady's Head newly dress 'd for a Ball. 

Bell. What a pretty Lisp he has ! 

Dor. Ho ! that he affects in Imitation of the 
People of Quality in France. 

Med. His Head stands for the most part on one 
side, and his Looks are more languishing than a 
Lady's when she lolls at stretch in her Couch, or 
leans her Head Carelessly against the side of a Box 
i' the Play-house. 

Dor. He is a person indeed of great acquir'd 

Med. He is like many others, beholding to his 
Education for making him so eminent a Cox-comb ; 
many a Fool had been lost to the World, had their 
indulgent Parents wisely bestowed neither learning 
nor good breeding on 'em. 

This is curinusly like much modern para- 
dox. Sir Fopling is talked about for two 
acts but never seen, till at last when curiosity 
has been raised to fever heat the splendid 
creature appears. 

Lady Toivnley. Wit, I perceive, has more power 
over you than brandy, Sir Fopling, else you would 
not have let this lady stand so long neglected. 

Sir Fopling (to Emilia). A thousand pardons, 
madam ! Some civilities, one of course upon the 
meeting of a long absent friend. The eclat of so 
much beauty, I confess, ought to have charmed me 

Emilia. The brilliant of so much good language, 
sir, has much more power than the little beauty I 
can boast. 

Sir Fop. I never saw anything prettier than this 
high work on your point d'Espagne. 

Emilia. 'Tis not so rich as point de Venise. 

Sir Fop. Not altogether, but looks cooler, and is 
more proper for the season. Dorimant, is not that 
Medley ? 

Do-rim. The same sir ! 

Sir Fop. Forgive me, sir, in this embarras of civili- 
ties. I could not come to have yon in my arms sooner. 
You understand an equipage, the best of any man 
in town I hear. 

Lady Town. He's very fine (looking at Sir Fop). 

Emilia. Extreme proper ! 

Sir Fop. 0, a slight suit I had made to appear 
in at my first arrival not worthy your admiration, 

Dorim. The pantaloon is very well mounted. 

Sir Fop. The tassels are new and pretty. 

Medley. I never saw a coat better cut. 

Sir Fop. It makes me look long-waisted, and, I 
think, slender. 

Lady Tou-ii. His gloves are well-fingered, large 
and graceful. 

Kir Fop. I was always eminent for being In'i-n- 

Emilia. He must wear nothing but what are 
originals of the most famous hands in Paris ! 

Sir Fop. You are in the right, madam ! 

Lady Town. The suit ? 

Sir Fop. Barroy. 

Emilia. The garniture. 

Sir Fop. Le Gras. 

Medley. The shoes ? 

Sir Fop. Piccat. 

Dorim. The periwig ? 

Sir Fop. Chedreux. 

Lady Town, and Emilia (together). The gloves ? 

Sir Fop. Orangerie (he holdt /' '"'' !' n f l* If tln'ni). 
You know the smell, ladies ? 

In this scene we are within hail of Con- 
greve. The manner only needs further 
pointing and supporting by the wonderful 
rhythmic prose of the great English wit. 
The flavour of this is far more like the 
' Brisk ' and ' Witwond ' scenes than like 
Moliere. Etherege has been compared to 
" fine porcelain," and his figures do indeed 
remind one of the brilliantly clad, bright- 
faced, happy little ladies and gentlemen who 
stand for ever smiling beneath the china 
branches of a gilded oak in some Dresden 
candelabras. The figures are a little stiff, 
but any artificiality they have is that of the 
originals from which they are drawn, and 
any stiffness comes from the lack of skill in 
emphasising the essential and neglecting the 
accidental which characterises all early por- 
trait painting. 

It was reserved for Wycherley and Con- 
greve to rise above the portrait to the type, 
and that type a satiric one. The fault of 



Wycherley is, that he lacks the necessary 
lightness of touch. He is coarse, not be- 
cause it is necessary for the satirist to be 
unsparing and free from sentiment (as it 
undoubtedly is necessary for him to be), but 
because he is vulgar-minded, and believes 
that his indignation will serve to make 
vice ridiculous ; because he does not see 
that there is a limit to the kind of crime 
against which satire can effectively act. It is 
impossible to Inugh the murderer out of his 
little foible it is not possible to make, or at 
least, Wycherley does not succeed in making 
the traitor Varnish seem ridiculous; he is 
only hateful and contemptible. And the 
same remark applies to Congreve's Maskwell 
in the " Double-Dealer," one of his early 
plays. Congreve afterwards saw his mistake, 
Wycherley did not. The satire of Juvenal 
is unsuited to the stage, because we go to 
a comedy to laugh, and Wycherley took him- 
self and the world too seriously a fatal fault 
in the dramatic satirist. The following con- 
versation about the stage and Wycherley's 
own dramas is no doubt intended as satiric, 
but it reads more like a passage from 
some philosophical dialogue ' de mulierum 
modestia ' than a scene from a comedy. 

Olivia. First, can anyone be call'd Beautiful that 
squints ? 

Lord Plausible. Her eyes languish a little, I own. 

Novel. Languish ! ha, ha ! 

Oliv. Languish ! Then, for her Conduct, she was 
seen at the Country Wife after the first day. There's 
for you, 7ny Lord. 

Lrl. Plans. But, Madam, she was not seen to use 
her Fan all the Play long, turn aside her Head, or 
by a conscious blush discover more guilt than 

Oliv. Very fine ! Then you think a woman modest 
that sees the hideous Country Wife without blushing, 
or publishing her Detestation of it ? D'ye hear him, 
Cousin ? 

Elizn. Yes ; and am, I must confess, something 
of his opinion ; and think that as an over-conscious 
Fool at a Play, by endeavouring to shew the Author's 
want of wit, exposes his own to more Censure ; so may 
a lady call her own modesty in question, by publicly 
cavalliug with the Poet's ; for all those grimaces of 
Honour and artificial Modesty disparage a woman's 
real virtue, as much as the use of white and red 
does, the natural complexion ; and you must use 
very very little, if you would have it thought your 

(tlii: Then you would have a woman of Honour 
with passive looks, ears, and tongue, undergo all the 
hideous obscenity she hears at nasty Plays. 

Eliz. Truly, I think a woman betrays her want of 
Modesty, by shewing it publicly in a Play-house, as 
much as a man docs his want of courage by a quarrel 
there ; for the truly modest and stout say least, and 
are least exceptions, especially in publick. 

Oliv. hideous ! Cousin : This cannot be your 
opinion. But you are one of those who have the 
confidence to pardon the filthy Play. 

/:/!:. Why, what is there of ill in't, say you ? 

nlif. fie, fie, fie, would you put me to the 

blush anew ? call all the blood into my face again ? 
But to satisfy you then ; first, the clandestine 
obscenity in the very Name of Horner. 

Eliz. Truly, 'tis so hidden, I cannot find it out, I 

Oliv. 0, horrid ! Does it not give you the rank 
conception or Image of a goat, or Town- Bull, or 
a Satyr ? 

Eliz. What then ? I can think of a goat, a bull, 
or a Satyr, without any hurt. 

Oliv. I ; but, Cousin, one cannot stop there. 

Eliz. Nay, no farther, Cousin ; we have enough of 
your comment on the Play, which will make me 
more asham'd than the Play itself. 

Olh\ ! believe me, 'tis a filthy Play ; and you 
may take my word for a filthy Play, as soon as 
another's. But the filthiest thing in that Play, or 
any other play, is 

Eliz. Pray keep it to yourself, if it be so. 

Oliv. No, faith, you shall know it ; I'm resolved 
to make you out of love with the play : I say, the 
leudest filthiest thing is his China ; nay, I will never 
forgive the beastly Author his China. He has quite 
taken away the Reputation of poor China itself, and 
subdu'd the most innocent and pretty furniture of a 
lady's chamber ; insomuch that I was fain to break 
all my defiled vessels. You see I have none left ; nor 
you, I hope. 

Eliz, You'll pardon me, I cannot think the worse 
of my china for that of the Play-House. 

Oliv. Why, you will 'not keep any now, sure ! 
"1'i.s now as unfit an ornament for a ladies' Chamber, 
as the Pictures that come from Italy, and other hot 
countries ; as appears by their nudities, which I 
always cover, or scratch out, wheresoe'er I find 'em. 
But China, out upon't, filthy China, nasty debauch 'd 
l.'hina ! 

Eliz. All this will not put me out of conceit with 
China, nor the Play, which is acted to-day, or 
another of the same beastly Author's, as you call him, 
which I'll go see. 

Oliv. You will not, sure ! nay, you sha' not ven- 
ture your reputation by going, and mine by leaving 
me alone with two men here ; nay, you'll disoblige 
me for ever if- [Pulls her bad: 

Eliz. I stay your servant. [Exit Eliza. 

The Plain Dealer, Act II. Sc. i. 

Yet other playwrights learnt a good many 
hints from him. The chief interest of Jerry 
and Widow Blackacre with her perennial 
lawsuit in the " Plain Dealer " is the fact 
that they suggested the far finer humours of 
Tony Lumpkin and Mrs Hardcastle ; while 
Novel was the first though imperfect repre- 
sentative of that line of pert and ridiculous 
coxcombs which includes Sir Fopling Flutter 
and Brisk, and culminates in Witwoud, 
"whose conversation," say his friends, " can 
never be approved, yet it is now and then to 
be endured. He has indeed one good quality, 
he is not exceptions ; for he so passionately 
affects the reputation of understanding rail- 
lery that he will construe an affront into a 
jest ; and call downright rudeness and ill- 
language satire and fire." 

Witwoud. Afford me your compassion, my dears ! 
pity me Fainall ! Mirabell, pity me ! 


Mir. I do from my soul, 

Fniii. Why, what's the matter? 

Wit. No letters for me, Betty ? 

Set. Did not a messenger bring you one but now 

Wit. Ay, but no other ? 

Bet. No, Sir. 

Wit. That's hard, that's very hard. A messenger ! 
a mule, a beast of burden ! he has brought me a letter 
from the fool, my brother, as heavy as a panegyric in 
a funeral sermon, or a copy of commendatory verses 
from one poet to another ; and what's worse, 'tis as sure 
a fore-runner of the author as an epistle dedicatory. 

Mir. A fool, and your brother, Witwoud ! 
Wit. Ay, ay, my half brother. My half brother 
he is, no nearer, upon honour. 

Mir. Then 'tis possible he may be but half a fool. 
Wit. Good, good, Mirabell, U diable ! good, good ; 
hang him, don't let's talk of him. Fainall, how does 
your lady ? Gad, I say anything in the world to get 
this fellow out of my head. I beg pardon that I 
should ask a man of pleasure, and the town, a ques- 
tion at once so foreign and domestic. But I talk like 
an old maid at a marriage ; I don't know what I say : 
but she's the best woman in the world. 

Way of the World, Act I. Sc. ii. 

Yet Congreve himself only learned by ex- 
perience the necessity for excluding the 
serious, and above all, the note of high 
passion from drama of this type. The 
tragedy of Lady Touchwood in ' The Double- 
Dealer ' is treated seriously indeed so well 
that one quite understands Congreve's at- 
tempt at the higher drama in ' The Mourning 
Bride ' but it is out of place. It throws the 
whole of the satiric irony of the other scenes 
out of perspective. And the intrigue is 
wearisome and puzzling. Plot was never 
stronger with Congreve than it was with 
Wycherley, whose plays persistently refuse 
to make any real progress till they are 
finished off in the last scene ; but Gongreve 
escaped the difficulty of his weakness in his 
later work by avoiding a plot altogether or 
reducing it to a minimum. Indeed, between 
the extreme intricacy of story on the one 
hand and complete absence of plot on the 
other, there is no body of drama which is so 
difficult to remember as this of the Restora- 
tion. In the ' Way of the World ' there is 
another tragic situation or, perhaps, one 
should say, a situation with great tragic 
possibilities the hopeless love of old Lady 
Wishfort for the hero. Everything is done 
here however to emphasise the absurdity of 
her position, and though no actress of the 
present day could probably be found to resist 
the opportunity for well-meaning sentimen- 
talising, and so spoiling the whole play, there 
is no doubt that Congreve meant the charac- 
ter satirically, if somewhat cynically. Pos- 
sibly this was the reason that the play was 
damned, though it is, undoubtedly, Con- 
greve's best. What can be more delightful 

than the perfectly well-bred impudence and 
cogueterie of Millamant. She has been 
remonstrated with for being late : 

Mill. Mincing, what had I ? why was I so long ? 

Mincing. mem, your la'ship stayed to peruse a 
packet of letters. 

Mill. 0, ay, letters I had letters I am perse- 
cuted with letters I hate letters. Nobody knows 
how to write letters, and yet one has 'em, one does 
not know why. They serve one to pin up one's hair. 
lbi<l., Act II. Sc. ii. 

A Witwoud and Millamant would alone 
have made many a modern play. 

Congreve's great qualities are lightness of 
touch in treating the foibles of society a 
remarkable power of continuous irony and 
paradox, and an incomparable sense for 
rhythmical prose of combined antithesis 
and balance. Paradox like the following 
occurs at every turn, not with a laborious 
preparation of some five minutes' conversa- 
tion, as in Wycherley, or some modern 
writers that could be named : 

" Why, honour is a public enemy, and conscience 
a domestic thief, and he that would secure his plea- 
sure must pay a tribute to one and go halves with 

What could be finer than the speech Valen- 
tine makes to Angelica in ' Love for Love,' 
his most popular play. Valentine is feigning 

Tattle. Do you know me, Valentine ? 

Vol. You ? who are you ? no, I hope not. 

Tat. I am Jack Tattle, your friend. 

Vol. My friend ? what to do ? I arn no married 
man, and thou canst not He with my wife ; I am very 
poor, and thou canst not borrow money of me ; then 
what employment have I for a friend ? 

Tat. Ha ! a good open speaker, and not to be 
trusted with a secret. 

Angelica. Do you know me, Valentine ? 

Vol. Oh, very well. 

Ang. Who am I ? 

Vol. You're a woman one to whom Heaven gave 
beauty when it grafted roses on a brier. You are the 
reflection of Heaven in a pond, and he that leaps at 
you is sunk. You are all white, a sheet of lovely, 
spotless paper, when you first are born ; but you are 
to be scrawled and blotted by every goose's quill. I 
know you ; for I loved a woman, and loved her so long, 
that I found out a strange thing ; I found out what a 
woman was good for. 

Tat. Ay, prithee, what's that ? 
Val. Why, to keep a secret. 

Tat. Lord ! 

Val. 0, exceeding good to keep a secret : for though 
she should tell, yet she is not to he believed. 

Act IV. Sc. iii. 

It comes, perhaps, by the curiously anti- 
thetical emotion of cynicism, rather too near 
to real passion for this kind of play : but it is 
very fine. 

With Congreve the Restoration Drama 
reached its height. The work of Vanbrugh 
is very inferior to Congreve in brilliancy, is 



far more careful of effect more elaborated, 
with a better sense for situation. One type 
of character, at least, that of the tom- 
boy girl ' Hoyden,' he may be said to have 
created, and her name is often used by 
people who are quite innocent of her very 
naive animalism. Occasionally one comes 
across phrases which give anyone acquainted 
with the modern worldly duke and duchesses 
of the stage, quite a start. A very little 
modification would suit this to a modern : 

"Look you, Amanda, you may build Castles in 
the Air, and fume and fret and grow tliin and lean 
and pale and ugly if you please. But I tell you, no 
Man worth having is true to his Wife or can be true 
to his Wife, or ever was, or ever will be so." 

The Relapse, Act III. Sc. ii. 

With Farquhar the power of plot returns 
to the stage and plays like the 'Beaux' 
Stratagem ' interest, not only for their 
satire, but for the story. There is plenty 
of action and even farce, as well as comedy, 
in the story of the two young spendthrifts 
who go into the country with their last 200 
in search of rich wives, are mistaken at the 
inn for highwaymen, and finally save their 
lady-loves and intended victims from the 
more serious onslaught of genuine house- 
breaking burglars. 

Here we must leave the wittiest band 
of men that England has ever seen. They 
were often unnecessarily coarse and licentious 
that was the outcome of injudicious re- 
pression of legitimate enjoyment during the 
Commonwealtb. Their hatred of hypoc- 
risy, their contempt for false sentiment, 
made them deal less leniently with these 
vices than with infidelity and a light-hearted 
conception of the marriage-tie yet love was 
unharmed when thfy laughed with Milla- 
mant and friendship lived on between the 
men who smiled at Maskwell. 

' I was an infidel to your sex,' says Scandal 
at the end of Love for Love, 'and you have 
converted me. For now I am convinced 
that all women are not like Fortune, blind 
in bestowing favours, either on those who do 
not merit or who do not want 'em.' 

But such direct statement is lare, atid the 
English, who are matter-of-fact and common- 
sense, like to have their characters plainly 
labelled the constant man, the naughty 
cynic who believes in no good, and so on. 
They like when they are touched to drench 
their pocket handkerchiefs and when they 

laugh to guffaw ; which qualities have much 
to do with our greatness as a nation and the 
quality of our picture galleries and theatres. 
But if one does not find pleasure in smiling) 
the satiric comedy of the Restoration is not 
for us any more than are such recent plays 
as 'Arms and the Man.' The comedy of 
Manners has an intellectual basis, not an 
emotional its humour consists in the intel- 
lectual appreciation of the incongruity be- 
tween the actions and sentiments of the 
people on the stage and our own most 
serious convictions and feelings. It must 
not be taken seriously we must not be senti- 
mental but we must be spectators of our- 
selves as well as of the players ; we must 
take a standpoint external to the passions 
and sorrows and convictions which will 
make life such a gray thing if they are 
never taken out from our cupboards and 
given a good shaking in the open air of 
laughter and humour. It is only to the man 
of humour that true reverence is possible, 
and Socrates knew what he was doing when 
he recommended visitors to Athens to read 
the ' Clouds.' 

It is trying to the matter-of-fact who have 
been thrilled by Mrs Ebbsmith's cry, " To be 
a woman is to be mad," to hear one of Con- 
greve's frivolous ladies saying sardonically, 
" There never yet was a woman made nor 
shall be but to be cursed," or to the enthusi- 
astic admirer of Tennyson's elegiac tears to 
find Mrs Marwood saying, "But say what 
you will, 'tis better to be left than never to 
have been loved." There are such immeasur- 
able blanks between the two worlds of senti- 
ment and ironical humour ! Yet not to 
appreciate both is to lose much if only 
because it is to lose the beauty of that fusion 
of them which only the greatest poets can 
attain the higher humour and deeper pathos 
of Hamlet or of the Bishop in 'The Pre- 

It is the penalty of the satirist to be 
called a cynic, to be denied the ordinary 
human comforts of joy, sorrow, jealousy, or 
serious convictions of any sort, but though 
the aqua regia of his humour and wit resolve 
the Dutch metal of affectation and hypocrisy, 
and show them to be compound of base ore 
and empty froth, yet it leaves unaffected the 
true gold. Touchstone is only powerful 
against Jacques, he is the humble and 
devoted attendant of Rosalind. 




(Continued from page 107.) 

THE knight's wife is Gawain's sister, but that hero is not at court, so no aid can be 
expected from him. (F. gives a long account agreeing with the Chevalier de la Charrettc 
version, which E. omits.) Ywain sighs for pity, and says if the giant come in time he will 
undertake the battle, 'for Gatcayn sake,' a touch which is omitted in the source, but he must 
be elsewhere by noon. 

The giant comes just as the hero declares he can wait no longer ; the four sons are with 
him on wretched steeds, fast bound, and clothed in rags ; a dwarf riding beside them beats 
them with a scourge of cords. The description is much more detailed in F. than in E. 
Ywain arms and rides forth ; the giant treats him with contempt. 

Whosoever the heder send, 
Lufed the litel, so God me mend : 
Of the he wald be uroken fayn, 
' Do forth thi best,' said Sir Ywayn. 

' Gil qui Can ten < 

Ne fumoit miu, par mes iu : .' 
Certes, il tie se pooit miauz 
De toi vangier an mile guise '- 

' Or fai ton miauz ! et je le mien.' 

The giant is clad in a /< /-.*///// (F., /W d'ws). As we find throughout the poem, the 
details of the fight are less insisted upon in E. than in F. One cause of the relative short- 
-I ness of our poem is certainly to be found in the compression exercised in the description of 
the frequent conflicts in which the hero engages ; though in the main the translator adheres 
to his source and always brings about the final discomfiture of the foe in the manner described 
by Chretien. The giant strikes Ywain so fierce a blow that he falls forward. 

at the last within, a throu- 

tut le fet brunch let- 

rest him on his sadelbmr. 


Jusf/ue sor le col del destrier. 


At the critical moment the lion comes to his master's aid, and the giant is slain. 

- fast unto the erth he fell, 

Als it had bene a hevy tre. 


Et se uns granz dwtsnes clieisf, 
Ne cuit greignor etfrois fe'ist 
Que li jaianz fist au cheoir. 


J This episode occupies just 300 11. in E. against 540 in F. The giant slain, Ywain takes 
leave of his host, and rides as quickly as may be to the Chapel by the Fountain. There he 
finds all prepared for the execution of Lunet ; the fire is lighted, and the maiden, 

In hyr smok teas bunden fast 
Into the fire forto be kast. 


Trestute nue an sa chemise 
An feu liiee la tenoieut. 


She kneels before the priest to make her confession, while the ladies of the court lament 
loudly. (This is a characteristic passage in F., which the translator has cut very short.) ^ 
Ywain goes to Lunet and lifts her up ; she is rejoiced to see him ; a little more and he would 
have been too late. 

' IVd nere had ye dwelt over 


S'un po eiissiez plus este, 
Par tans fiisse charbons et caiulre. 

1 The texts followed are those of Schleich and Foerstcr, but the forms th and ;/ have been substituted for 
|) and 3 in order to facilitate reading. 


The steward, her chief accuser, bids Ywain think better of it and withdraw, but the 
knight will not listen. 

Unto the steward tlum said he : Et til respont cui mout enuie : 

' Who so es ferd, I rede, hefle.' ' Qui peor avra, si s'an fuie 1 ' 

2565-6. 4423-4. 

The steward objects to the presence of the lion. 

Thi lyoun, sir, lliou most chastise Se tu ton lion ne cltasties 

That he do liere no harm this day, Et tu nel/es an pes ester, 

Or els wend forth on thi way. Done n'as tu ci que demorcr, 

2580-2. Mes reva fan ! 


Ywain bids the beast lie down. The three accusers attack him at once ; they fight 
fiercely, but Ywain's blows are stronger than theirs. 

For his an stroke was worth thaires thre. Que de ses cos vaut li uns seus 

2600. Des lor tot a me/sure deus : 


The lion comes to his master's aid, and slays the steward ; the combat is now equal 

Them war thai but twa and twa. Or sont el chanp tot per a per. 

2622. 4533. 

for the lion will not lie down again for any order or threat of his master. The knights 
wound the animal badly, whereat Ywain is very wroth. 

When that he saw hys lyoun blede, Quant mes sire Yvains wit blecie 

He ferd for wa, als he wald wede. Son lion, mout a correcit 

2631-2. Le cuer 


He forces his foemen to yield to him, and throws them into the lire. 

For both he kest tham in the fire Et cil furent ars an la re 

And said, ' Wltajuges men with wrung, Qui par li ardoirfu esprise ; 

The same jugement sal thai fang.' Car ce est reisons dejustise 

2640-2. Que cil qui autruijuge a tort 

Doit de cele me'ismes mart 
Morir, que il li ajugiee. 


The lady (his wife), who does not recognise him, begs him to remain till his wounds 
are cured : he refuses, and she then asks his name. Ywain answers : 

' that the knight with the lyoun.' ' Ja del Chevalier au Lion 

Sho said : ' We saw yow never or noiv, N'orroiz parler se de moi non ' 

Ne never herd we speke of yow.' ...... 

' Tharby,' he sayd, ' ye imdcrstaud ' Pur Deu, biaus sire, ce qu'espiaut 

I am noght knawen wide in land.' Que onq : ues mes ne vos ve'imes 

2662-6. Ne vostre non nomer n'oimes 1 ' 

' Dame, par ce savoir poez 
Que ne sui gueires renomez.' 


He will not stay, and the lady bids him a kind farewell, wishing him joy. 

Unto himself tlum thus said lie, : Puis dist antre ses danz soef : 

' Tlwu ert the lok and kay also ' Dame, vos an portez la clef, 

Of al my wele and al my wo.' Et la serve et I'escrin avez 

2680-2. Ou majoie est, si nel savez.' 


Lunet accompanies him part of the way, promising to do her utmost to heal the breach 
between him and his wife. (This adventure occupies 193 11. E., 341 F.) 


The lion is so sorely wounded that Ywain is compelled to carry the beast before^ him 
on his shield. In this guise they come to a fair castle, where the knight is kindly received, 
and his wounds, and those of the lion, dressed : 

Two, maydens with him thai laft, Et de Im garir s'antremetent 

That toele war lered of leecherafi : Deus puceles qui moid savoient 

Thai lordes doghters both thai wore, De cirurgie et si estoient 

Tliat war left to kepe hym there. Filles an seignor de leanz. 

Thai heled hym everilka -wound, Jorz i sejorna ne sai quanz 

And hys lyoun sone made thai sowud. Tant que il et ses lions furent 

1 am noght tel how king he lay Gari, et que raler s'an durent. 
When he ioas helyd, he went his wai/. 4696-702. 

, 2735-42. 

In the meantime a great lord of the land (Li sire de la Noire Espine) has died and left 
two daughters. The elder seizes the land, and refuses to give the younger any share ; 
whereon stye announces her intention of seeking help at Arthur's Court. The elder, fearing 
the result, secretly anticipates her, and secures Gawain as her champion, pledging herself to 
keep his name secret. (Here, again, F. refers to the ' Charrette ' adventure. It is three 
I days since the queen has returned to the court, and Lancelot has been treacherously im- 
prisoned. E. passes over this reference.) When the younger sister arrives at the 
court, she makes the same request. Gawain refuses her. The tame of ' The Knight of the 
Lion ' has by this time reached Arthur's Court, and she determines to seek him, th